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Whereupon, for the prosecution of these, they repair to , bishops who refused the oath of allegiance to King William some trusty concordance, which never fails them; and by and Queen Mary. He declared that notwithstanding he the help of that they range six or seven scriptures under himself saw nothing that was contrary to the laws of God each head; which scriptures they prosecute one by one: and the common practice of all nations to submit to princes First amplifying and enlarging upon one for some consider- in possession of the throne, yet others might have their able time, till they have spoi ed it; and then that being reasons for a contrary opinion; and he blessed God that he done, they pass to another, which in its turn suffers accord- was neither so ambitious, nor in want of preferment, as for ingly. And these impertinent and unpremeditated enlarge the sake of it to build his rise upon the ruins of any one ments they look upon as the motions, effects, and breathings father of the church who, for piety, good morals, and strictof the spirit, and therefore much beyond those carnal ordi- ness of life, which every one of the deprived bishops were nances of sense and reason, supported by industry and study; famed for, might be said not to have left their equal.' and this they call a suving way of preaching, as it must be South did not like the Act of Toleration, and he vigorously confessed to be a way to save much labour, and nothing exerted himself with the commissioners appointed by the (lse, that I know of.'

king in 1689 for a union with dissenting Protestants, in The Chancellor Clarendon made South'his domestic chap- behalf of the Liturgy and forms of prayer, and entreated lain, in consideration of an oration delivered by South as them to part with none of its ceremonies. He continued public orator on the occasion of Clarendon being installed to preach against dissent, exposing the insufficiency of the chancellor of the university of Oxford. In 1663 he was dissenting ministers, and pouring forth upon them his inmade a prebendary of Westminster, and took his degree of exhaustible sarcasm, ridicule, and contempt. One of his doctor in divinity; and in 1670 he was made a canon of strongest sermons to this effect was preached in the Christ Church, Oxford.

Abbey Church of Westminster in 1692, on the text, ' Now Charles II. having appointed Lawrence Hyde, son of the there are diversities of gifts, but the same spirit (1 Cor., Chancellor Clarendon, and afterwards earl of Rochester, as xii. 4). His controversy with Dr. Sherlock, ihen dean of ambassador extraordinary to congratulate John Sobieski on St. Paul's, who had written a book entitled ' A Vindication being elected king of Poland, the ambassador took South of the Holy and Ever-blessed Trinity,' was carried on with with him as his chaplain. South had been his tutor, and great power of argument, and infinite wit and humour, Hyde was much attached to him. A long letter from South, more indeed than suited the solemnity of the subject. South dated Danzig, Dec. 16th, 1677, to Dr. Edward Pococke, was admitted to have the better in the discussion. The regius professor of Hebrew in Oxford, contains his remarks king at last interposed by his royal authority, by directions on Poland: it is printed in the volume of his posthumous addressed 10 the archbishops and bishops, that no preacher works. This letter, from a man of South's observation and should in his sermon or lecture deliver any other doctrine ability, is a very curious and valuable historical record. concerning the Trinity than what was contained in the He says that Sobieski spoke Latin with great facility, and Holy Scriptures, and was agreeable to the three Creeds and was acquainted with French, Italian, German, and Turk. the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion. A ballad, which was ish, besides his own language. Altogether the doctor much circulated at the time, beginning formed a high opinion of Sobieski's abilities. South's re

• A dean and prebendary marks on the ecclesiastical state and constitution of Poland

Had once a new vagary,' &c., are marked by his usual penetration and good sense. turned the two combatants into ridicule, together with Dr.

Soon after his return from Poland, South was presented Burnet, master of the Charter-House, who, about the same to the rectory of Islip in Oxfordshire by the dean and chap- time, published his • Archæologia.' ter of Westminster. He rebuilt the chancel of the church, South lived till the 8th of July, 1716. He was buried as appears from a Latin inscription ever the entrance; and in Westminster Abbey near the grave of his old master also the parsonage-house. In 1681 he preached before Busby. Neither children nor wife are mentioned by his Charles II., being then one of his majesty's chaplains in biographers. By his will he disposed of a good deal of his ordinary, on these words, The lot is cast into the lap, but property for charitable purposes, having all through life the disposing of it is of the Lord.' This sermon, which is been a most generous giver. The residue, after the legacies a good specimen of his vehement invective, contains the and charities were satisfied, he gave to his executrix Mrs. following singular passage, which is not much in favour of Margaret Hammond, his housekeeper, who had lived with the doctor's good taste, particularly considering the occasion: him above five and thirty years. There is a Life of South

- And who that had beheld such a bankrupt beggarly in a volume of his ‘Posthumous Works, London, 1717, fellow as Cromwell, first entering the parliament-house which is the authority for what has been stated. This with a threadbare torn cloak and greasy hat (perhaps neither volume also contains three of his sermons, his will, and his of them paid for), could have suspected that in the space of Latin poems and orations delivered in his capacity of public so few years he should, by the murder of one king and the orator in the University of Oxford. banishment of another, ascend the throne.' On which the Though South is only known by his sermons, he must be king fell into a violent fit of laughter, and turning to Lord viewed both as a political and a theological writer. He Rochester, said, ' Ods fish, your chaplain must be a bishop, defended by argument, and by his example he enforced. therefore put me in mind of him at the next death.' But passive obedience and the divine right of kings. He says the chaplain did not preach in order to please those in ihat the absolute subjection' which men yield to princes puwer, or with a view to promotion in the church. He comes from a secret work of the divine power. He bewould not take any preferment either during the reign of lieved the Church of England to be perfect, and the express Charles or James, or after the revolution of 1688, though image of the primitive ordinances. Many of his sermons he was often pressed to accept the highest dignities in the are directed against the Puritans. He dwelt with delight church.

on their meagre mortified faces, their droneing and snutiling He strongly disapproved of all James's measures towards whine, their sanctimonious hypocritical demeanor; but in the restoration of the Roman Catholic religion, being a most the midst of his pleasautry, he shot some shafts dipped ir. zealous upholder of the Protestant church. But he had also the bitterest gall, and pointed by the most inveterate hatred. strong opinions of the duty of submission to his lawful prince; With a proud consciousness of superior learning, and perand accordingly, when the archbishop of Canterbury and haps a pharisaical conceit of superior integrity, with the the bishops who signed the invitation to the Prince of keenest sarcasm and the most undisguised contempt

, he Orange to come over, wanted him to do the same, he replied held up to the detestation of mankind these impudeni pre that . His religion taught him to bear all things; and how- tenders to the gift of the Spirit? According as a man's affec. ever it should please God that he should suffer, he would, tions are disposed, he will view South as a furious bigot, or by the divine assistance, continue to abide by his allegiance, as an uncompromising defender of the state and the church and use no other weapons but his prayers and tears for the as established. recovery of his sovereign from the wicked and unadvised As a writer he is conspicuous for sound practical good councils wherewith he was entangled. On the abdication sense, for a deep insight into human character, for liveliness of James and the settlement of the crown on the Prince of imagination, and exuberant invention, and wit that ard Princess of Orange, South at first made some oppo- knew not always the limits of propriety. In perspicusition, but ultimately he acknowledged the new govern- ily, copiousness, and force of expression he is almost unriment; yet he would accept nothing, though certain valled among English writers; and these great qualities persons ihen in power offered to exert themselves in fully compensate for the forced conceits, unnatural metahis behalf on the vacating of several of the sees by the phors, absurd similes, and turgid and verbose language

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which occasionally disfigure his pages. With all his faults, street which is south of the bar was included in the town, he was a truly honest man, a firm friend, and a generous and is about half a mile long; the remainder, distinguished benefactor. The sincerity of his principles is shown in the as' High Street above bar,' or ' Above-bar Street,' belonged purity of his life, and the vigour of his understanding is to the suburbs. The room in the upper part of the gateway stamped on all that he wrote.

forms the town-ball, which is small and ill-constructed. (Sermons preached upon several Occasions, by Robert | The other streets or lanes lead from the High Street at South, D.D., third edition, 6 vols. 8vo., 1704; Retrospective right angles or are nearly parallel to it. The principal Review, No. 18.)

streets are well paved and lighted; but several of those SOUTHAM. (WARWICKSHIRE.)

which consist of smaller tenements are not paved or lighted, SOUTHAMPTON, a town within Hampshire, though and are in a very disorderly state. (Munic. Corpor. Commisforming a county of itself, situated on a point of lani be sioners' Report; Purl. Puners for 1835.) On the south side tween the river Alre, or Itchen, on the east, and the Test, of the town is i'ne quay, near which, at the souih-western Teese, or Anton on the west. These rivers here unite to form corner of the town, is the pier, a structure of considerable the æstuary called 'Southampton Water.' Southampton is extent and elegance, erected some years since, and called Vic70 miles in a direct line south-west of the General Post-toria Pier, after her Majesty, by whom, before her accession, office, London, or 79 miles by the London and South-Western it was opened. At the easi end of the quay is a raised walk Railway; in 50° 54' N. lat. and 1° 24' W. long.

or causeway along the shore extending about half a mile. The Roman town of Clausentum, though not on the On the plaiform or battery near the quay is a singular gun exact site of Southampton, may be regarded as its prede- of the time of Henry VIII. In the more modern part of

Clausentum was on a point of land fermed by the the town, comprehending Above-bar Street and the adjacent winding of the Itchen, on the left or east bank of that river, streets, are some handsome ranges of building. The Winabout a mile north-east of Southampton, now occupied by chester road is adorned by a fine avenue of elms, after leaving Bittern Farm. The present road from Winchester to which it passes through an extensive field of open ground, Southampton, as far as the village of Otterbourn, coincides beautifully wooded, called Southampton Common, affordwith the line of the Roman road from Venta Belgarum ing delightful walks, drives, and rides. High Street is a (Winchester) to Clausentum ; at Otterbourn the Southamp- handsome street throughout. The eastern side of ihe town ton road diverges a little to the right, while the Roman road is occupied by the poorer class of inhabitants; and a new may be traced along the bills running straight onward to- road from the southern part of the town to the Itchen leads wards Bittern. (Ordnance Survey.) There are at Bittern the to the floating bridge which fornis the communication with traces of a fosse and vallum, which defended the place on l'areham, Gosport, and Portsmouth. the land side; and fragments of Roman bricks and pottery, | Southampton has five parish churches. Holy Rhood also urns and coins, have been found in abundance. Within church, a large and antient structure, consists of a nave the enclosuree's a farmhouse, built partly from the ruins of with side aisles and a choir or chancel; it bas a tower a castellated mansion formerly belonging to the bishops of and spire at the south-west angle, and a colonnade or Winchester. [HAMPSHIRE.)

portico, which occupies the whole front. The church The foundation of the present town is ascribed to the contains several stalls of neat workmanship, a wooden Anglo-Saxons. There is reason to beliere that the castle screen of the time of Elizabeth or James I., a neat Gothic was early erected by the Saxons. The town was attacked, font, and some fragments of fine painted glass in the but without success, by the Danes, A.D. 837; plundered by windows. St. Lawrence's church is small, and almost them A.D. 980; and again occupied as their winter-quarters choked up with the surrounding houses. For ecclesiastical A.D. 994. It is said to have been the scene of the me. purposes this parish is united with that of St. John. Allmorable rebuke which Canute (CANUTE] administered 'to Saints' church is of Grecian Ionic architecture, and has his courtiers. In the Saxon Chronicle the town is called been much admired; it contains the monuments of CarHamlune and Suih-Hamtun; in ‘Domesday,'Hantone and teret, the circumnavigator, and of Bryan Edwards, the hiiHentune. In the reign of Henry II. it had four churches. torian of the West Indies. These churches are all in Higle Leland and Grose have supposed the Southampton of this Street. St. Michael's, the most antient of any in the town, period to liave been at St. Mary's, a little to the east or is in the west part of the town, in a square (formerly the north-east of the present town, which they suppose to have fish-market) of which it forms the east side ; it has a tower been removed to its present site after the sack of South- between the nare and chancel; there are several Norman ampton by the French or Genoese fleet, A.D. 1339. [Hamp- portions and some of later date; tlie windows are chietly of SHIRE.) But Sir H. C. Englefield (Wulk round South. perpendicular character. This church has an antient font ampton) has given good reason for doubting the correctness of Norman character, and the monument of Chancellor of this opinion. The year after this disaster the defences of Wriothesley. St. Mary's church in the suburbs, east of the the town were repaired and strengthened. Richard II. town, was rebuilt in the last century on the foundations of rebuilt the castle. It was at Southampton that Henry V. the older structure, which yet appear a few feet above embarked in his first invasion of France (A.D. 1415), at ground: its large burial-ground is the principal place of which time the Earl of Cambridge, Lord Scrope, and Sir interment for the town. There is a proprietary episcopul Thomas Grey were executed in the town for conspiring chapel (St. Paul's) in All Saints' parish, erected a few years against him. In the war of the Roses a smart skirmish since; the architecture is Goihic, and the Clergy List' contook place between the partizans of the rival houses, in tains a notice of the chapel of the Holy Trinity and of Jesus" which the Lancastrians were worsted: several of them free chapel. were executed by order of Edward IV. In A.D. 1512 the There are several dissenting places of Worship, including marquis of Dorset, who was sent to the support of Fer. one each for Independents, Baptists, Quakers, Roman Cathodinand the Catholic in his war against France, embarked lics, and Wesleyan Methodists. with 10,000 men at Southampton ; and in 1522 the earl of The corporation have, besides the Guildhall, a handsome Surrey, admiral of England, sailed from this place with a audit-house, a borough gavl, and a debtors' prison. Thero considerable fleet, with which he escorted the emperor are several places of amusement, a theatre, and two sets of Charles V. (who had been visiting Henry VIII.), on his assembly.rooms, a racecourse, a subscription reading-room, return to his dominions, and afterwards attacked the French circulating libraries, billiard-rooms, and bathing-rooms; coast. Philip II. of Spain landed here A.D. 1554, when he and a botanic garden. There are scarcely any remains of came to marry Queen Mary.

the antient casile, but a tower has been erected on the site The county of the town comprehends the whole of the and from the materials of the antient keep. point of land between the rivers, and extends along the Southanı pton was antiently a place of great trade; wool bank of the Itchen about three miles; its area is 1970 acres; and tin were exported; but it declined very much when the the population, in 1831, was 19,324; in 1841, 26,900, in export of wool was prohibited, and at the beginning of the cluding 800 or 900 persons employed in constructing the eighteenth century was reduced to a very low ebb. During docks; it is rapidly increasing. The town is on a gravells the eighteenth century it revived; but the improvement, soil, somewhat elevated on the bank of the Anton, which though considerable, was not to be compared with its inwashes it on the west and south sides. The principal street crease during the present century, in which it has trebled (High Street) runs north and south, and is divided into iwo its population. It is much frequented as a wateringparts by an antient bar' or gateway belonging to the olil place. The harbour, which is secure, affords good anchortown wall, considerable portions of which, with the west age. Ship-building is extensively carried on, though the gate and south gate, are still standing. That part of the vessels built are chietly small; and considerable docks are is P. C., No. 1393.


course of construction. Timber is imported from the Baltic 300 members, and has a library, reading-room, and muand from America ; coals, of which a great quantity is sent seum attached to it. Lectures are delivered every week up the country as far as Salisbury, from the north of Eng- during the winter. There is also a Literary and Scientific land; stone from the western counties; and wine and Institution, which has its museum and rooms, where lectures brandy from Spain, Portugal, and France. There is a con. are delivered weekly during the season. An Infirmary has siderable Irish trade. There are a custom-house and four been established, which is conducted by a committee of banking esiablishments. The port of Southampton extends gentlemen, who are making strenuous efforts to enlarge it. to Christchurch westward, and nearly to Portsmouth east- An Harmonic Society, composed of amateurs, is well supward. The customs produced 60,0001. in 1830, and 78,0001. ported. in 1840. The vessels inwards from foreign ports with cargoes (Sir H. C. Englefield's Walk round Southampton; Beauin 1830 were 336, tonnage 31,000; outwards 184, tonnage ties of England and Wales ; Report of Commissioners of 15,000: in 1841 (first 11 months), inwards 520, tonnage Municipal Corporations ; other Parliamentary Papers ; 83,036 ; outwards 247, tonnage 50,444. In December, 1841, Communication from Southampton.) the mail.packet steam-ships to the West Indies commenced SOUTHAMPTON, COUNTY OF, the name, in legal running, of which 14, ad measuring from 1800 to 2000 tons proceedings, of HAMPSHIRE. each, are destined for this service. They are expected to SOUTHCOTT, JOANNA, was born in Devonshire about Jeaj to a considerable extension of the commerce of South- the year 1750, of humble parents. She was employed, ampton, already the largest packet-port in the kingdom.chielly at Exeter, as a domestic servant, and up to the age Passengers to the East embark here, there being a direct of foriy or thereabouts seems to have aspired to no higher communication to India once a fortnight, as well as weekly, occupation; but having joined the Methodists, and become by steamers, 10 Vigo, Oporto, Lisbon, Cadiz, and Gibraltar, acquainted with a man of the name of Sanderson, who laid and daily to the Isle of Wight, France, and the Channel claim to the spirit of prophecy, the notion of a like pretenIsiands.

sion was gradually communicated to Joanna. She wrote The trade of Southampton is promuted by the Ando- prophecies, and she dictated prophecies, sometimes in ver Canal, which follows the valley of the Anton, and by prose and sometimes in rhymed doggrel; her influthe navigation of the Itchen, which extends to Winchester. ence extended, and the number of her followers inThere are general markets on Tuesday, Thursday, and creased; she announced herself as the woman spoken of Saturday; a fish-market every day; and two yearly fairs, at in the 12th chapter of Revelation, and obtained consiOne of which a great number of catile are sold.

derable sums by the sale of seals which were to secure the Southampton is a very antient borough: the earliest salvation of those who purchased them. Her confidence knwn charier, which is simply confirmatory, is of Henry II. increased 'with her reputation, and she challenged the The borough limits, which are coextensive with the county of bishop and clergy of Exeter to a public investigation of her the town, include the six parishes of All Saints, Holy Rhood, miraculous powers, but they treated her ahallenge with St. Lawrence, St. John (united for ecclesiastical purposes contempiuous neglect, which she and her converts imputed to St. Lawrence), St. Michael, and St. Mary, and the to fear. By degrees Exeter became too narrow a stage for liihing of Portswood, in South Stoneham parish: it has her performances, and she came to London on the invitaone sheriff and tivo coroners, besides numerous other cor- tion and at the expense of Sharp the engraver. [SHARP, poraie officers. Quarter-sessions are held; a court-leet William.] She was very illiterate, but wrote numerous from time to time by adjournment, and a civil court letters and pamphlets, and her prophecies, nearly unintelfor mixed and personal actions of unlimited amount. ligible as they were, had a large sale. In 1803 she pubUnder the Municipal Corporation Act the borough was lished . A Warning to the whole world, from the sealed divided into five wards, with ten aldermen and thirty coun- | Prophecies of Joanna Southcott, and other Communications cillors. The revenue of the corporation, arising from rents, given since the Writings were opened on the 12th of Jaa proportion of the harbour dues, fines, and other sources, nuary, 1803,' Lond., 8vo. In 1804 appeared Copies and amounts to about 1500l. per annum. The borough returns Parts of Copies of Letters and Communications written iwo members to parliament, which privilege it has exercised from Joanna Southcott, and transmitted by Miss Towoley ever since the time of Edward I.; the number of voters in to Mr. W. Sharp in London.' In 1813-14 she published 18.35-36 was 12:26, viz. 581 ten-pound householders, 20 The Book of Wonders, in Five Parts, London, 8vo.; and ourgesses, 540 scot and lot voters, and 85 persons possess- also, in 1814, • Prophecies concerning the Birth of the ing more than one qualification; in 1841-42 the number Prince of Peace, extracted from the works of Joanna was 1570, viz. 1301 ten-pound householders, 29 burgesses, Southcott, London, 8vo. Of the Prince of Peace she an460 scot and lot voters, and 214 persons having more than nounced that she was to be delivered on the 191h of Octoone qualification. The court of election for the soutliern ber, 1814, at midnight, being then upwards of 60 years of division of Hampshire is held at Southampton, which is age. There was indeed the external appearance of preg. also a polling-siation.

nancy, and in consequence the enthusiasm of her followers, The living of 7.ll Saints is a rectory, of the clear yearly who are said to have amounted at that time to not fewer value of 4001, with a glebe-house; that of Holy Rhood, a than 100,000, was greatly excited. An expensive cradle vicarage, of the clear yearly value of 3791.; that of St. Law. was made, and considerable sums were contributed, in rence, a rectory, united with the vicarage of St. John, of the order io have other things prepared in a style worthy of the joint clear yearly value of 148l. ; that of St. Michael, a vicar- expected Shiloh. On tlie night of the 19th of October, a aze, of the clear yearly value of 1451.; and that of St. Mary, very large number of persons assembled in the street where a rectory; all, except the last, which is a peculiar of the she lived, to hear the announcement of the looked-for wishop of Winchester, are in the archdeaconry as well as advent; but the hour of midnight passed over, and the in the diocese of Winchester.

crowd were only induced to disperse by being informed that There were, in 1841, three infant-schools, with 150 chil- Joanna had fallen into a trance. On the 27th of Decemdren; an endowed grammar-school, founded by Edward ber, 1814, she died, having a short time previously declared VI.; another endowed school, with 40 scholars (boys), 10 that if she was deceived, she was at all events misled by of them on the foundation; three national schools, with some spirit, either good or evil.' Her body was opened about 300 boys and girls; one Royal British school, with after her decease, and the appearance which had deceived 250 boys and 100 girls; the Holy Rhood parochial school, her followers, and perhaps herself, was found to have arisen with 20 girls; a school in the work house; and an adult from dropsy. Dr. Reece, one of the medical men by whom school, attached to Holy Rhood church, with from 17 to 20 she had been examined, and who had publicly expressed his scholars. The school of the Military Asylum has been belief in her pregnancy, published, “A correct Statement removed to Chelsea; its place is occupied by the Surveying of the Circumstances that attended the last Illness and Death and Mapping department of the Ordnance Office, since the of Mrs. Southcott; by Richard Reece, M.D., London, 1815. late fire in the Tower. There are about 70 private boarding The number of her followers continued to be very great for or day schools, and 13 Sunday-schools attached to various inany years after her death : they believed that there would places of worship.

be a resurrection of her body, and that she was still to be There are several ranges of almshouses, a penitentiary or the mother of the promised Shiloh. There are still (1841) refuge for destitute females, a dispensary, and several other believers in Joanna Southcott. charities. Dr. Isaac Watts was a native of this town, and SOUTHEND. [Essex.] was educated at the grammar-school.

SOUTHERN, THOMAS, an English dramatist, was There is a Mechanics’ Institution, which comprises about ' born at Oxmantown, in the county of Dublin, in 1660. He was admitted student of Trinity College, Dublin, in his house, and of its endowment with the profits of the then seventeenth year, March 13, 1676, and in 1678 entered the existing ferry. In A.D. 993, Anlaf, king of Norway, sailed Middle Temple, London. Preferring poetry to law, he up the river as far as Stane (Siaines) (Saron Chron.), trom became a popular writer of plays, the first of which was the which it has been inferred that there was no bridge between • Persian Prince,' acted in 1682: in the character of the London and Southwark ; but this inference is hardly Loyal Brother in this drama, a compliment to the Duke of authorised by subsequent events. In A.D. 994 i here was a York was intended, according to the biographer of Southern, bridge which obstructed the thight of Sweyn's forces when in the Life prefixed to his works, 1774. At the time of the he attacked London, and was repulsed by the citizens. Duke of Monmouth's landing, Southern served in the king's (Willielm. Malmesb., De Gestis Regum Anglor., lib. ii.; and army as ensign in Lord Ferrers's regiment, and was after- Sar. Chron.) In A.D. 1016, when Canute attacked London, wards presented with a company by the Duke of Berwick, the bridge formed an obstacle to the advance of his tieet, to whom he had been recommended by Colonel Sarsfield. and in order to avoid it be dug a trench on the south side, At the duke's request he wrote the Spartan Dame,' which by which he dragged his ships to the west side of the bridge. however was not acted till 1721. For ihe copyright of this (Sax. Chron.) In the account of these transactions there play he received 1201., a large sum in those days. After is no mention of Southwark; yet there must have been quitting the army, Southern continued to write plays, en- some defence for the south end of the bridge; and in A.D. joying great popularity as an author, and living on terms of 1023, we read in the Saxon Chronicle that on the sixth intimacy with those of his contemporaries most distinguished day before the ides of June, the illustrious king (Cnut, or for wit or rank. Dryden, for whom he finished the play of Canute), and the archbi (Egelnoth of Canterbury), and • Cleomenes,' and afterwards Pope, were among his friends. the diocesan bishops, and the earls, and very many others, Southern died May 26, 1746, at a very advanced age. both clergy and laity, carried by ship his holy corpse (i.e.

In the delineation of character, the conduct of plots, and the body of Aelfeah, or Alphege, saini and martyr) over i he all the niceties of dramatic art, Southern shows but little Thames to Suihgeweorke, or Southwark, on its way to Canskill; he is neither imaginative, as were the elder English terbury. This is, we believe, the earliest distinct mention dramatists, nor witty in his comic dialogues, like Congreve of the place. In A.D. 1052, Godwin, tien in rebellion against and others, bis contemporaries. But his language is pure, Edward the Confessor, came with his fleet to Southwark, and free from affectation; his verse has a pleasant tluency, and passing the bridge without opposition, proceeded to and he has been successful in the expression of simple and attack the king's navy which lay at Westminster ; but hosnatural pathos, particularly in the last scenes of the Fatal | tilities were averted by the offer of peace. At this time, Marriage,' a tragedy which has been much and deservedly Southwark had a harbour for ships (St. Saviour's dock ?) admired, and which was popular on the stage in the last and a monastery or church (St. Mary Overie?), both belongcentury, under the title of Isabella.' Some of his plays ing to the king. Southwark was burned by William the were published by Tonson, 172), 12mo.; a complete edition Conqueror, when the citizens of London, after the battle of of his works in 1774; they consist of comedies, and of tra- Hastings, closed their gates against him. In ‘Domesday' gedies with an infelicitous mixture of comic scenes. There the name appears under the form Sudwerche. is a short account of Southern prefixed to this edition, and The wooden bridge which connected Southwark with in the prefaces to the plays are a few particulars of his life, London was burned in a tire which consumed great part of stated by himself. He is wrongly inserted in the · Athen the city (A.D. 1136). It was however repaired in a few years Oxonienses' by Wood. See his Life in that work, ed. Bliss, afterwards; and in A.D. 1163 still more ihoroughly restored. where will be fourd a letter from Southern to Dr. Rawlin- It is probable that the charge of these repairs led to the son, denying that he ever was at Oxford. See also Malone, erection of a more stable fabric of stone (A.D. 1176-1209), * Life of Dryden,' i., 176.

which remained till within the last few years. The old SOUTHGATE. [MIDDLESEX.]

timber bridge appears to have been opposite Botolph Wharf, SOUTHWARK, one of the divisions of the metropolis midway between the Custom-House and the present bridge: of England, extending along the south bank of the river the former stone bridge was between the timber bridge and Thames, opposite the city of London. As this part of the the present one, at the foot of Fish-Street Ilill. In order metropolis is included in the general description given else to the erection of the stone bridge, a new channel was cut where (LONDON), we have here only to add some particulars for the stream, so as to lay the natural bed of the river of its local history,

nearly dry. It appears that the bridge was not at first The flat, which is bounded on three sides by the Thames, wholly occupied with houses, for in A.D. 1395 there was a in the bend which it makes between Greenwich and Vaux-tournament held on it. Stow infers from this that there hall, was originally overflowed by the tide, and formed a were then no houses at all on the bridge, but such an inlarge marsh extending to the foot of the eminences wbich ference is by no means necessary. In A.D. 1471 there were skirt the fourth (i.e. the south) side. It is probable that houses, several being burned by ihe Bastard of Fauconbridge. this space was banked in by the Romans so as to secure it There appears to have been from the first a drawbridge, so from being overflowed; and Roman remains which have as to allow the passage of vessels above bridge: also a chapel been dug up in St. George's Fields and in other places in on the east side; and two towers for defence, one at the Southwark or its neighbourhood, indicate that they had a south end of the bridge, and the other at the north end of settlement of some kind there. As Ptoleiny says that Lon- the drawbridge. The bridge underwent many alterations don was in the territory of the Cantii (Kávrloi), it has been and sustained many injuries before its final removal. The inferred that it was on the south side of the Thames; but most remarkable alterations were the removal of the drawthis opinion has been very generally rejected, as contrary to bridge and the clearing away of the houses and other buidall the evidence. It is probable that on the site of South- ings: the last alteration took place A.D. 1756. The bridge wark there was a suburb of London, with which it commu- itself was taken down in 1831, after the opening of the nicaled by a ferry near the site of the old bridge. At this present London Bridge. ferry the great road Watling Street crossed the Thames. In A D. 1213 Southwark was nearly destroyed by fire; and

In the early part of the Saxon times there is no notice of the flames having communicated to ihe norihern end of the any town or other place on this spot; but a tradition of Bar- bridge, a number of the inhabitants of London, who liad tholomew Linsted, or Fowle, lasi prior of St. Mary Overie, come to assist in putting out the fire, were destroyed by it preserved by Slow (Survey of London, book i., c. xii.), or drowned in their attempts to escape: about 3000 are said notices that the profits of the ferry were devoted by the to have perished. In A.D. 13:27 Sonihwark was, by charter owner, 'a mailen named Mary,' to the foundation and en- of Edward III., in the first year of his reign, given to the dowment of a nunnery, or house of sisters,' afterwards city, great inconvenience having been found to arise from converted into a college of priests, by whom a bridge of its affording a refuge to offenders of various kinds. The timber was built, which with the aid of the citizens was city was to pay to the Exchequer a yearly sum of 107. as feeafterwards converted into one of stone. If this tradition is farm rent. Though in this giant it is called a 'village, it entitled to credit (which Maitland denies, Hist. of London, must have been of considerable size; for it had four parish book i., c. vii.), it would carry back the time of the foundation churches---St. Mary's, a chapel of the great conventual of the monastery of St. Mary Overie to a much earlier period' church of St. Mary Over-the-Rie (or water): St. Margaret's, ihan any existing historical notice of Southwark : and how- , where the town-hall now stands; St. Olave's; and St. ever doubtful the claim of the priests to the honour of; George's; besides the priory and church of St. Mary Overbuilding, the bridge may be, we think the tradition may be the-Rie (or Overy), for the canons of St. Auglistin; the taken as fair evidence of the early foundation of a religious hospital of St. Thomas; two prisons, the King's Bench a'? the Marshalsea; and the houses of sereral prelates, nobles, The giant of Edward III. appears only to have conveyed or abbots. Near it were the villages of Rotherhithe or Red- to the city the lordship of the manor: this jurisdiction was riffe ; Bermondsey, with its Cluniac priory (afterwards an augmented by new privileges in subsequent reigns; and in abbey); and Walworth; and the market-town of Lambeth, the reign of Edward VI., Southwark was by letters patent the residence of the primate, and in the parish of which, at incorporated with the city, and constituted the ward of Kennington, was a royal palace.

Bridge Without. Certain lands were excepted from this In A.D. 1381 the insurgent populace, under Wat Tyler, arrangement, as Southwark Mansion and Park, belonging took possession of Southwark, broke open the prisons and to the king. The ward appears never to have been repre released the prisoners, and destroyed the stews or brothels sented in ihe Common Council, nor do the inhabitants now on Bankside, which were farnied of the city. They then, I elect their alderman. The senior alderman of London is by threats of burning Southwark, obliged the lord mayor of always alderman of this ward, and on his death the next in London to admit them into the city, where they committed seniority succeeds. He has no ward duties to perform. In great excesses. In Cade's insurrection (A.D. 1450), South- the article LONDON (vol. xiv., p. 117] this is said, but not wark was again occupied by the rebels, who, by intimidation, accurately, to be the case with the alderman of Bridge' forced their way into the city. Twenty years afterwards (A.D. Ward. There is a Bridge Ward Within, which is properly 1471), Southwark was seized by the Bastard of Fauconbridge. a part of the city; and Bridge Ward Without, which comHe attempted to storm the bridge, but was repulsed with prehends Southwark. The alderman of Bridge Ward great slaughter

. In A.D. 1554 Southwark was occupied by Within has the same duties as any other alderman. The Sir Thomas Wyatt, who was joined by the townsmen ; but city of London appoints a high-bailiff and steward for Souihhe could not gain admission into London. It appears from wark, but the county magistrates for Surrey exercise juristhese events that Southwark was destitute of fortifications. diction in several matters: it is also in the district of the

In the time of Elizabeth, Southwark appears to have con- metropolitan police. sisted of a line of street extending from the bridge nearly Southwark is a parliamentary borough, and has sent two to where is now the King's Bench, formerly called Long representatives to parliament uninterruptedly from 23 EdSouthwark; Kent Street, then the high road to Dover, and ward I. It is by Londoners colloquially termed The of which only the part near St. George's Church was lined Borough. By the Boundary Act, the Clink Liberty, and u.e with houses; a line of street, including Tooley (i.e. St. parishes of Christ Church, Bermondsey, and Rotherhithe, Olave's) Street, extending from the bridge foot to Roiher- have been added to it for parliamentary purposes. The hithe Church; another line of street, running westward by number of voters on the register in 1835-6 was 5388; in Bankside to where the Blackfriars Road now stands; and } 1839-40, 5047, viz. 4096 ten-pound householders, and 95) Bermondsey Street, brancbing off from Tooley Street to scot and lot voters. Bermondsey church. Except near St. Mary Overy's (now The borough as thus enlarged comprehends an important St. Saviour's) Church, there were scarcely any back or cross manufacturing and commercial district. Along the waterside streets. Near Bankside were the bishop of Winchester's there are numerous wharfs, and various establishments palace, the Globe theatre, the stews, before spoken of which are necessary for the construction, equipage, avd (which were however suppressed at the Reformation), and freight of vessels. A considerable hat-manufacture is two bear-gardens for baiting bulls and bears. The villages carried on in St. Saviour's parish and in Bermondsey, in of Lambeth, Kennington, Newington, and Walworth were which latter there are a number of tanners and curriers. then separated by open fields.

Southwark is the chief place of business of those connected In the civil war of Charles I., Southwark was included with the hop-trade; the largest porter brewery in London, within the circuit of the fortifications erected by order of and indeed in the world (Messrs. Barclay and Co.'s), and a parliament. Towards the close of the seventeenth century very extensive vinegar-yard (Messi's. Poits), are included it had considerably extended. The houses on the east side within it. of Blackman Street extended to Newington and Walworth, (Stow's London; Manning's Surrey; Parliamentary which were thus united to the metropolis; but St. George's | Pupers ; &c.) Fields, on the opposite side, still remained open. Back SOUTHWELL. [NOTTINGHAMSHIRE ] streets had been formed on each side of the High Street as SOUTHWELL, ROBERT, descended from an antient far as St. George's Church. In the early part of the follow- family in Norfolk, was born in 1560. He was educated or ing century the buildings extended along the river bank to the Continent, and in 1578 entered the Society of Jesuits Lambeth; and Rotherhithe Street was "continued to and at Rome. In 1585 he was appointed prefect of the Eng. even beyond Cuckold's Point, where the river bends to lish Jesuits' College in that city, and was soon afterwards the southward. Later still, the opening of Blackfriars sent to England as a missionary: He resided chietly with Bridge led to the formation of Great Surrey Street; and Anne, countess of Arundel, who was imprisoned in the towards the close of the century St. George's Fields were Tower of London, and died there. Southwell was appreenclosed and laid out in new streets. Since the commence- hended in July, 1592, and was strictly examined by Queen ment of the present century, Lambeth Marsh, which for- Elizabeth's agents as to a supposed plot against the queen's merly separated Southwark from Lambeth, has been covered government. No disclosures could be obtained from hin, with new streets and buildings; and in every direction and he was committed to the Tower, where, in the course Southwark has spread, till it has united with the surrounding of three years, he was ten times subjected to the torture. villages, from Greenwich to Battersea, and combined them At length he admitted that he was a Jesuit, and that he into one large town, forming the southern division of the came to England for the purpose of making proselytes to metropolis, and having a population of 300,000, of which the Roman Catholic faith. By an act passed in 1585 (27 town Southwark may be regarded as the nucleus.

Eliz., c. 2) an Englishman who was a Jesuit and refused to Since its annexation to the city, its ecclesiastical divisions take the oath of supremacy was declared to be guilty of have become more numerous. The two parishes of St. Treason. It was probably under this act that, on the 20th of Mary and St. Margaret have indeed been united into one, February, 1595, he was brought to trial in the Court of of which the fine old priory church of St. Mary Overie, King's Bench. Our authorities however do not state what better known as St. Saviour's, is the parish church; but was the precise charge against him, but he was found guilty, the parish of Christ Church bas been formed from this united was condemned to death, and on the following day was exeone of St. Saviour; and within the last year or two, a new cuted at Tyburn. His demeanour was firm, he declared that district church, St. Peter's, in Park Street, Bankside, in he was proud to profess himself a Jesuit, and thanked God the same parish (St. Saviour's), has been completed. St. that he had been called upon to suffer martyrdom. In the John's, Horslydown, has been formed out of St. Olave's, Gentleman's Magazine,' vol. 67, there is a notice of his and St. Thomas's Hospital church has become parochial. 1:fe, with a copious list of his works. His writings, which That part of St. Saviour's parish of which Christ Church are both in prose and verse, were once very popular among parish was formed, appears not to have been included in the the Roman Catholics. He writes rather elegant English grant to the city of London, which probably comprehended for the age in which he lived, but the matter will hardly only the king's manor of Southwark, from which that of repay the trouble of perusal, at least to Protestants. Christ Church (antiently the manor of Paris Garden) was Southwell's principal works are the following :- A Condistinct. Another portion of St. Saviour's parish, ‘the Clink solation to Catholics imprisoned on account of Religion,' Liberty,' belongs to the bishop of Winchester, who appoints and a 'Supplication to Queen Elizabetli, London, 1593; a steward and bailiff, and appears never to have been granted 'St. Peter's Complaint; with other Poems,' 1593; -Mæonia; to the city.

or Certain excellent Poems and Spirituall Hymns,' 1505,

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