« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
4to., 1600, 4to., 1620, 1630, 1634, 12mo. ; 'The Triumph over | published a ‘Commentary on the Lusiad,' which is interesting Death,' 1595, 1596 ; 'A Short Rule of Good Life,' 8vo.; for the same cause as his treatises, and which Bouterwek • Mary Magdalen's Funeral Tears,' 1609; • Epistle of Com- thinks' a production more calculated to obscure than illusfort to those Catholics who lie under Restraint,' 1605, 8v0.; trate the original.' Souza's works are:-1, · Discursos Mo• Peter's Complaint,' Mary Magdalen's Tears, and the rales y Politicos,' Madrid, 1623; 2, . Commentarios sobre * Triumph over Death,' were printed together in 8vo., la Lusiada,' 1639; 3, • Defensa por los Commentarios sobre London, 1620.
la Lusiada,' 1640; 4, Rimas varias de Luis de Camoes, SOUTHWELL, NATHANIEL, became a Jesuit in commentados por Manuel de Faria y Souza,' Lisbon, 1685; 1624, and twenty-four years afterwards was made secretary 5, ' Epitome de las Historias Portuguesas,' 1626; 6, ‘Euto the general of the Order, which office he held during ropea Portugesa,' 1666; 7, •Imperio de la China, y Cultura seventeen years. He died at Rome in 1676, in wbich year Evangelica por los 'Religiosos de la Compañia de Jesus,' he published his continuation of the Jesuits' Library, ‘Bib- 1643 ; %, Fuente de Aganipe, varias Rimas,' 1646. liotheca Scriptorum Societatis Jesu, Opus inchoatum à (Bouterwek, Hist. of Port. Lit.; Heyse, Grundriss einer R.P. Petro Ribadeneira, et productum ad Annum 1609; Gesch. der Port. Lit.; Biog. Universelle ; Sismondi, Lit. du continuatum à Philippo Alegambe ad Annum 1643; re Midi.) cognitum et productum ad Annum 1675, à Naihanaelo SOUZA, JEAN DE, born at Damascus in Syria, 1730, Sotwello,' Rome, 1676, folio. Southwell's continuation is of Roman Catholic parents. He came to Lisbon with some considered inferior to that of Alegambe. The work was French Capuchins in 1750, and was there protected by the afierwards continued by Oudin, who commenced his task house of Saldanha. Gaspar Saldanha presented him io the in 1733, and performed it to the general satisfaction of the Marquis of Pombal, who appointed him as interpreter and Society.
secretary to the embassy which Joseph I. sent in 1773 10 SOUTHWOLD. (SUFFOLK.]
the emperor of Marocco. He was often employed in such SOUZA, MANUEL FARIA E, was born at Souto in negociations, and always acquitted himself with credit. The Portugal, 1590, of a noble and antient family. He mani- queen having founded a chair for the Arabic language in fested great precocity, and when nine years old was sent to the University, she named Souza professor, and he composed the university of Braga, where he distinguished himself. In for it the Grammar which is still in use. He was made 1605 he was taken as secretary by one of his powerful rela correspondent of the Royal Academy of Sciences, and retions, and then commenced his diplomatic education. In tiring to the convent of Jesus, died there January 29th, 1618 he married and went to Madrid; but though well 1812. (Biographie Universelle.) recommended, his rough manner hindered his advancement SOUZA-BOTELHO, DOM JOSE-MARIA, born at at court. In 1632 he was sent on an embassy, under the Oporto, 91h March, 1758. His father was governor-general Marquis Castel Rodrigo, to Rome, where his learning of the province of St. Paul in Brazil. Souza was educated attracted the attention of Urban VIII. and the men of at the university of Coimbra, and in 1778 he entered the letters at the pontifical court. Having some quarrel with army, where he served till 1791. He was then nominated the marquis, he quitted him and returned to Spain; but he ambassador-plenipotentiary to Sweden. From Stockholm was arrested at Barcelona by order of the marquis, and was he passed in 1795 to Copenhagen in the same capacity. only released by the powerful intercession of some friends. His father's death recalled him in 1799 to Lisbon. He was lle then renounced politics, and devoted himself exclusively next sent on a mission to England, but the object of his to literature. Such was his activity, that he himself states mission was frustrated by the French not admitting him to that he daily wrote forty-eight pages, each page containing the congress at Amiens in order to look after the interests thirty lines; and he possessed such rhetorical facility, that of Portugal. On the general peace in 1802, Souza went to in one day he could compose a hundred addresses of con France as plenipotentiary, and stayed there will 1805, where gratulation and condolence, all different from each other. he had every possible exercise for his diplomatic ingenuity. (Bouterwek, Hist. of Port. Lit., 278.) He obtained a small It was a perilous position; and, disgusted with public affairs, pension from Philip IV. and the cross of chevalier ; but to he resolved to confine his attention to literature, for which his pen he trusted for subsistence. He died in 1649, at he had always manifested a strong disposition. Camoens, Madrid. His manners were very eccentric, and his dress the pride of Portugal, had ever been his favourite author, the same; neither the entreaties of his wife vor of his and he resolved on producing an edition of his works which friends could prevail on him to cut off the immense beard should be a lasting monument. He spared neither time, which disfigured him. He was proud, independent, and trouble, nor expense. He corresponded with all the learned, vehement, but affectionate and amiable.
and after twelve years' labour he had the satisfaction of As a poet, Souza ranks high in Portugal, though most of completing it in 1818. He prefixed a dedication to the king his works are written in Spanish; but his works are little of Portugal, a mass of curious bibliographical researches, relished by foreigners, nor have they been translated. His and a critique on Camoens, where in his editorial enthusitalents were vitiated by the bad taste of the age. He was asm he extols Camoens over all modern poets, and even but a reflex of the extravagancies and conceits of Lope de implies that he equals Homer and Virgil. He formed the Vega, Marino, and Gongora. Prodigious faclity and fer- project of writing a History of Portugal, but his declining tility of images and rhymes he certainly displays, but they health only allowed him to finish some fragments of it. are of themselves vices when not corrected by a refined He died in 1819. (Biographie des Contemporains ; Heyse, judgment. Most of his ideas are intolerably fantastic, as Grundriss, &c.; Bing. Univ.) where he speaks of the ‘ten lucid arrows of crystal which SOVEREIGN. MONEY.) were darled from his Albania's eyes, which produced a SOVEREIGNTY. Supranus is a low Latin word, rubious effect on his pain, though the cause was crystal- formed from supra, like subtranus, another low Latin line :
word, formed from subtra. (Ducange in vv.) These words Flechando de sus manos peregrinas,
however, though they do not belong to classical Latinity, De cristal diez luzientes passadores,
are formed according to the same analogy as the classical
word supernus from super. From supranus have been And yet he sometimes hits a very fanciful image, as
derived the Italian soprano or sovrano, and the French where he says of his mistress's eyes, - Love has written my English word sovereign. In the old English writers the
souverain, from the latter of which has been borrowed the fate in the beauty of those eyes, i hich are as large as my word is correctly spelt soverain or soverein (Richardson in pain and dark as my destiny:'
v.); the received orthography seems to be founded on the • Ojos, en cuya hermosura Cifrò mi suerie el Amor,
erroneous supposition that the last syllable of the word is Grandes como mi dolor,
connected with reign, regnum. Milton spells the word Negros como mi ventura.'
sovran, deriving from the Italian; but it passed into our But when we add that he wrote six hundred sonnets, language from the French. besides eclogues, and all in this strained fanciful style, it Having explained the etymology of the word swer eign, may be conceived how tedious his works become.
and its derivative, sovereignty, we proceed to consider ihe As a critic he has been long revered as an oracle, de meaning of the term sovereignty as it is understood by ser venerado por Oraculo,' says Machado; but an inspection political and juridical writers. of his treatises on the sonnet and on poetry will show the In every society, not being in a state of nature or a stare worthlessness of them. They are curious evidences of what of anarchy [ANARCHY), some person or persons must posa nation will conmut to as regards criticism. Souza also sess the supreme or sovereign power.
De rubi fue el efeto en mis dolores
The marks by which the possession of the sovereign thus also protects them from the voracity of birds or insects, power may be distinguished are mainly two, the one posi- he will have a much greater prospect of success, under all tive and the other negative; viz.:
circumstances, than if he were careless or negligent. 1. A habit of obedience to some determinate person or The most common mode of sowing the seed is by scatterpersons, by the community which he or they affect to ing it as evenly as possible over the ploughed surface, as it govern.
lies in ridges from the plough. The harrows follow, and 2. The absence of a habit of obedience, on the part of crumbling down the ridges, cover the seed which has fallen the same person or persons, to any person or govern- in the hollows between them. It requires an experienced ment.
sower to scatter the exact quantity over a given surface, Whenever these two marks meet in any person or body without crowding the seed in one spot, and allowing to of persons, such person or body possesses the sovereign great intervals in another. Hence the farmer who does not power; on the other hand, if either of the two marks be himself sow the seed, invariably chooses the most experienced wanting, the person or body is not sovereign. For example, and skilful labourer to perform this work. Notwithstanding the local government of Jamaica or Sydney, being in the every care and attention on the part of the farmer or master, habit of obeying the English parliament, is not a sovereign the labourer will often relax and become careless, and the or supreme government; whereas the government of Tus- result appears only when it is too late to remedy it. This cany, or the States of the Church, although it may occa- has given rise to the various attempts which have been sionally defer to the wishes of Austria, is not in a habit of made to invent machines for sowing the seed, such as obedience to that or any other state, and therefore is a sove- should insure perfect regularity. Of some of these we will reign government. Again, a body of persons calling them- now give a short account. selves a government, but unable ihrough their weakness to One of the simplest of these machines consisted secure the habitual obedience of the people, are not sove in a hollow cylinder, with one or more rows of holes in a reign, and would not be recognised as a sovereign govern- line parallel to the axis. These holes can be stopped in ment by foreign states.
part if required. The seed is put into the cylinder, the Inasmuch as it is impossible to fix the precise moment length of which is equal to the width of the land, or stitch, at which a habit of obedience to a foreign government which it is desired to sow at a time. By shaking this when ceases, it is difficult for foreign states to determine when held horizontally and at right angles to the path of the they will recognise the sovereignty of a territory, once de sower, the seed is scattered with considerable regularity: pendent, which has achieved its independence.
one inconvenience of this instrument is that it requires to The sovereign powers include all the powers which can be filled frequently, and that much still depends on the atten. be exercised by a government. They include the legislation of the operator. Accordingly it was very soon laid by. tive power, the executive power, the power of making The idea however was followed up and improved upon in privilegiu [Law; Legislation), the power of declaring the sowing-varrow, an instrument still extensively used for peace and war, the power of concluding treaties with foreign sowing grass-seeds. It consists of a wooden trough placed states, and the power of instituting inquiries.
on the frame of a light wheelbarrow. An iron spindle, furThe sovereign power is unlimited by any legal check or nished with circular brusles at regular intervals, runs the control. The securities for its beneficial exercise are de- whole length of the trough, and is turned by means of rived exclusively from the balance of interests and the in- simple machinery connected with the wheel. Opposite Muence of public opinion.
each brush is a brass plate, with holes of different sizes, Sovereign or supreme governments are dividel into Mo- which can be partly closed by means of a circular slile. NARCHIES and REPUBLICS; and REPUBLICs are divided According to the size of the seed to be sown and the quaninto ARISTOCRACIES and DEMOCRACIES.
tity to be scaitered, the holes are opened or shut. The seed It is commonly, but erroneously, thought that the sove- is put into the trough, which has a cover or lid; and by reignty resides in every person who bears the name of merely wheeling the barrow in a straight line, a breadth is king; in other words, that every king is a monarch. Ac- sown equal to the length of the trough, usually 12 or 15 cordingly those kingdoms in which the king is not strictly feet. But this machine cannot conne
oveniently be used in a monarch are called limited monarchies ;' and the king is windy weather, which disperses the seeds irregularly; and supposed to be a sovereign whose power is checked or con- it is very little superior to sowing by the hand, except in the trolled by certain popular borlies; whereas, in truth, the case of small seeds, which cannot so well be spread evenly sovereignty is divided between the king and the popular by the hand. body, and the former does not possess the entire sovereignty: The drill husbandry has suggested other more compliThis subject is further explained in MONARCHY and cated machines, of which some account will be found in the ROYALTY.
article Drill. The principle of these is to deliver the seed A sovereign government may cease to exist as such by by means of funnels, each corresponding to a small furrow becoming a subordinate government (as was, for example, made by a coulter placed immediately before the funnel; the case with the governmenis of the islands of the Ægean, and some of these machines perform the work very reguconquered by Athens, and the governments of the states larly and satisfactorily. As the inequalities of the ground which became Roman provinces), or by its dissolution, in require that the couliers should move up or down, to allow consequence of a successful rebellion of its own subjects, or for these inequalities, the seed cannot be accurately depoany other cause.
sited at a given depth; and some improvement in the mude The subject of sovereignty will be found best explained of drilling is yet desirable, and has in some measure been in Mr. Austin's Province of Jurisprudence determined.' effected. The patent lever-drill in common use is very imThe received doctrines upon the subject will likewise be perfect in its work, and the remedy lies in the greater altenfound in the treatises on international law. The Leviathun lion to the preparation of the surface. When this is effectel, of Hobbes contains a very correct view of the nature of sove the levers may be set aside, and a much simpler drill, sucli reignty, which has been often misunderstood and misrepre- as was used at first, may replace it. The object is to make sented by later writers.
furrows of equal depth in which to deposit the seed, and to SOW-THISTLE. [Sonchus.]
cover this uniformly. The land must consequently be more SOWING AND SOWING-MACHINES. The sow- carefully prepared by repeated harrowing and rolling, till ing of the seed has always been looked upon as one of the the surface resembles the seed-beds in a garden. A imple most important operations of husbandry. Much of the drill, wbich makes equidistant furrows at a given depib, success of the future crops depends on the time and the in which the seed drops regularly, will then do better mode in which the seed is committed to the earıh. After work than a more complicated machine; but if still greater the land has been well prepared by judicious tillage and accuracy and perfection are desired, the dibble must be had manuring, many accidents and circumstances may disappoint recourse to. No one will deny that seed deposited by means the hope of the farmer, and the crop may be scanty or fail of a dibble is distributed mure equally and covered wiih a altogether. The weather and the seasons are not under his more equal depth of soil than by any other means, and that control, and he must submit to the dispensations of Provi- there is a great economy of seed in this mode of sowing: dence with pious resignation; but much also depends on his but the slowness of the operation, and the number of hands own judgment and skill. If he selects the best seeds it would require to dibble all the seed on a large farm, have chooses the proper season for sowing them, and has them prevented its being very generally adopted. [ARABLE carefully distributed and properly covered with earth, as Land.] Many attempts have been made to invent machines their nature requires for the most perfect germination, and to imitate the work done by hand in dibbling, and bitherto
with no marked success, owing chiefly to the difficulty of surely delivered, even when rather damp: when the cylin. clearing the dibbles from the adhering soil, and making a der is delivering, the quadrant is receiving, and vice versa. clean hole, and also of letting the seed fall exactly in the The delivery of manure is effected by a similar apparatus dibbie-holes. Several patents have lately been taken out only of a larger size, the valves being furnished with brushes for dibbling machines, of which we shall only notice three. or other means to remove the superfluity. The firs machine consists of large hollow disks, armed at • The valves are connected with the dibbles in such a manthe circumference with blunt projections or knobs, which ner as to deposit the manure and seed in the hole last make a depression in the surface as the disk revolves: these formed, whilst the dibbles are stationary in the advancing knobs are hollow, and open by one half sliding upwards as one. The dibbles bore their holes in shallow drills made the knob leaves the depression it has made. The seed by the pressure and sliding action of an iron shoe shaped which has been deposited in the hollow knob falls into the like a boat, and forming a smooth furrow. hole. This machine is said to do its work well, and was ex- • The whole of the machinery is supported by an iron hibited at the meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society at frame, one end of which rests on trunnions attached to a Liverpool, in 1841.
projecting part of the back of the carriage. It is suspended The next is Bradshaw's patent, which is not so generally at the viher end by a cross shaft carrying two pinions, workknown, having only been tried by the inventor and his ing in arcs of circles fixed on the frame, so that it can be friends. Here the dibbles are moved up and down by raised or depressed at pleasure, or elevated clear of the means of a crank or excentric circle, and are twisted in the ground by one turn of a winch. At the same time, the ground by means of a projection from the shank of the pinion connecting the machinery with the hind wheels is dibble, which is connected with the frame of the machine ; put out of gear, and the whole can be moved about on the and when the dibble is moved by the crank, the rod is carriage. The implement is steered in a manner somewhat twisted by the difference in the motion of the crank and similar to Lord Western's drill. the machine. The seed is delivered by means of a cylinder · The object of the Rev. gentleman in contriving this with cavities in its surface, which revolves very near the original and singularly ingenious implement has been to ground, the seed being kept in these cavities by a leather imitate the more minute and certain manipulations of the belt, which only lets them out at the lowest part.
gardener; and so to adapt his machinery to the drilling and The lasi, of which the specification was only enrolled the dibbling of seed upon land previously laid tlat and well pre25th Nov., 1841, and is somewhat on the same principle, was pared, that every field, however extensive, should present invented by the Rev. W. L. Rham, of Winkfield, Berkshire. ihe neatness and regularity of a highly-finished garden. This machine, which was exhibited at the meeting of the The distinguishing peculiarities of this remarkable piece Royal Agricultural Society of England at Liverpool, in 1841, of mechanism are the arrangements for the dibbles to bore is thus noticed by the judges of the implements appointed holes, causing them to be perpendicular and truly cylindriby that Society :
cal, and the apparatus for giving certainty to the valves in • The Rev. W. L. Rham, of Winkfield, Berkshire, ex receiving and delivering the manure.' bibited an implement, the principal object of which is to In order to render the above highly commendatory report extend and improve the system of drilling and dibbling of the judges more intelligible to those who have not seen wheat, beans, &c. It is chiefly in its latter capacity, as this implement, we will add a slight diagram to explain the a dibbler of seed and manure, that we shall attempt to most essential parts. give a slight description of it. The operative part of the machine is suspended upon an iron carriage having four wheels, the two hinder ones being fast upon their axle and turning with it. On this axle is a spur-wheel, giving motion to a pinion on an intermediary axle, which carries a wheel geared into a second pinion fixed on its axis, having six cranks arranged spirally. The velocity given to the axis is such that the cranks make one revolution for every six inches of the circumference of the hind wheels, or whatever is the
L = distance desired between dibble-boles. The radius of each crank is such that this distance shall be equal to the circumference described by one revolution. Thus the space described by every crank coincides with that passed over in the same time by the hind wheels; and as the cranks turn, during the balf of a revolution, in an opposite direction to that of the wheels, the result of this compound motion is a pause or rest of short duration, at the point where the crank in its rotation commences to retrograde from the line ACB is a lever, whose fulcrum is at A; BG the rod of the of progress of the machine, i.e. at the lowest point, and dibble M, which turns on it by means of a socket; CDE is when the dibbles are in the ground. The crank raises the the rod which communicates the motion to the lever ACB, dibbles up and down by means of connecting rogs and levers, by means of the crank LE moved by the machinery. KD which double the vertical without increasing the horizontal is a rod connecting the crank with the rod of the dibble and motion; and in order that ihe point, when in the ground, having a slit or cheeks in which this rod moves. F is the may be perfectly stationary, it is made the centre of motion spring which keeps the rod in its place when the dibble is while the machine progresses; and to enable it to retain out of the ground. ab is an iron plate with a slit or cheeks that position for a sufficient length of time for the purpose to keep the dibble from swerving from the line of the furrow of leaving a hole truly vertical, the dibbles move between made by the shoe. c is a pin projecting upwards from this checks in the rod which connects it with the crank, and plate and bent at its upper end. This pin meets one of which has a spring to restore it quickly to its proper place four arms projecting horizontally from the shark of the as it rises out of the ground. During iherefore the entire dibble whenever it descends into the ground: and as it protime occupied in its piercing the hole and being with- ceeds with the carriage while the dibble is at rest, it gives drawn from the soil, the dibble retains its perpendicu- this a motion round its rod to the extent of a quarter of a larity.
circle. When the rod rises, it clears the arms from the pin, * By an ingenious and simple contrivance, a slow rotatory which, at the next descent, meets with another arm ; and motion about its own axis is given to the dibble, by which thus a complete revolution is effected in four descents of means its point may be said to bore into the ground, thus the dibble assisting in the formation of the hole; and by the same ac- The valve consists of a cylinder d with a cavity sufficient to tion the dibble is cleared of any adhering soil, and the hole contain the required number of seeds to be deposited in ieft firm and clear.
each hole, a brush e to remove any superfluous seeds, and a The seed-valve consists of a cylinder, with a cavity in it recipient v in the form of a quadrant, in which they drop of dimensions sufficient to hold one or more seeds. This when the cylinder is suddenly turned half round on its cylinder is tumbled over, and the seed discharged into a re- axis. This is effected by a small crank fixed to the axis, cipient of the shape of a quadrant, from which it is pushed and connected by a rod r with the quadranto. The quadrant out, when the cylinder returns to its first position and takes itself moves round its centre x by means of a rod q which in 1 fresh supply. As this motion is sudden, the seed is connects it with the dibble, or with the crank, when the
dibble is not used; and the seed is dropped into the dibble- ! his father had been before him; and besides other appointho.e or the furrow when the quadrant is pushed back in ments," he afterwards received also the professorship at the its place. A rake and roller are attached to the implement Academia Bibarsia.* However, he was deprived of the to complete the operation.
latter appointment A.H. 906 (A.D. 1500), and when it was This may give some idea of this new machine, and if it offered him again, A.H. 909 (A.D. 1503), he refused it. He answer the expectations of the inventor, it will cause a died on the 18th Jomada I., A.H. 911 (17th Sept., A.D. 1505). great saving in the seed and labour of sowing, while it will The following list of such of his works as relate to medicine, deposit the seed much more regularly, and at an equal or have been published, is given by Wüstenfeld: 1, 'Codex depth.
Animalium,' an extract out of Demiri's Historia AnimaT'he stimulus which has been given to improvements in lium, with a sketch of the medical uses to be obtained from the implements and operations of husbandry by the estab- animals, and an appendix ; printed in Latin, with the title lishment of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, De Proprietatibus et Virtutibus Medicis Animalium, ed. will greatly increase the number of useful inventions by Abraham Ecchellensis, Paris, 1647; and again, with rewhich all the common operations will be simplified, and the marks by Jolin Eliot, London, 1649, or Leyden, 1699; 2, labour of the hands will be performed by machinery, where- 'Inscriptio Codicis de Nominibus Animalium,'a continuaever there is a deficiency of labourers or a great demand for tion of the former; 3, «Tractatus de Febre ejusque Speciethem in more profitable mechanical employments, and bus;' 4, 'Revelatio Nubis de Praestantia Febris; 5, Horwhere machinery, which works automatically and with cer- tus Mundus de Puritate à Menstruis ;' 6, Via Plana et tainly, becomes superior to manual dexterity.
Locus Adaequationis Irriguus, de Dictis, Factisque MoSOY. [SOJA.]
hammedis ad Medicinam Spectantibus;" 7, ‘Liber Classium SOYA, or SOWA, an umbelliferous plant cultivated in Virorum qui Korani et Traditionum Cognitione excellue India. It is the Anethum Sowa of Roxburgh, of which the aro- runt, Auctore Abu Abdalla Dahabio, in Epitomen coegit matic seed is much used by the natives in cookery, as well et continuavit Anonymus, e Cod. Goth.,' ed. H. F. Wüstenas for medicinal purposes; the green parts also are cut down, feld, Gottingae, 1833; the Anonymous author is Soyuti; 8, and sold in the bazars, as the plant is used as a vegetable Conversatio Pulchra de Historia Misrae et Cahirae; Frag both by Mussulmans and Hindus. The seeds are the shubit menta quaedam Auctore Gelal-eddino Sojuthensi e Cod. of Avicenna, which is usually translated Anethum ; by the Upsal. excerp. Car. Joh. Tornberg,' Upsaliae, 1834 ; 9, Arabs it seems to have been considered the Anethum : Sojutii Liber de Interpretibus Korani,' ed. Alb. Meursinge, (ävndov) of Dioscorides.
Lugdun. Batav., 1839. Wüstenfeld considers that the SOYMI'DA, a genus of plants of the natural family of work translated by Reynolds, with the title • History of the Meliacew, named by Adr. Jussieu from the Telinga name Temple of Jerusalem,' by Jalál Addin al-Siuti, Lond., 1836, of the tree, which was referred to Swietenia, and called s. 8vo., is not to be attributed to the subject of the present article. febrifuga by Dr. Roxburgh. This is a large forest-tree, a SOZO'MENUS, HERMIAS, called, by some, of Salamis native of the mountainous parts of the Rajahmundry Cir- in Cyprus, otherwise named Salamanes Hermias Sozome. cars, and likewise of the jungly parts in general of the nus, or Hermias, son of Sozomenus, church historian of central parts of India. The genus is characterised by calyx the fifth century, was born in Palestine, probably at Gaza. 5-leaved, imbricate. Petals 5, shortly clawed. Stamen He was educated in a monastery, and, after studying law at tube cup-shaped ; 10-lobed, each lobe bi-dentate at the Berytus, went to Constantinople, where he practised as an apex. Anthers 10, included within the tube and lodged advocate, and also wrote in Greek his 'Church History,' between the teeth of the lobes. Ovary 5-celled, seated on wbich consists of 9 books, and embraces a period of 117 a broad disk. Ovules numerous, pendulous from the centre years, from 323 to 439 A.D. He is superior to his contemof the cells. Style short, stigma peltate, 5.cornered. Cap- porary Socrates in his style, which is modelled upon that of sule woody, 5-celled, 5-valved. Seeds winged. The only Xenophon; but in other respects there is such a close respecies known attains a height of 80 feet, with abruptly semblance between the works, that Sozomen, who was the pinnate leaves. The inflorescence a large diffuse and ier- younger of the two, is supposed to have seen the work of minal panicle.
Socrates, and to have used it without acknowledgment. He This tree, which is called rohuna in Hindustan, is par- sometimes mentions facts that are not in Socrates, but ticularly noted on account of its bark. This is of a dull these are generally of little importance, and relate chiefly red colour, of a fibrous nature, and astringent, and has to the hermits and monks, of whom he expresses unbeen much employed in India for the cure of inter- bounded admiration. He is deficient in judgment, and mittent fevers. It was first introduced to public notice by makes many chronological errors. His ninth book relates Dr. Roxburgh in India, and by Dr. Duncan in this country, chiefly to political history. Sozomen lived in the reign of and is no doubt suited to the milder class of agues, but pro- Theodosius II., to whom he dedicates his History. He had bably is not to be depended on in the more severe affections previously written an epitome of church history from the of this nature.
ascension of Christ to the defeat of Licinius, which is not SOYU'TI, a philosopher, called by Wüstenfeld ("Ges- now extant. chichte der Arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscher,' 8vo.,
The history of Sozomen is printed with all the editions Göitingen, 1840, p. 156) Abul-Fadhil Abd el-Rahman Ben of Socrates. Abu Bekr Ben Mohammed Jelál ed-Din el-Soyuti, or (Valesius, De Vit. et Script. Socratis et Sozomeni ; Osyuti, was born on the 1st of Rajeb, A.H. 849 (2 October, Lardner's Credibility; Schoell's Geschichte der GriechisA D. 1445) at Cairo. He received a good education, so that chen Litteratur, vol. iii., p. 317.) in his fifteenth year he entered the academy, where he SPAA is a town in the province (formerly the bishopric) heard the most distinguished teachers, and at the same of Liege, in the kingdom of Belgium. It is situated in 50° time began to give instruction himself in some departments. | 30' N. lat. and 5° 50' E. long., on the banks of a rivulet, 25 He was most deeply versed in the exposition of the Korán, miles from Aix-la-Chapelle. It is in a deep valley, with the criticism of traditions, jurisprudence, and the syntax of pastures and corn-fields in the immediate vicinity, but surthe Arabic grammar. His studies embraced almost all the rounded at no great distance with steep richly wooded sciences; but he himself confesses that his knowledge of mountains, which exhibit a great variety of wild and romanmedicine was very slight and superficial, and to attempt to tic scenery. Though a small town, with fewer than 4000 solve a mathematical problem seemed to him as if he were inhabitants, it is celebrated throughout Europe for its obliged to carry a mountain : notwithstanding this, he com- medicinal springs, which were known to the Romans. posed some works on medical subjects. He was so volumi. They issue from the ground in more than four hunnous a writer, that the number of his writings is said to have dred places, but there are only six of any importamounted to 560; of these however some are said to have ance, of which the four principal are called Poúhon. Geconsisted of a single sheet, many were nothing more than a ronstère, Sauvenière, and Tonnelet; the two others are pamphlet, and others were only extracts and compilations Watroz aud Groesbeck. The Pouhon springs from the bill from larger works. His extensive learning is duly acknow- to the north of Spaa, but is conducted to the middle of the ledged by his contemporaries, but at the same time he is town, where it is made to issue from a fountain. The three jusily reproached for being too much taken up with himself, others are at some distance from the town; the Geronstère And thinking himself equally raised above the scholars of his is about a mile and a half distant. Peter the Great derived own time and his predecessors. Although on this account he had few friends, he succeeded in being appointed profes
* This is doubtiess the same as that called Daheriynh ly Makrizi, who
says that it was built in the street Bein-al-kasrein (between the two palaces') sor at the Academia Sheichunia, A.H. 872 (A.D 1467) as by Malek-al-Daher Bibars of the first or 'Tartar dynasty of Mamluke Sultané great benefit from the waters of this spring in 1717, | our thoughts set out from the former in an infinite number of which his physician left a written certificate, which is of different ways; from the latter, in only two. Tois is the carefully preserved. The Tonnelet is three-quarters of a law of thought, upon which it is useless to speculate : but mile and the Sauvenière half a league from Spaa. Here are it is followed by important consequences. As long as algethe cold baths, which are called plongeons. The strongest bra, the science of reasoning by symbols, was founded only on of these springs is the Pouhon, and the only one the water notions of arithmetic or succession, its ideas were not comof which is exported, which is to the amount of_150,000 petent to furnish explanation to all the results of its mebottles in a year. The waters are all chalybeate. They are chanical processes. As soon as the same rules were transdiuretic and exhilarating, more cooling than
common water, ferred to ideas of space, or made to spring from geometrical and they also more effectually allay thirst. They are chietly explanations, the mysteries of that science gradually recommended in mses of relaxation of the bowels, and like- vanished. wise in obstruction of the liver and other disorders. The town From space and time also we get the idea of infinity, a consists of four straight and wide streets, crossing each subject which has been already treated [INFINITE]; but only other at right angles, in the form of a cross. The inhabit in such a point of view, as would meet the objections of ants derive their chief support from the great intlux of those who cannot reason clearly on absolute infinity. That visitors who come to take the benefit of the waters during space and time are unbounded, is the simple consequence the season, which commences with the warm weather, and of their being necessary to our notion of the existence of continues about four months. The company, chiefly com- anything : we speak of our conceptions of them. For if it posed of great numbers of persons of rank and property could be imagined that space ceased at a certain boundary, from England, France, the Netherlands, and Germany, is it would be as easy to make it cease in our own neighboursuperior to the ordinary description of visitors at such hood; and if duraiion could be imagined to have an end, it watering-places, mingled hut occasionally, it is true, with would not be difficult to place ourselves in thought within adventurers, who seek to derive a harvest from gam- five minutes of that end." The denial of the possibility of bling, which is too often resorted to as a resource against our approaching the boundary of space or time in our ennui. There are however other means provided for the thoughts, is the same thing as the denial of the existence entertainment of the company, such as the public break of such a boundary; and the notion of infinity becomes a fast in the Vauxhall, one of the finest buildings of the relief from the incongruity of the attempt to conceive exkind on the Continent, the assembly-house, and the beau- istence stripped of its essential conditions. But it miglit be tiful public walks which connect the four springs. Two of asked, why not, as to space at least, consider real existing these walks are called La Prairie (or La Promenade) de extension, not as the object of our thougbts, but as it would Quatre Heures, and the other La Prairie (or La Promenade) exist if we were not alive to think? Is it, or is it not, plyde Sept Heures, those being the hours at which they are sically possible to go on for ever in space? If a person usually frequented. There is likewise a theatre. The adja- could provide himself with an unlimited supply of motivecent country abounds in game. It must be added that the power, air, heat, food, &c., must we, or must we not, say accommodations both at the hotels and in private lodgings that there is anything to hinder his travelling to all eterare generally good. The inhabitants manufacture elegant nity ? For ourselves, we should say there is clearly nothing painted and varnished articles, such as work-boxes, writing- to hinder ; but of course we cannot appeal to experiment, desks, teaboards, &c., for which there is a considerable and it may be only the impossibility of destroying our own demand, especially during the season. (Hassel; Stein; conception of space which Jictates an answer as to that exHörschelmann; Cannabich.)
ternal reality which, let metaphysicians say what they SPACE AND TIME. (Mathematics.) We do not please, can always be established by a wave of the hand. here propose to enter into any discussion of the doctrines of We should have supposed that, mysterious as the connecmetaphysicians upon the idea of space, or whether it is innate tion may be between the external world and our impresor acquired. Space and time are essential to thought, and sions of it, the possibility of really infinite external space are, come by the notions how we may, necessary attendants would be admitted by any one, unless he held the metaon our own consciousness of existence. It is possible for physical system of BERKELEY, which denies the necessity imagination to picture the annihilation of all things, itself in- of any external substratum of our conceptions, and substicluded, or to fancy that it can form such a picture, which is the tutes the direct agency of the Creator; and we should have same thing ; but what then would remain (in the thoughts)? thought it impossible to maintain the necessary finitude of Infinitely extended empty space, lasting through infinitely matter, without also maintaining the same of real external extended time. Existence of space and successions of ex- space. Nevertheless, to show how differently these subjects istence we may defy the speculator to deprive himself of for strike different persons, we quote the following from a one moment. The greatest proof we have of our ignorance recent dissertation of an eminent writer: 'Every real, existof the Creator of all things is the absolute impossibility ing, material body must enjoy that indefeasible attribute of which we find of making ihe necessity of his existence as body, viz. definite place. Now place is defined by direction real a conception of our minds as that of space or time. and distance from a fixed point. Every body therefore The most religious man will read with pleasure a work on which does exist, exists at a certain definite distance from natural theology tending to prove that there must be a God; us, and at no other, either more or less. The distance of but who would bear ten pages of a serious attempt to de- every individual body in the universe from us is therefore monstate the existence of space and time ?
necessarily admitted to be finite. Now it will hardly be In these ideas we have the foundation of the mathema- denied that the space which a body fills is as real and existtical sciences; for from space follows form, which is the ent as the body itself, and this whether so occupied or not. conception of the manner in which one part of space Leave out the word material in the above, and for · body' is separated from the rest, and from the investigation of read part of space,' and the argument remains as good as forms arises geometry. Again, time is only apprehended before, ending with a denial of the infinity of space. Every by succession of events or ideas, and succession or repetition assignable body is at a finite distance from us; but this is a gives the notion of numbering. And though collection is truism contained in the meaning of the word assignable. sometimes stated to be the leading idea in number, which But who is therefore to deny the following ? Name any may be the fact, yet it may be asserted that number in the distance, however great; maiter exists at still greater dislast sense is not the object of arithmetic, except as furnishing tances. the subject of numbering. The leading phrases of arith- If we estimate the reality of a conception by its necessity, metic suggest the idea of time, and are derived from it. How which is what we do when we settle the pre-eminence of often is 2 contained in 12 ? Six times. The 2 presented to space and time among our ideas, then it is certain that the the thoughts at six different times is the mode in which the conception of infinity is as real as that of space or time, collection of 12 is counted by twos.
being essentially united with them. Many mathematicians From both space and time we get the notion of direction, try to deny this, and substitute various modes of speaking but in very different manners. The extremities of a por- to avoid the introduction of the idea. It is true that the tion of space give the idea of a point of space, a fundamen- notion of infinite is one which it is difficult to use without tal notion of an indivisible index of commencement or ter- falling into error; a very good reason for avoiding it until mination. The extremities of time give the notion of points the understanding has been well practised in mathematical of time, or indivisible portions of duration. No point of deduction, but none for denying its existence. Why say space contains any space; no point of time lasts any time. that the notion of infinity arises from our not being able to If we choose a point of space or a point of time, we can in assign a limit, when we know that we feel something more P. C., No. 1394.