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4to., 1600, 4to., 1620, 1630, 1634, 12mo.; The Triumph over | published a 'Commentary on the Lusiad,' which is interesting Death,' 1595, 1596; A Short Rule of Good Life, 8vo.; for the same cause as his treatises, and which Bouterwek 'Mary Magdalen's Funeral Tears,' 1609; Epistle of Com- thinks a production more calculated to obscure than illusfort to those Catholics who lie under Restraint,' 1605, 8vo. ; trate the original.' Souza's works are:-1,Discursos MoPeter's Complaint,' Mary Magdalen's Tears,' and the rales y Politicos,' Madrid, 1623; 2, Commentarios sobre Triumph over Death,' were printed together in 8vo., la Lusiada,' 1639; 3, Defensa por los Commentarios sobre London, 1620. la Lusiada,' 1640; 4, Rimas varias de Luis de Camoes, commentados por Manuel de Faria y Souza,' Lisbon, 1685; 5, Epitome de las Historias Portuguesas, 1626; 6, 'Europea Portugesa,' 1666; 7, Imperio de la China, y Cultura Evangelica por los Religiosos de la Compañia de Jesus,' 1643; 8, Fuente de Aganipe, varias Rimas,' 1646. (Bouterwek, Hist. of Port. Lit.; Heyse, Grundriss einer Gesch. der Port. Lit.; Biog. Universelle; Sismondi, Lit. du Midi.)



SOUTHWELL, NATHANIEL, became a Jesuit in 1624, and twenty-four years afterwards was made secretary to the general of the Order, which office he held during seventeen years. He died at Rome in 1676, in which year he published his continuation of the Jesuits' Library, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Societatis Jesu, Opus inchoatum à R.P. Petro Ribadeneira, et productum ad Annum 1609; continuatum à Philippo Alegambe ad Annum 1643; recognitum et productum ad Annum 1675, à Nathanaelo Sotwello,' Rome, 1676, folio. Southwell's continuation is considered inferior to that of Alegambe. The work was afterwards continued by Oudin, who commenced his task in 1733, and performed it to the general satisfaction of the Society.


SOUZA, MANUEL FARIA E, was born at Souto in Portugal, 1590, of a noble and antient family. He manifested great precocity, and when nine years old was sent to the university of Braga, where he distinguished himself. In 1605 he was taken as secretary by one of his powerful relations, and then commenced his diplomatic education. In 1618 he married and went to Madrid; but though well recommended, his rough manner hindered his advancement at court. In 1632 he was sent on an embassy, under the Marquis Castel Rodrigo, to Rome, where his learning attracted the attention of Urban VIII. and the men of letters at the pontifical court. Having some quarrel with the marquis, he quitted him and returned to Spain; but he was arrested at Barcelona by order of the marquis, and was only released by the powerful intercession of some friends. He then renounced politics, and devoted himself exclusively to literature. Such was his activity, that he himself states that he daily wrote forty-eight pages, each page containing thirty lines; and he possessed such rhetorical facility, that in one day he could compose a hundred addresses of congratulation and condolence, all different from each other. (Bouterwek, Hist. of Port. Lit., 278.) He obtained a small pension from Philip IV. and the cross of chevalier; but to his pen he trusted for subsistence. He died in 1649, at Madrid. His manners were very eccentric, and his dress the same; neither the entreaties of his wife nor of his friends could prevail on him to cut off the immense beard which disfigured him. He was proud, independent, and vehement, but affectionate and amiable.


As a poet, Souza ranks high in Portugal, though most of his works are written in Spanish; but his works are little relished by foreigners, nor have they been translated. His talents were vitiated by the bad taste of the age. He was but a reflex of the extravagancies and conceits of Lope de Vega, Marino, and Gongora. Prodigious facility and fertility of images and rhymes he certainly displays, but they are of themselves vices when not corrected by a refined judgment. Most of his ideas are intolerably fantastic, as where he speaks of the ten lucid arrows of crystal which were darted from his Albania's eyes, which produced a rubious effect on his pain, though the cause was crystal

line :'

Flechando de sus manos peregrinas,
De cristal diez luzientes passadores,
De rubi fue el efeto en mis dolores
Si de Albania las causas cristalinas.'

And yet he sometimes hits a very fanciful image, as where he says of his mistress's eyes, Love has written my fate in the beauty of those eyes, which are as large as my pain and dark as my destiny:'

Ojos, en cuya hermosura Cifrò mi suerte el Amor, Grandes como mi dolor, Negros como mi ventura.'

But when we add that he wrote six hundred sonnets, Desides eclogues, and all in this strained fanciful style, it may be conceived how tedious his works become.

As a critic he has been long revered as an oracle, de ser venerado por Oraculo,' says Machado; but an inspection of his treatises on the sonnet and on poetry will show the worthlessness of them. They are curious evidences of what a nation will consent to as regards criticism. Souza also

SOUZA, JEAN DE, born at Damascus in Syria, 1730, of Roman Catholic parents. He came to Lisbon with some French Capuchins in 1750, and was there protected by the house of Saldanha. Gaspar Saldanha presented him to the Marquis of Pombal, who appointed him as interpreter and secretary to the embassy which Joseph I. sent in 1773 to the emperor of Marocco. He was often employed in such negociations, and always acquitted himself with credit. The queen having founded a chair for the Arabic language in the University, she named Souza professor, and he composed for it the Grammar which is still in use. He was made correspondent of the Royal Academy of Sciences, and retiring to the convent of Jesus, died there January 29th, 1812. (Biographie Universelle.)

SOUZA-BOTELHO, DOM JOSE-MARIA, born at Oporto, 9th March, 1758. His father was governor-general of the province of St. Paul in Brazil. Souza was educated at the university of Coimbra, and in 1778 he entered the army, where he served till 1791. He was then nominated ambassador-plenipotentiary to Sweden. From Stockholm he passed in 1795 to Copenhagen in the same capacity. His father's death recalled him in 1799 to Lisbon. He was next sent on a mission to England, but the object of his mission was frustrated by the French not admitting him to the congress at Amiens in order to look after the interests of Portugal. On the general peace in 1802, Souza went to France as plenipotentiary, and stayed there till 1805, where he had every possible exercise for his diplomatic ingenuity. It was a perilous position; and, disgusted with public affairs, he resolved to confine his attention to literature, for which he had always manifested a strong disposition. Camoens, the pride of Portugal, had ever been his favourite author, and he resolved on producing an edition of his works which should be a lasting monument. He spared neither time, trouble, nor expense. He corresponded with all the learned, and after twelve years' labour he had the satisfaction of completing it in 1818. He prefixed a dedication to the king of Portugal, a mass of curious bibliographical researches, and a critique on Camoens, where in his editorial enthusiasm he extols Camoens over all modern poets, and even implies that he equals Homer and Virgil. He formed the project of writing a History of Portugal, but his declining health only allowed him to finish some fragments of it. He died in 1819. (Biographie des Contemporains; Heyse, Grundriss, &c.; Biog. Univ.) SOVEREIGN. [MONEY.]

SOVEREIGNTY. Supranus is a low Latin word, formed from supra, like subtranus, another low Latin word, formed from subtra. (Ducange in vv.) These words however, though they do not belong to classical Latinity, are formed according to the same analogy as the classical word supernus from super. From supranus have been derived the Italian soprano or sovrano, and the French souverain, from the latter of which has been borrowed the

English word sovereign. In the old English writers the word is correctly spelt soverain or soverein (Richardson in v.); the received orthography seems to be founded on the erroneous supposition that the last syllable of the word is connected with reign, regnum. Milton spells the word sovran, deriving it from the Italian; but it passed into our language from the French.

Having explained the etymology of the word sovereign, and its derivative, sovereignty, we proceed to consider the meaning of the term sovereignty as it is understood by political and juridical writers.

In every society, not being in a state of nature or a state of anarchy [ANARCHY], some person or persons must pos sess the supreme or sovereign power.

The marks by which the possession of the sovereign | thus also protects them from the voracity of birds or insects, power may be distinguished are mainly two, the one posi- he will have a much greater prospect of success, under all tive and the other negative; viz.: circumstances, than if he were careless or negligent.

1. A habit of obedience to some determinate person or persons, by the community which he or they affect to govern.

2. The absence of a habit of obedience, on the part of the same person or persons, to any person or govern


The most common mode of sowing the seed is by scattering it as evenly as possible over the ploughed surface, as it lies in ridges from the plough. The harrows follow, and crumbling down the ridges, cover the seed which has fallen in the hollows between them. It requires an experienced sower to scatter the exact quantity over a given surface, without crowding the seed in one spot, and allowing too great intervals in another. Hence the farmer who does not himself sow the seed, invariably chooses the most experienced and skilful labourer to perform this work. Notwithstanding every care and attention on the part of the farmer or master, the labourer will often relax and become careless, and the result appears only when it is too late to remedy it. This has given rise to the various attempts which have been made to invent machines for sowing the seed, such as should insure perfect regularity. Of so some of these we will now give a short account.

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Whenever these two marks meet in any person or body of persons, such person or body possesses the sovereign power; on the other hand, if either of the two marks be wanting, the person or body is not sovereign. For example, the local government of Jamaica or Sydney, being in the habit of obeying the English parliament, is not a sovereign or supreme government whereas the government of Tuscany, or the States of the Church, although it may occasionally defer to the wishes of Austria, is not in a habit of obedience to that or any other state, and therefore is a sovereign government. Again, a body of persons calling themselves a government, but unable through their weakness to secure the habitual obedience of the people, are not sovereign, and would not be recognised as a sovereign govern-line ment by foreign states.

Inasmuch as it is impossible to fix the precise moment at which a habit of obedience to a foreign government ceases, it is difficult for foreign states to determine when they will recognise the sovereignty of a territory, once dependent, which has achieved its independence.

One of the simplest of these machines consisted in a hollow cylinder, with one or more rows of holes in a parallel to the axis. These holes can be stopped in part if required. The seed is put into the cylinder, the length of which is equal to the width of the land, or stitch, which it is desired to sow at a time. By shaking this when held horizontally and at right angles to the path of the sower, the seed is scattered with considerable regularity: one inconvenience of this instrument is that it requires to The sovereign powers include all the powers which can be filled frequently, and that much still depends on the attenbe exercised by a government. They include the legislation of the operator. Accordingly it was very soon laid by. tive power, the executive power, the power of making The idea however was followed up and improved upon in privilegia [LAW; LEGISLATION], the power of declaring the sowing-barrow, an instrument still extensively used for peace and war, the power of concluding treaties with foreign sowing grass-seeds. It consists of a wooden trough placed states, and the power of instituting inquiries. on the frame of a light wheelbarrow. An iron spindle, furnished with circular brushes at regular intervals, runs the whole length of the trough, and is turned by means of simple machinery connected with the wheel. Opposite each brush is a brass plate, with holes of different sizes, which can be partly closed by means of a circular slide. According to the size of the seed to be sown and the quantity to be scattered, the hoies are opened or shut. The seed is put into the trough, which has a cover or lid; and by merely wheeling the barrow in a straight line, a breadth is sown equal to the length of the trough, usually 12 or 15 feet. But this machine cannot conveniently be used in windy weather, which disperses the seeds irregularly; and it is very little superior to sowing by the hand, except in the case of small seeds, which cannot so well be spread evenly by the hand.

The sovereign power is unlimited by any legal check or control. The securities for its beneficial exercise are derived exclusively from the balance of interests and the influence of public opinion.

Sovereign or supreme governments are divided into MoNARCHIES and REPUBLICS; and REPUBLICS are divided into ARISTOCRACIES and DEMOCRACIES.


It is commonly, but erroneously, thought that the sovereignty resides in every person who bears the name of king; in other words, that every king is a monarch. cordingly those kingdoms in which the king is not strictly a monarch are called 'limited monarchies; and the king is supposed to be a sovereign whose power is checked or controlled by certain popular bodies; whereas, in truth, the Sovereignty is divided between the king and the popular body, and the former does not possess the entire sovereignty. This subject is further explained in MONARCHY and ROYALTY.

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SOW-THISTLE. [SONCHUS.] SOWING AND SOWING-MACHINES. The sowing of the seed has always been looked upon as one of the most important operations of husbandry. Much of the success of the future crops depends on the time and the mode in which the seed is committed to the earth. After the land has been well prepared by judicious tillage and manuring, many accidents and circumstances may disappoint the hope of the farmer, and the crop may be scanty or fail altogether. The weather and the seasons are not under his control, and he must submit to the dispensations of Providence with pious resignation; but much also depends on his own judgment and skill. If he selects the best seeds chooses the proper season for sowing them, and has them carefully distributed and properly covered with earth, as their nature requires for the most perfect germination, and

The drill husbandry has suggested other more complicated machines, of which some account will be found in the article DRILL. The principle of these is to deliver the seed by means of funnels, each corresponding to a small furrow made by a coulter placed immediately before the funnel; and some of these machines perform the work very regularly and satisfactorily. As the inequalities of the ground require that the coulters should move up or down, to allow for these inequalities, the seed cannot be accurately deposited at a given depth; and some improvement in the mode of drilling is yet desirable, and has in some measure been effected. The patent lever-drill in common use is very imperfect in its work, and the remedy lies in the greater attention to the preparation of the surface. When this is effected, the levers may be set aside, and a much simpler drill, such as was used at first, may replace it. The object is to make furrows of equal depth in which to deposit the seed, and to cover this uniformly. The land must consequently be more carefully prepared by repeated harrowing and rolling, till the surface resembles the seed-beds in a garden. A simple drill, which makes equidistant furrows at a given depth, in which the seed drops regularly, will then do better work than a more complicated machine; but if still greater accuracy and perfection are desired, the dibble must be had recourse to. No one will deny that seed deposited by means of a dibble is distributed more equally and covered with a more equal depth of soil than by any other means, and that there is a great economy of seed in this mode of sowing: but the slowness of the operation, and the number of hands it would require to dibble all the seed on a large farm, have prevented its being very generally adopted. [ARABLE LAND. Many attempts have been made to invent machines to imitate the work done by hand in dibbling, and hitherte

with no marked success, owing chiefly to the difficulty of clearing the dibbles from the adhering soil, and making a clean hole, and also of letting the seed fall exactly in the dibble-holes. Several patents have lately been taken out for dibbling-machines, of which we shall only notice three. The first machine consists of large hollow disks, armed at the circumference with blunt projections or knobs, which make a depression in the surface as the disk revolves: these knobs are hollow, and open by one half sliding upwards as the knob leaves the depression it has made. The seed which has been deposited in the hollow knob falls into the hole. This machine is said to do its work well, and was exhibited at the meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society at Liverpool, in 1841.

The next is Bradshaw's patent, which is not so generally known, having only been tried by the inventor and his friends. Here the dibbles are moved up and down by means of a crank or excentric circle, and are twisted in the ground by means of a projection from the shank of the dibble, which is connected with the frame of the machine; and when the dibble is moved by the crank, the rod is twisted by the difference in the motion of the crank and the machine. The seed is delivered by means of a cylinder with cavities in its surface, which revolves very near the ground, the seed being kept in these cavities by a leather belt, which only lets them out at the lowest part.

The last, of which the specification was only enrolled the 25th Nov., 1841, and is somewhat on the same principle, was invented by the Rev. W. L. Rham, of Winkfield, Berkshire. This machine, which was exhibited at the meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society of England at Liverpool, in 1841, is thus noticed by the judges of the implements appointed by that Society :

The Rev. W. L. Rham, of Winkfield, Berkshire, exhibited an implement, the principal object of which is to extend and improve the system of drilling and dibbling wheat, beans, &c. It is chiefly in its latter capacity, as a dibbler of seed and manure, that we shall attempt to give a slight description of it. The operative part of the machine is suspended upon an iron carriage having four wheels, the two hinder ones being fast upon their axle and turning with it. On this axle is a spur-wheel, giving motion to a pinion on an intermediary axle, which carries a wheel geared into a second pinion fixed on its axis, having six cranks arranged spirally. The velocity given to the axis is such that the cranks make one revolution for every six inches of the circumference of the hind wheels, or whatever is the distance desired between dibble-holes. The radius of each crank is such that this distance shall be equal to the circumference described by one revolution. Thus the space described by every crank coincides with that passed over in the same time by the hind wheels; and as the cranks turn, during the half of a revolution, in an opposite direction to that of the wheels, the result of this compound motion is a pause or rest of short duration, at the point where the crank in its rotation commences to retrograde from the line of progress of the machine, i.e. at the lowest point, and when the dibbles are in the ground. The crank raises the dibbles up and down by means of connecting rods and levers, which double the vertical without increasing the horizontal motion; and in order that the point, when in the ground, may be perfectly stationary, it is made the centre of motion while the machine progresses; and to enable it to retain that position for a sufficient length of time for the purpose of leaving a hole truly vertical, the dibbles move between checks in the rod which connects it with the crank, and which has a spring to restore it quickly to its proper place as it rises out of the ground. During therefore the entire time occupied in its piercing the hole and being withdrawn from the soil, the dibble retains its perpendicularity. By an ingenious and simple contrivance, a slow rotatory motion about its own axis is given to the dibble, by which means its point may be said to bore into the ground, thus assisting in the formation of the hole; and by the same action the dibble is cleared of any adhering soil, and the hole reft firm and clear.

The seed-valve consists of a cylinder, with a cavity in it of dimensions sufficient to hold one or more seeds. This cylinder is tumbled over, and the seed discharged into a recipient of the shape of a quadrant, from which it is pushed out, when the cylinder returns to its first position and takes in fresh supply. As this motion is sudden, the seed is

surely delivered, even when rather damp: when the cylin der is delivering, the quadrant is receiving, and vice versa. The delivery of manure is effected by a similar apparatus only of a larger size, the valves being furnished with brushes or other means to remove the superfluity.

'The valves are connected with the dibbles in such a manner as to deposit the manure and seed in the hole last formed, whilst the dibbles are stationary in the advancing one. The dibbles bore their holes in shallow drills made by the pressure and sliding action of an iron shoe shaped like a boat, and forming a smooth furrow.

The whole of the machinery is supported by an iron frame, one end of which rests on trunnions attached to a projecting part of the back of the carriage. It is suspended at the other end by a cross shaft carrying two pinions, working in arcs of circles fixed on the frame, so that it can be raised or depressed at pleasure, or elevated clear of the ground by one turn of a winch. At the same time, the pinion connecting the machinery with the hind wheels is put out of gear, and the whole can be moved about on the carriage. The implement is steered in a manner somewhat similar to Lord Western's drill.

The object of the Rev. gentleman in contriving this original and singularly ingenious implement has been to imitate the more minute and certain manipulations of the gardener; and so to adapt his machinery to the drilling and dibbling of seed upon land previously laid flat and well prepared, that every field, however extensive, should present the neatness and regularity of a highly-finished garden.

The distinguishing peculiarities of this remarkable piece of mechanism are the arrangements for the dibbles to bore holes, causing them to be perpendicular and truly cylindri cal, and the apparatus for giving certainty to the valves in receiving and delivering the manure.'

In order to render the above highly commendatory report of the judges more intelligible to those who have not seen this implement, we will add a slight diagram to explain the most essential parts.

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ACB is a lever, whose fulcrum is at A; BG the rod of the dibble M, which turns on it by means of a socket; CDE is the rod which communicates the motion to the lever ACB, by means of the crank LE moved by the machinery. KD is a rod connecting the crank with the rod of the dibble and having a slit or cheeks in which this rod moves. F is the spring which keeps the rod in its place when the dibble is out of the ground. ab is an iron plate with a slit or cheeks to keep the dibble from swerving from the line of the furrow made by the shoe. c is a pin projecting upwards from this plate and bent at its upper end. This pin meets one of four arms projecting horizontally from the shank of the dibble whenever it descends into the ground: and as it proceeds with the carriage while the dibble is at rest, it gives this a motion round its rod to the extent of a quarter of a circle. When the rod rises, it clears the arms from the pin, which, at the next descent, meets with another arm; and thus a complete revolution is effected in four descents of the dibble

The valve consists of a cylinder d with a cavity sufficient to contain the required number of seeds to be deposited in each hole, a brush e to remove any superfluous seeds, and a recipient in the form of a quadrant, in which they drop when the cylinder is suddenly turned half round on its axis. This is effected by a small crank fixed to the axis, and connected by a rod r with the quadrant v. The quadrant itself moves round its centre x by means of a rod`q which connects it with the dibble, or with the crank, when the

dibble is not used; and the seed is dropped into the dibblehole or the furrow when the quadrant is pushed back in its place. A rake and roller are attached to the implement to complete the operation.

This may give some idea of this new machine, and if it answer the expectations of the inventor, it will cause a great saving in the seed and labour of sowing, while it will deposit the seed much more regularly, and at an equal depth.

his father had been before him; and besides other appointments, he afterwards received also the professorship at the Academia Bibarsia.* However, he was deprived of the latter appointment A.H. 906 (A.D. 1500), and when it was offered him again, A.H. 909 (A.D. 1503), he refused it. He died on the 18th Jomada I., A.H. 911 (17th Sept., A.D. 1505). The following list of such of his works as relate to medicine, or have been published, is given by Wüstenfeld: 1, 'Codex Animalium,' an extract out of Demiri's Historia Animalium, with a sketch of the medical uses to be obtained from animals, and au appendix; printed in Latin, with the title De Proprietatibus et l'irtutibus Medicis Animalium, ed. Abraham Ecchellensis, Paris, 1647; and again, with remarks by John Eliot, London, 1649, or Leyden, 1699; 2, Inscriptio Codicis de Nominibus Animalium,' a continuation of the former; 3, Tractatus de Febre ejusque Speciebus; 4, Revelatio Nubis de Praestantia Febris; 5, Hortus Mundus de Puritate à Menstruis; 6, Via Plana et Locus Adaequationis Irriguus, de Dictis, Factisque Mohammedis ad Medicinam Spectantibus;' 7, Liber Classium Virorum qui Korani et Traditionum Cognitione excellue runt, Auctore Abu Abdalla Dahabio, in Epitomen coegit et continuavit Anonymus, e Cod. Goth.,' ed. H. F. Wüstenfeld, Gottingae, 1833; the Anonymous author is Soyuti; 8, 'Conversatio Pulchra de Historia Misrae et Cahirae; Frag menta quaedam Auctore Gelal-eddino Sojuthensi e Cod. Upsal. excerp. Car. Joh. Tornberg,' Upsaliae, 1834; 9, Sojutii Liber de Interpretibus Korani,' ed. Alb. Meursinge, Lugdun. Batav., 1839. Wüstenfeld considers that the work translated by Reynolds, with the title History of the Temple of Jerusalem,' by Jalál Addin al-Siuti, Lond., 1836, 8vo., is not to be attributed to the subject of the present article. SOZO'MENUS, HERMIAS, called, by some, of Salamis in Cyprus, otherwise named Salamanes Hermias Sozomenus, or Hermias, son of Sozomenus, a church historian of the fifth century, was born in Palestine, probably at Gaza. He was educated in a monastery, and, after studying law at Berytus, went to Constantinople, where he practised as an advocate, and also wrote in Greek his 'Church History,' which consists of 9 books, and embraces a period of 117 years, from 323 to 439 A.D. He is superior to his contemporary Socrates in his style, which is modelled upon that of Xenophon; but in other respects there is such a close resemblance between the works, that Sozomen, who was the younger of the two, is supposed to have seen the work of Socrates, and to have used it without acknowledgment. He sometimes mentions facts that are not in Socrates, but these are generally of little importance, and relate chiefly to the hermits and monks, of whom he expresses unbounded admiration. He is deficient in judgment, and makes many chronological errors. His ninth book relates chiefly to political history. Sozomen lived in the reign of Theodosius II., to whom he dedicates his History. He had previously written an epitome of church history from the ascension of Christ to the defeat of Licinius, which is not now extant.

The history of Sozomen is printed with all the editions of Socrates.

(Valesius. De Vit. et Script. Socratis et Sozomeni; Lardner's Credibility; Schoell's Geschichte der Griechischen Litteratur, vol. iii., p. 317.)

SPAA is a town in the province (formerly the bishopric) of Liege, in the kingdom of Belgium. It is situated in 50° 30' N. lat. and 5° 50' E. long., on the banks of a rivulet, 25 miles from Aix-la-Chapelle. It is in a deep valley, with pastures and corn-fields in the immediate vicinity, but surrounded at no great distance with steep richly wooded mountains, which exhibit a great variety of wild and romantie scenery. Though a small town, with fewer than 4000 inhabitants, it is celebrated throughout Europe for its medicinal springs, which were known to the Romans. They issue from the ground in more than four hundred places, but there are only six of any importance, of which the four principal are called Pouhon, Geronstère, Sauvenière, and Tonnelet; the two others are Watroz and Groesbeck. The Pouhon springs from the hill to the north of Spaa, but is conducted to the middle of the town, where it is made to issue from a fountain. The three others are at some distance from the town; the Geronstère is about a mile and a half distant. Peter the Great derived

The stimulus which has been given to improvements in the implements and operations of husbandry by the establishment of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, will greatly increase the number of useful inventions by which all the common operations will be simplified, and the labour of the hands will be performed by machinery, whereever there is a deficiency of labourers or a great demand for them in more profitable mechanical employments, and where machinery, which works automatically and with certainty, becomes superior to manual dexterity.


SOYA, or SOWA, an umbelliferous plant cultivated in India. It is the Anethum Sowa of Roxburgh, of which the aromatic seed is much used by the natives in cookery, as well as for medicinal purposes; the green parts also are cut down, and sold in the bazars, as the plant is used as a vegetable both by Mussulmans and Hindus. The seeds are the shubit of Avicenna, which is usually translated Anethum; by the Arabs it seems to have been considered the Anethum (ävηlov) of Dioscorides.

SOYMI'DA, a genus of plants of the natural family of Meliacea, named by Adr. Jussieu from the Telinga name of the tree, which was referred to Swietenia, and called S. febrifuga by Dr. Roxburgh. This is a large forest-tree, a native of the mountainous parts of the Rajahmundry Circars, and likewise of the jungly parts in general of the central parts of India. The genus is characterised by calyx 5-leaved, imbricate. Petals 5, shortly clawed. Stamen tube cup shaped; 10-lobed, each lobe bi-dentate at the apex. Anthers 10, included within the tube and lodged between the teeth of the lobes. Ovary 5-celled, seated on a broad disk. Ovules numerous, pendulous from the centre of the cells. Style short, stigma peltate, 5-cornered. Capsule woody, 5-celled, 5-valved. Seeds winged. The only species known attains a height of 80 feet, with abruptly pinnate leaves. The inflorescence a large diffuse and terminal panicle.

This tree, which is called rohung in Hindustan, is particularly noted on account of its bark. This is of a dull red colour, of a fibrous nature, and astringent, and has been much employed in India for the cure of intermittent fevers. It was first introduced to public notice by Dr. Roxburgh in India, and by Dr. Duncan in this country, and is no doubt suited to the milder class of agues, but probably is not to be depended on in the more severe affections of this nature.

SOYUTI, a philosopher, called by Wüstenfeld (Geschichte der Arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscher,' 8vo., Göttingen, 1840, p. 156) Abul-Fadhl Abd el-Rahman Ben Abu Bekr Ben Mohammed Jelál ed-Din el-Soyuti, or Osyuti, was born on the 1st of Rajeb, A.H. 849 (2 October, A D. 1445) at Cairo. He received a good education, so that in his fifteenth year he entered the academy, where he heard the most distinguished teachers, and at the same time began to give instruction himself in some departments. He was most deeply versed in the exposition of the Korán, the criticism of traditions, jurisprudence, and the syntax of the Arabic grammar. His studies embraced almost all the sciences; but he himself confesses that his knowledge of medicine was very slight and superficial, and to attempt to solve a mathematical problem seemed to him as if he were obliged to carry a mountain: notwithstanding this, he composed some works on medical subjects. He was so voluminous a writer, that the number of his writings is said to have amounted to 560; of these however some are said to have consisted of a single sheet, many were nothing more than a pamphlet, and others were only extracts and compilations from larger works. His extensive learning is duly acknowledged by his contemporaries, but at the same time he is justly reproached for being too much taken up with himself, and thinking himself equally raised above the scholars of his own time and his predecessors. Although on this account he had few friends, he succeeded in being appointed professor at the Academia Sheichunia, A.H. 872 (A.D 1467) as

This is doubtless the same as that called Daheriyah by Makrizi, who says that it was built in the street. Bein-al-kasrein ( between the two palaces') by Malek-al-Daher Bibars of the first or Tartar dynasty of Mamluke Sultan

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great benefit from the waters of this spring in 1717. | our thoughts set out from the former in an infinite number of which his physician left a written certificate, which is of different ways ; from the latter, in only two. This is the carefully preserved. The Tonnelet is three-quarters of a law of thought, upon which it is useless to speculate : but mile and the Sauvenière halfa league from Spaa. Here are it is followed by important consequences. As long as algethe cold baths, which are called plongeons. The strongest bra, the science of reasoning by symbols, was founded only on of these springs is the Pouhon, and the only one the water notions of arithmetic or succession, its ideas were not comof which is exported, which is to the amount of 150,000 | petent to furnish explanation to all the results of its mebottles in a year. The waters are all chalybeate. They are chanical processes. As soon as the same rules were transdiuretic and exhilarating, more cooling than common water, ferred to ideas of space, or made to spring from geometrical and they also more effectually allay thirst. They are chietly explanations, the mysteries of that science gradually recommended in cases of relaxation of the bowels, and like- vanished. wise in obstruction of the liver and other disorders. The town From space and time also we get the idea of infinity, a consists of four straight and wide streets, crossing each subject which has been already treated [INFINITE); but only other at right angles, in the form of a cross. The inhabit in such a point of view, as would meet the objections of ants derive their chief support from the great influx of those who cannot reason clearly on absolute infinity. That visitors who come to take the benefit of the waters during space and time are unboundei, is the simple consequence the season, which commences with the warm weather, and of their being necessary to our notion of the existence of continues about four months. The company, chiefly com- anything : we speak of our conceptions of them. For if it posed of great numbers of persons of rank and property could be imagined that space ceased at a certain boundary, from England, France, the Netherlands, and Germany, is it would be as easy to make it cease in our own neighboursuperior to the ordinary description of visitors at such hood; and if duraiion could be imagmed to have an end, it watering-places, mingled hut occasionally, it is true, with would not be difficult to place ourselves in thought within adventurers, who seek to derive a harvest from gam- five minutes of that end.' The denial of the possibility of bling, which is too often resorted to as a resource against our approaching the boundary of space or time in our ennui. There are however other means provided for the thoughts, is the same thing as the denial of the existence entertainment of the company, such as the public break of such a boundary; and the notion of infinity beconies a fast in the Vauxhall, one of the finest buildings of the relief from the incongruity of the attempt to conceive exkind on the Continent, the assembly-house, and ihe beau- istence stripped of its essential conditions. But it might be tiful public walks which connect the four springs. Two of asked, why not, as to space at least, consider real existing these walks are called La Prairie (or La Promenade) de extension, not as the object of our thoughts, but as it would Quatre Heures, and the other La Prairie (or La Promenade) exist if we were not alive to think? Is it, or is it not, plyde Sept Heures, those being the hours at which they are sically possible to go on for ever in space? If a person usually frequented. There is likewise a theatre. The adja- could provide himself with an unlimited supply of motivecent country abounds in game. It must be added that the power, air, heat, food, &c., must we, or must we not, say accommodations both at the hotels and in private lodgings that there is anything to hinder his travelling to all eterare generally good. The inhabitants manufacture elegant nity ? For ourselves, we should say there is clearly nothing painted and varnished articles, such as work-boxes, writing to hinder ; but of course we cannot appeal to experiment, desks, teaboards, &c., for which there is a considerable and it may be only the impossibility of destroying our own demand, especially during the season. (Hassel; Stein; conception of space which lictates an answer as to that exHörschelmann; Cannabich.)

ternal reality which, let metaphysicians say what they SPACE AND TIME. (Mathematics.) We do not please, can always be established by a wave of the hand. here propose to enter into any discussion of the doctrines of We should have supposed that, mysterious as the connecmetaphysicians upon the idea of space, or whether it is innate tion may be between the external world and our impresor acquired. Space and time are essential to thought, and sions of it, the possibility of really infinite external space are, come by the notions how we may, necessary attendants would be admitted by any one, unless he beld the metaon our own consciousness of existence. It is possible for physical system of BERKELEY, which denies the necessity imagination to picture the annihilation of all things, itself in- of any external substratum of our conceptions, and substicluded, or to fancy that it can form such a picture, which is the tutes the direct agency of the Creator; and we should have same thing ; but what then would remain (in the thoughts)? thought it impossible to maintain the necessary finitude of Infinitely extended empty space, lasting through infinitely matter, without also maintaining the same of real external extended time. Existence of space and successions of ex- space. Nevertheless, to show how differently these subjects istence we may defy the speculator to deprive himself of for strike different persons, we quote the following from a one moment. The greatest proof we have of our ignorance recent dissertation of an eminent writer: ‘Every real, existof the Creator of all things is the absolute impossibility ing, material body must enjoy that indefeasible attribute of which we find of making ihe necessity of his existence as body, viz. definite place. Now place is defined by direction real a conception of our minds as that of space or time. and distance from a fixed point. Every body therefore The most religious man will read with pleasure a work on which does exist, exists at a certain definite distance from natural theology tending to prove that there must be a God; us, and at no other, either more or less. The distance of but who would bear ten pages of a serious attempt to de- every individual body in the universe from us is therefore monsiate the existence of space and time ?

necessarily admitted to be finite. Now it will hardly be In these ideas we have the foundation of the mathema- denied that the space which a body fills is as real and existtical sciences; for from space follows form, which is the ent as the body itself, and this whether so occupied or not. conception of the manner in which one part of space Leave out the word material in the above, and for • body' is separated from the rest, and from the investigation of read part of space,' and the argument remains as good as forms arises geometry. Again, time is only apprehended before, ending with a denial of the infinity of space. Every by succession of events or ideas, and succession or repetition assignable body is at a finite distance from us; but this is a gives the notion of numbering. And though collection is truism contained in the meaning of the word assignable. sometimes stated to be the leading idea in number, which But who is therefore to deny the following? Name any may be the fact, yet it may be asserted that number in the distance, however great; matter exists at still greater dislast sense is not the object of arithmetic, except as furnishing tances. the subject of numbering. The leading phrases of arith- If we estimate the reality of a conception by its necessity, metic sliggest the idea of time, and are derived from it. How which is what we do when we settle the pre-eminence of often is 2 contained in 12? Six times. The 2 presented to space and time among our ideas, then it is certain that the the thoughts at six different times is the mode in which the conception of infinity is as real as that of space or time, collection of 12 is counted by twos.

being essentially united with them. Many mathematicians From both space and time we get the notion of direction, try to deny this, and substitute various modes of speaking but in very different manners. The extremities of a por- to aroid the introduction of the idea. It is true that the tion of space give the idea of a point of space, a fundamen- notion of infinite is one which it is difficult to use without tal notion of an indivisible index of commencement or ter- falling into error; a very good reason for avoiding it until mination. The extremities of time give the notion of points the understanding has been well practised in mathematical of time, or indivisible portions of duration. No point of deduction, but none for denying its existence. Why say space contains any space; no point of time lasts any time. that the notion of infinity arises from our not being able to If we choose a

point of space or a point of time, we can in assign a limit, when we know that we feel something more P. C., No. 1394.

Vol. XXII.-20

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