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vell cultivated. Wheat, barley, and maize are grown. I desert. The desert is not far from the banks of the river, Great quantities of cider are annually made and exported. and extends from the vicinity of Zaragoza on the west, to Chesnut-trees are so common, that the chesnuts not only near Mequinenza on the east, a distance of more than 50 supply the lower classes with food, but also are exported to miles in a straight line. It is about 10 or 12 miles in width, a great extent. The climate does not differ much from and formed by a swell of the ground, which in its highest that of the western maritime tract, being also very wet, but part may rise 1500 feet above the level of the Ebro. The the cold is greater, though the gallegos, or northern winds, surface is a succession of slight ascents and descents, and are not experienced in the same degree as in Galicia. the soil is extremely arid. This tract is called the Sierra de

III. The Basin of the River Ebro occupies a part of Old Alcubierre, or the Desert of Fraga, being traversed by the Castile, the province of Alava, the kingdom of Navarre, the road wnich leads from Fraga on the Cinca to Zaragoza. greater part of Aragon, and a considerable portion of Cata- It is nearly uninhabited, and almost a useless waste. A cullonia. The northern boundary, from the sources of the tivated country surrounds it on all sides, though the soil is in river Segre on the east to those of the Arga on the west, is general of indifferent quality, and the crops far from being formed by the high chain of the Pyrenees. (PYRENEES.] abundant. But the extensive tract which extends at the West of the sources of the Arga river a chain of mountains base of the mountains, from Barbastro on the Cinca to Balabegins, which runs westward until it meets, near the sources guer on the Segre, and thence eastward to Cervera at the of the Ebro, the Sierra de Sejos, or the eastern portion of the foot of the Sierra de Llena, is an exception. On the south Montañas de Asturias. This range, which is called Sierra it terminates on the banks of the Ebro between the mouth de Aralar, is about 120 miles in length. It is much less of the Segre and the southern extremity of the Sierra de elevated than the two-great mountain-systems which it con- Llena. This tract, called the plain of Lerida, is distinguished nects. The mean elevation probably does not exceed 3000 by fertility. The surface is often undulating and sometimes feet above the sea-level. The highest sum units which have hilly, especially towards the Sierra de Llena, but the soil been determined are Mount Adi, which is 4766 feet high, being rich, cultivation is general, and the waste lands are of and Mount Arza, which is 4268 feet high, both in Guipuzcoa. small extent. It produces good crops of maize, wheat, rye,

The higher portion of the basin of the Ebro is consider- barley, oats, leguminous vegetables, fruit, wine, and oil. ably lower than the plain of Old Castile, which joins it on The countries within the basin of the Ebro south of the the south. Espinosa de los Monteros, a small town not far river contain a much larger proportion of arable land, and from the source of the river, is 2478 feet above the sea, and are much more populous than those on the north of the 400 feet lower than the town of Burgos; and Miranda, river. That part of it which extends between Logroño through which town the road from Biscay to Burgos runs, and the mouth of the Xalon, from the banks of the river is only 1514 feet above the sea-level. Thus this part of the south ward to the base of the Sierra de Cameros, is probabasin of the Ebro forms a considerable depression between bly the most fertile tract in the interior of Spain. West of the two adjacent countries. The interior of the basin, in this Calahorra the surface is in general hilly, and the fertility part, is nearly a plain, which extends north to Vittoria and not so great as east of that town, where the district of Rioja south to Nagera, and is here and there intersected by detached and Bureva is almost a plain, which is annually covered groups of limestone hills. It has a tolerably fertile soil, with the most abundant crops. In approaching the mouth and produces good crops of corn. Farther east many offsets of the Xalon, the surface of the country is again intersected branch off from the Sierra de Aralar and the Pyrenees, and by bills, and the fertility decreases. west of the river Aragon these ridges cover at least three- Near the mouth of the river Aragon, and at no great disfourths of the country north of the Ebro. Near the princi- tance from the banks of the Ebro, commences a ridge of pal ridges they constitute extensive mountain-masses, which highlands, which at first runs south-south-west to the are separated by narrow valleys. The masses themselves are point where the Xiloca falls into the Xalon. Here it atunfit for cultivation, but are used as pasture-grounds, and a tains an elevation of probably more than 2000 feet above great part of them is covered with forests containing many the sea, and forms the edge of the table-land from the fine tiiber-trees. The valleys are cultivated, but they are mouth of the Xiloca as far as the summit of the Peñagolosa. not distinguished by fertility. About 12 miles from the river From the last-mentioned height a tolerably elevated range the mountain masses decrease in size and elevation, and runs eastward until it approaches the Mediterranean within soon sink down to hills, which extend to the banks of the about fifteen miles, when it turns northward, and extending river. Their slopes are partly cultivated, and as the soil is parallel to the sea, terminates on the banks of the Ebro fertile, this tract yield good crops of maize, wheat, and other opposite the extremity of the Sierra de Llena. This ridge, grain; there are also numerous plantations of vines, olive which is about six or eight miles across, attains a mean eletrees, and chesnut-trees. Hemp and flax are extensively vation of between 1500 and 2000 feet; and the most elegrown. Grain, oil, and wine are exported to a considerable vated summit, Mount Malasima, rises to 2504 feet. The amount.

range itself bears the name of Sierra Monsia. The country East of the river Aragon, more than half of the country surrounded by the ridge just mentioned has nearly the form north of the Ebro is covered with the branches of the of a semicircle, of which the Ebro forms the diameter, and Pyrenees. Near 2° E. long. a range detaches itself from may be called the plain of Ixa, from the town of that that chain, which runs first south-west and afterwards south, name which is situated in the middle of its northern edge. and again south-west until it terminates on the banks of the The surface is generally hilly or undulating, and it conEbro about 30' E. long. This range is called in its southern tains a much greater portion of arable land than the counportion Sierra de Llena, and may be considered as the tries north of the river, but the soil is of moderate fertility easiern boundary-line of the basin of the Ebro, as nearly all and badly cultivated. The average elevation of this plain the rivers which originate on its eastern declivity descend to above the sea-level is probably not more than 300 feet. the south-east and enter ihe Mediterranean. Between the The country which extends between the Sierra de Llena sources of the rivers Aragon and Segre (that is, between 1° and the Mediterranean, and the lower course of the Ebro, W. long. and 20 E. long.) is the highest portion of the Pyre- may be considered an appendage of the basin of the Ebro. nean mountains, containing the lofty summits and extensive With few exceptions, the surface is very hilly, and in some mountain masses of the Pic du Midi, of Mount Perdido, parts even mountainous, as in the vicinity of Vique. The and the Peña de Maladeta. In this part the northern ridges of hills which traverse it run partly parallel to :he declivity is extremely steep. But towards the south the Sierra de Llena, and partly in an opposite direction towards range slopes down in a long inclined plain, which terminates the Mediterranean; the fertility is various. Some districts about 40 miles from the highest part of the range, north of are very fertile and well cultivated, as the valley of the 42° N. lat. The rocks of which these mountain masses are river Fluvia, not far from the boundary of France, which is composed are mostly bare of trees, and have only a scanty called El Apurdan; and the fine plain in which the town of vegetation, but they serve as sheep-walks. The irregularly Reus is situated, and which is fifteen miles long and six inclined plain is furrowed by deep and narrow valleys. wide. In general the valleys and depressions are rather Near the great chain these valleys are almost unfit for culo fertile and well cultivated, but there are also extensive tivation, on account of the severity of the climate; but tracts which have a very stony and sterile soil, as the counfarther down narrow tracts occur which are cultivated try between Vique, Gerona, and Hostalrich, and Mount w.ih tle grains of Northern Europe and with tax. As Lazamos, which extends from the plain of Reus to the the mountajos terminate north of 42° N. lat., a consider mouth of the Ebro, and whose sandy soil is covered with a able tract of country extends between them and the banks forest of stunted furs. Cultivation has attained a high of the Ebro. This tract is partly cultivable and partly a degree of improvement in this tract, and the water of the numerous perennial rivers is used for irrigating the 'culti- | the piain of Valencia, no tract of Spain yields such abun. vated grounds. Among the mountains of this region, the dant crops of wheat. The southern plain, which is called Montserrat rises in terraces to the elevation of more than the plain of Murcia, is divided from the sea, which is to the 4000 feet, and the hill of salt near Cardona, which is above south of it, by another low but rather steep ridge, which tertwo miles in circuit, to nearly 600 feet. Great quantities minates at Cabo de Palos. The soil is less fertile, and imof salt are annually taken from it.

pregnated with salt, which renders it fit for the cultiva. The countries included in the basin of the Ebro differtion of the various plants from which barilla is obtained, greatly in climate, the valleys within the Pyrenees being so which forms an important article of export from Spain. coll that the common kinds of grain do not succeed, while This region, more than any other part of Spain, is subject to along the sea-shore and towards the mouth of the river most earthquakes, and it suffered much from them in 1829. This of the fruits of Southern Europe attain perfection. In region also suffers from want of moisture; sometimes it general it may be observed that the part of the basin which does not rain all the year round, but the rivers always is north of the river, with the exception of the tracts imme. yield a plentiful supply of water for irrigation. diately situated on the shores of the Mediterranean, has V. The Basin of the River Guadalquivir lies between the more severe winters and colder summers than the great great table-land and the mountain region of the Sierra table-land, whilst the countries south of the river have a Nevada. On the north is the Sierra Morena, and on the mild winter, and a much more temperate summer. The east the Sierra de Segura and that of Cazorla. The mounmean annual quantity of rain is between 20 and 26 inches, tains which constitute the southern boundary-line run but it is much more in the elevated valleys of the Pyrenees. along 37° 35' N. lat., east of 4° 30' W. long., but west of In the interior the climate is healthy, but not so on the that meridian they decline to the south-west and terminate coast, Barcelona has occasionally suffered from the yellow on the Atlantic in Cape Trafalgar. The lower level of this fever.

country is about 1500 feet below the high countries which IV. The Eastern Declivity extends from the mouth of lie north and south of it. The source of the river Guadalthe Ebro to Cabo de Palos, and contains four regions, quivir, which is at the base of the Sierra de Cazorla, and three which differ in their natural features and productive | miles south of the town of that name, is only 526 feet abore powers. The most northern extends from the Ebro to Mur- the sea-level. Such a difference in the level of the country viedro. Along the sea-shore there is a narrow strip of level must of course be attended by a corresponding difference in ground, hardly more than two or three miles wide, which vegetation and productions. [ANDALUSIA, vol. i., p. 512.) in a few places is interrupted by low hills. It is generally But the basin of ihe Guadalquivir is not a complete level: it fertile, and in some places highly fertile. The hills which varies greatly in aspect and productions. The most eastern lie at the back of it, and the valleys between them, are also portion, or that which is east of 4° W. long., is traversed in tolerably fertile and well cultivated, but where the country ihe northern and also in the southern disiricts by several approaches the high table-land of Cuença, the soil is dry ridges which branch off from the Sierra Morena and the and less productive.

Montes de Granada, and these offsets, with the intervening South of this hilly country is the plain of Valencia, which valleys, occupy about two-thirds of the surface. The ridges extends on the sea-shore from Murviedro to Gandia, a dis- are not high, and the valleys are open and wide, and rather tance of more than 40 miles, and in its widest part, at fertile and well cultivated. The country between the exthe back of the town of Valencia, it extends about twenty tremities of the mountains, occupying the central districts, miles inland. It is abundantly irrigated, and the winole is is generally an undulating plain interspersed with a few under cultivation. It is no less noted for the great variety bills. It is of considerable fertility and well cultivated, of its fruits, and rich crops of rice, wheat, and other grain, and produces much wine, oil, and all kinds of grain. than for the mildness of the climate, which never experiences The central part of the basin is only mountainous to the frost, but yet is not considered healthy.

north of the Guadalquivir, where several ridges of the The country which lies south of the plain of Valencia, Sierra Morena approach to the banks of the river. The and extends along the sea-shore from Gandia to the vicinity valley's between them are very narrow and difficult of access. of Alicante and Elche, is extremely broken. It may be They contain very little arable land, and are badly culconsidered the most eastern offset of the great table-land, tivated. The slopes can only be used as sheep-walks, and for its central districts are at a great elevation above the the grass in general is scanty. Many of them are covered sea-level, as may be inferred from the severe cold which is with thin forests of stunted evergreen oaks, and many are experienced in the winter months, and from the circum- quite bare. The level tracts along the river are generally stance that the most elevated of its ridges, the Sierra de from 100 to 200 feet above it; they are very fertile and well Peñaquila, south of Alcoy, is covered for some months of the cultivated, especially in the neighbourhood of Cordora. The year with snow, which is collected and sent to the lower tracts south of the river can hardly be called hilly, except countries lying south and north of it. The valleys are in a few places; the surface is diversified by long and usually narrow, and the level tracts between the mountains broad swells, which usually rise with a gentle slope, and of small extent, and their fertility not much above medio- have only steep sides where they approach the Montes de crity; but as this tract has become the seat of an extensive Granada. Some of these swells are dry, and of very indifmanufacturing industry, all the arable land is cultivated ferent fertility, and generally covered with pine-trees, but most with the greatest industry, and the crops of maize and corn of them are planted with olive-trees or vines. The broad are tolerably abundant.

level depressions between the swells are tolerably fertile, South of this mountainous region the eastern declivity and usually well cultivated. This region extends to 5o W. extends much farther inland. On the west it reaches to the long. Sierra de Cazorla and the Sierra de Segura, two ridges of The lower basin of the Guadalquivir extends from 5° W. considerable elevation, situated near 3° W. long., and on long to the Atlantic. That portion which lies north and the south it extends to the Sierra de Aguaderas (37° 20' west of the river contains two regions, which differ in their N. lat.). The western portion of this region (west of 2° W. natural features. The northern, or that which is north of long.) is almost entirely filled up with mountains which rise the road from Sevilla to the town of Ayamonte, at the to between 4000 and 5000 feet above the sea level. It is mouth of the Guadiana, is hilly, and in its northern districts probable that the general elevation of the valleys is not less even mountainous. Though the ranges occupy a considerihan 2000 feet, and that this tract unites the great table-able portion of it, the valleys between the offsets of the land with the mountain region of the Sierra Nevada. The Sierra Morena are much wider than farther east, and conlong narrow valleys are not fertile, and they are badly cul- tain large tracts of arable land, but the soil is not so fertile tivated. East of 2° W. long. the mountains recede and as that of the valleys north of the range. It is tolerably leave wide valleys between them, of which the northern, or well cultivated. South of the road between Sevilla and that of the river Segura, is distinguished by great fertility, Ayamonte the country is alınost a useless waste: it is a and the southern, or that of the river Sangonara, may also dead level, and hardly elevated above the sea. Though the be called fertile. Both are corcred with corn-fields and supply of rain is far from being abundant, the whole replantations of fruit-trees. These valleys do not extend gion, for want of sufficient draining, is converted into a beyond 1° 25' W. long., where they pass into two plains swamp, which is covered with low bushes. It is only along separated by a low ridge, which runs north-east, and termi- the road, where it is somewhat higher and drier, that a pornates near i he mouth of the river Segura. The northern is tion of it is cultivated : the remainder is uninhabited,'excalled the plain of Orihuela, and the soil is of the finest cept by fishermen and persons occupied in making salt quality. Though is products are less various than those of from sea-water. South of the Guadalquivir is a plain, which is traversed, in the vicinity of the river, by a few low | the Cerro de Murtas. These mountains are characterized broad swells, but in approaching the mountain region of the by a rich vegetation which clothes their northern declivity. Sierra Nevada and the banks of the river Guadalete it This declivity descends by genıle slopes to the broad valleys rises into hills. The northern and eastern districts have which lie between the Alpujarras and the Sierra Nevada. generally a good clayey soil, and as they are also well The fine pastures on the mountain slopes and the fertility of watered by numerous small rivers that are used for irriga- the valleys are partly to be attributed to the great quantity tion, agriculture is in a good condition, and the crops of grain of rain, which amounts annually to between 25 and 30 are plentiful. The plantations of olive-trees, vines, and inches. This is owing to the Sierra Nevada, as the southern fruit-trees, among which the oranges of Sevilla are noted, slope of the Alpujarras is nearly bare of trees and vegetation, occupy large tracts. The southern district, which extends and almost uninhabited, except in the valleys formed by the from the small town of Utrera to Xerez de la Frontera, is a rivers, which intersect the range, and flow to the sea. desert nearly without inhabitants and without cultivation, The river Guadalfeu is considered the western boundary though the soil, which is clayey, apparently possesses a con- of the Alpujarras, but the range of mountains continues siderable degree of fertility. But the most southern corner, westward. It is there called Sierra de Jolucar, and is of which surrounds the bay of Cadiz, is famous for its vine- moderate elevation (2632 feet above the sea level); but at yards and large plantations of olive-trees. The sugar-cane some distance from the river, where it takes the name of is cultivated, and the cochineal insect is now reared. Sierra de Lujar, it rises to 6218 feet; and farther west, in

VI. The Mountain region of the Sierra Nevada extends the Sierra de Tejada, it attains the height of 7671 feet. over the most southern part of Spain, lying along the sea This part of the mountain region is similar in fertility to which divides Spain from Africa, and along the Strait of the Alpujarras, and some geographers consider it a part of Gibraltar. Its northern boundary on the east is marked by that region. But the mountains do not generally advance elevated ranges, extending east and west near 37° 25' N. close to the sea: they slope towards it with a long and gentle lat. The most eastern is called Sierra de Aguaderas, then declivity, and a narrow, level, though not a low tract interfollows the Sierra de Estancias, and farther west the Montes venes between the base of the declivities and the sea-shore. de Granada, which reach to the towns of Cabra and Lucena, On this level tract and the slopes of the mountains are near 4° 30' W. long. From this point to the Atlantic near those extensive vineyards which supply the wine that is Cape Trafalgar, or rather Torre de Roche, the boundary exported from Malaga. This is also the only tract in Euruns south-west, and is not formed by a distinct ridge, but rope where sugar is raised to any extent and as an obby a mountainous tract consisting of the offsets of the ject of rural economy. Much cotton is also grown, and Sierra de Cabras and Sierra de Ronda. This mountain- among the trees two or three kinds of palms are found. It system covers nearly 12,000 square miles, and contains is the hottest country in Europe. two regions, a more elevated one to the east of 4° 20' W. Along the northern base of the Sierra Nevada extends long., and a lower one west of that line.

the plain of Granada, which is famed for its natural richThe centre of the more elevated region is occupied by the ness and picturesque beauties, and its relics of the Moorish Sierra Nevada, a lofty range of mountains running east times. [ALHAMBRA ; GRANADA.] North of the plain are and west, and about 10 miles wide. The highest part lies the southern slopes of the Montes de Granada. On the between 30 and 4° W. long., nearly the whole of which is east this range is connected with the mountain-knot of covered with snow all the year round. On the 15th August, Baza, and runs westward nearly parallel to the Sierra 1804, the lowest line of snow on these mountains was 9064 Nevada. It may extend about 50 miles in length, and is feet above the sea-level, but many of the summits rise to a

about 10 miles across. It does not rise with a steep ascent, much greater elevation. The highest is the Pico de Mulhacen, like the Sierra Nevada, but slopes gently to the south and which is the highest mountain in Spain, and attains 11,666north. These slopes are usually either covered with plantafeet above the sea-level; west of it stands the Pico de tions of olive-trees and vines, or cultivated with grain, Veleta, which rises to 11,387 feet. But there are many though the range rises to a considerable elevation. The other summits which are nearly as elevated, as the Cerro de town of Alcalá la Real, situated near its western extremity, los Machos, Cerro de la Caldera, and the Cerro de Fachos is 2805 feet above the sea ; but the mountains rise much Altos. In advancing east of 3° and west of 4° W. long., the higher to the north-east of Granada, where the Sierra chain grows lower, and none of the summits attain the Elvira, or de los Infantes, exceeds 5000 feet. East of the srow-line. Between 2° 40' and 3° 10' W. long. is a mountain-town of Granada, the Xenil river, which divides the decliviknot from which several ridges branch off: it lies between ties of the Sierra Nevada from those of the Montes de the towns of Baza on the east and Guadix on the west, and Granada, flows in a valley of moderate width, but tolerably is called the Sierra de Baza. From its southern edge the well cultivated. Near the town the valley widens to a Sierra de Gador issues, and running southward terminates plain, which extends on both sides of the river as far as on the sea-shore between Punta de Santa Elena and the Loja, a distance of nearly 20 miles in a straight line, and Castello de Guardias Vejas, with high rocks. This chain varies in breadth from eight to ten miles. The whole is rises, at no great distance from the sea, to 7130 feet. Two covered with fields and gardens, intermixed with houses other chains issue from the eastern side of the mountain- and villages. In no part of Europe is irrigation better unknot of Baza. The southern chain runs east, and is called derstood. Every kind of grain yields abundant crops. On Sierra de Bucares: it is of considerable elevation, as the the slopes of the Sierra Nevada there are excellent pastures. eastern extremity, the Sierra de Maria, about two miles The mountain region which begins west of the plain of from Vera, is 6274 feet above the sea-level. A branch Granada and the Sierra Nevada, extends south-west, occuof the Sierra de Bucares, cailed the Sierra de Ujamilla, or pying the whole of the tract between the Mediterranean Aljamilla, runs southward, and occupies with its extensive and the river Guadalete, which falls into the bay of Cadiz. masses the whole space between the Gulf of Almeria and It terminates on the west between Torre de Roche and the small plain that surrounds Vera. It does not appear Tarifa. Nearly in the middle of it runs an elevated tract to rise so high a6 the Sierra de Bucares. The northern about ten miles wide, which however is not immediately conchain issuing from the Sierra de Baza also runs eastward, nected with the Sierra Nevada, but rather with the Sierra and bears first the name of Sierra de Estancias, anı where Tejada. East of 5° W. long. it is called Sierra de Cabras; it approaches the Mediterranean, that of Aguaderas. No but farther west it takes the shape of two parallel ridges, of part probably rises above 3000 feet. The few valleys of this which the western is called Sierra de Ronda, and the eastmountain region are very small, and enclosed by steep de- ern Sierra de Tolox. The high mountains terminate in the clivities. The arable iracts are of inferior quality, and vicinity of Medina Sidonia. The mountains do not attain a the whole appears to be a very desolate country. But this great elevation. The Sierra de Cabras may rise to between part of Spain is rarely visited by travellers, and a great 4000 and 5000 feet above the sea-level; but farther west it portion of it is almost entirely unknown.

sinks lower, and near Medina Sidonia it hardly exceeds South of the Sierra Nevada are the Alpujarras, a name 2000 feet. But the surface of the whole tract is extremely which properly indicates a range of mountains that runs pa- broken, like the Sierra Morena. Steep ridges and high rallel to the great chain and the shores of the sea, nearly peaks lie close together, and are divided rather by ravines half-way between them. They extend from the Sierra de ihan by valleys. Travellers find it very difficult to cross this Gador, which is considered a part of them, westward to the tract. On the north-west and south this mountain region river Guadalfeo, where it runs southward. This chain is of is surrounded by a hilly country, which in many places has a moderate elevation, probably nowhere more than 5000 a very broken surface, but also contains a considerable feet above the sea-level, an elevation which is attained by number of wide valleys and extensive plains. The hilis, P. C., No. 1395.

VOL. XXII.-2

which are numerous, with few exceptions do not rise more water, this river is not navigable within Spain, on account than a thousand feet above the sea; and nearly the whole of of its great rapidity. It is however navigated from Salvathe country, where not cultivated, is covered with forests. tierra to its mouth. A great part of it is used as pasture-ground, but other parts The Guadiana rises with numerous branches on the tableare generally cultivated. The soil is moderately fertile land of Cuenca, between 29 and 30 W. long. and 39° and Along the Mediterranean, between Malaga and Marbella, 40° N. lat. That branch which is called Guadiana origi are extensive vineyards, plantations of sugar and cotton, nates near 39° N. lat., in a series of small lakes called Ladate-trees, and other fruit-trees in great abundance.

gunas de Ruydera; and after having run a few miles, it The region of the Sierra Nevada enjoys the advantages disappears underground, and it continues to run underground resulting from abundant rains more than any other part of for more than twelve miles: it issues from the earth as a Spain, not even the northern and western coasts of the strong stream between Villarta and Daymiel. The place northern provinces excepled. The annual quantity of rain where the river re-appears is called Los Ojos de Guadiana varies between 25 and 30 inches, being greater near the (the eyes of the Guadiana). Soon after it is joined by a elevated ridges, and less plentiful near the sea. This, large tributary, the Giguela, which runs nearly 100 miles, united to the powerful effects of a southern sun, renders it and drains an extensive country. It then runs for more fit for the production of a great number of fruits and plants than 120 miles westward through the plains of La Mancha, which do not succeed in any other part of Spain.

without being joined by any considerable affluent. East of Rivers.—Spain is drained by a great number of rivers, 6° W. long. it is joined by the Zujar, which descends from and some of them run for several hundred miles; but the Sierra Morena, and runs more than 100 miles, but has only a very few are navigable for small boats, and that only very little water. Continuing westward without receiving towards their mouths. Travellers generally attribute this any considerable tributary, it begins to form the boundary to want of energy in the government or in the nation; but between Portugal and Spain near Badajoz; and after running the rivers have only a very small quantity of water. This is about 30 miles along the boundary in a south-south-western mainly to be ascribed to the small amount of rain which direction, it enters Portugal, where it runs in a very narrow falls on the table-land and the adjacent tracts, in which valley near the town of Serpa, separating the western offsets almost all the rivers rise; and this small quantity is very of the Sierra Morena from the Sierra de Caldaraõ, and forms soon evaporated, as the highest parts of the interior are a cataract, called El Salto del Lobo (the leap of the wolf). destitute of trees. Though the number of mountain- Afterwards it turns to the east of south, and from the con. ranges is very great, most of them are only for a few tluence of the river Chanza to its mouth it again runs months of the year covered with a thin layer of snow, along the boundary between Spain and Portugal. Its course which dissolves very rapidly. It is remarkable that those exceeds 450 miles; but it has little water, and can only be rivers which are navigable become so only at places where ascended by flat-bottomed small river-barges to Mertola in they are joined by tributaries which originale in such Portugal, not much more than 30 miles from its mouih. mountains as rise above the snow-line. Tbe Ebro becomes The Guadalquivir originates in the Sierra de Cazorla, navigable at Tudela, after having been joined by the Aragon, east of 3o W. long., and near 37° 50' N. Jat.; and after a which originates with numerous branches in the snow- course of about 30 miles, mostly west, it is met by the covered mountains which surround the Pic du Midi. The Guadiana Menor, which drains the country enclosed by the Tagus is not navigable even for small boats above Alcantara, mountain-knot of Baza, and runs south, west, and north, which town lies near the boundary of Portugal, and where nearly 100 miles, before it joins the Guadalquivir. The it is joined by the Alagon, which river is supplied during Guadalquivir, after running 30 miles mose to ihe west, is ibe whole year with water from the snow-covered summit joined from the north by the Guadarmena, which originates of the Sierra de Gredos. The Guadalquivir can only be on the table-land of Cuença; and, after leaving it, tlows navigated by small boats from the town of Palma down- south-west in a narrow valley of the Sierra Morena. It wards, for at that place it receives the Xenil, which de tows nearly 150 miles before it joins the Guadalquivir. rives the great supply of water that it brings down from Below the confluence of the Guadarmena, the Guadalquivir The Sierra Nevada. We do not precisely know where receives only the waters of one considerable affluent, the the Duero begins to be navigated, but probably this takes Xenil or Genil

, which brings down the waters from the place at the confluence with the Ezla, which originales in Sierra Nevada, and runs first west and afterwards northihe Montañas de Asturias, and derives one of its branches west. Though its course does not exceed 100 miles, at its from the high summit of the Peña de Peñaranda. But confluence with the Guadalquivir it is the larger river, and though the rivers of Spain are nearly useless for the trans- brings to it such a volume of water, that from this place port of its productions, they are of great importance the Guadalquivir becomes navigable for river-boats. At for fertilising the ground by irrigation. This practice is the town of Sevilla the Guadalquivir changes its southnearly general in all the countries which extend along the western course into a nearly southern course; and here the Mediterranean, and in the basın of the Guadalquivir. It banks, which up to this point were rather high, sink down cannot be introduced on the table-land, as the rivers which almost to the level of the river. In the low plain through water it generally run in so deep a bed, and so much below which it flows it divides into several branches, which enclose the general surface of the country, that their waters cannot two large islands, Isla Menor and Isla Mayor, wbich are be made available for that purpose. In the northern and very low and swampy: though fertile, they are nearly un. north-western maritime countries the rains are sufficiently inhabited. Below Isla Mayor, where the river runs in one abundant for the growth of corn without such artificial channel, it forms a small astuary, which is connected with means.

the sea at S. Lucar de Borrameda. The whole course of The largest rivers are noticed under their proper heads. the Guadalquivir falls short of 300 miles; but if the Gua[Douro; EBRO; Tagus.] We shall here brietly mention darmena is considered as the principal branch, it runs a few others.

nearly 100 miles more. Sloops may ascend the river to the The Miño, or, as it is called by the Portuguese, Minho, town of Sevilla. rises with numerous branches in ihe north eastern districts Among the rivers which fall into the Mediterranean beof Galicia, where the Montañas de Asturias form nearly a sides the Ebro, the Segura, Xucar, and Guadalariar require circle, whose circumference is open towards the south. All notice. The Segura originates in the Sierra de Segura the waters collected on the inner edge of this circular range north of the source of the Guadalquivir, and in its upper unite and form the Miño. Where the river issues from the course, which nearly forms a semicircle running north, northcircle, below the town of Lugo, it has scoped its way through east, east, and south, it flows in a narrow valley between an elevated rocky ridge. It continues to run in a southern high mountains. Afterwards it runs east in the Vale of direction to Orense, where it again runs between high Murcia, and becomes navigable at that town for river barges, ridges, after having been joined by the Sil, which in its though a great volume of water is drawn from it to irrigate upper course drains a similar circular region, and also the extensive plain of Orihuela; where it enters that plain in the middle of its course traverses a narrow cleft between it is joined from the south by the Sangonera, which origihigh mountains. Below Orense the Miño runs mostly nates on the eastern declivity of the mountain-knot of Baza, south-west, and from Melgaço to its mouth it constitutes and brings down a considerable volume of water. This river the boundary-line between Spain and Portugal. The mouth runs above 200 miles, is between Guardia in Spain and Caminha in Portugal. The Xucar rises on the elevated plain of Cuença, at the Its course in a straight line is about 115 miles, and along place where the Sierra de Molina is connected with the Sierra the windings 160 miles. Though abundantly supplied with ' de Albaraçin, and it runs for more than 100 miles, mostly south, in a broad and moderately fertile valley, without | Italy, is so much silk obtained as in the eastern and southern reeeiving any tributary. It then gradually turns to the provinces of Spain. The cochineal insect has been reared east, and after descending from the table-land near its con- in the last twenty years in Andalusia, Granada, and Estretluence with the Cabriel, it flows in a wide and fertile valley madura, and it is said to thrive well. Bees are very abununtil it enters the plain of Valencia about 12 miles from its dant, and much honey and wax are obtained. Only a few inouth. It probably would be navigable for the last 30 or kinds of fish are met with in the rivers, but the fishery in 40 miles from its mouth, if the waters were less abundantly the Atlantic is important. On the coast of Galicia great applied to the irrigation of the adjacent country. Its course numbers of sardines are taken, and along the coast between considerably exceeds 200 miles.

Cadiz and Gibraltar the tunny and anchovies. The Guadalaviar or Turia rises on the north-eastern edge Spain abounds in minerals. Gold and silver are known of the table-land, in the mountain-ridge which runs from to exist in several places, but they were neglected whilst Montalban to the Peñagolosa. After having run about 30 Spain was in possession of the American colonies. The miles to the town of Teruel, its surface is still 2887 feet Darro, a small affluent of the Xenil, brings down from the above the sea-level. Its general course is to the south, but Sierra Nevada particles of gold. Silver-ore is extracted from after passing 40° N. lat. it gradually declines to the south some mines near Guadalcanal, where platinum also has been east, and the course is nearly east where it enters the plain found. Some copper-mines are worked, but the produce is of Valencia, which is abundantly irrigated by its waters. small. A rich mine of quicksilver is worked near Almaden. After tlowing more than 20 miles in the plain, it falls into | Lead is very abundant, especially in the Sierra de Gador, the Mediterranean near Grao, where there is a bad roadstead. and the annual produce of the lead-mines is 600,000 cwt. Its whole course is about 150 miles.

Iron-ore is very abundant in the Sierra de Aralar, in the Productions. The most common kinds of grain which Sierra Nevada, and in the Alpujarras. That of the Sierra are cultivated in Spain are wheat, maize, barley, and rice. de Aralar is of the best quality, and the mines are worked The largest quantity of wheat is cultivated in Caialonia and to a cousiderable extent.' There are also tin, calamine, bisin the western portion of the plain of Old Castile and Leon. muth, cobalt, alum, vitriol, and sulphur, In some parts Rice is only grown in the countries along the Mediterranean, large quantities of salıpetre are collected. Coal occurs in from the boundary of France to Cabo de Palos. Frequently the Montañas de Asturias and in the Sierra Morena, but it the produce of the crops is not sufficient for home consump- is not much worked. Many kinds of marble are got in tion, and grain is imported. Other objects of agriculture Catalonia. Sereral precious stones are found, as rubies, are hemp and fax, especially in the basin of the Ebro, and topazes, amethysts, turquoises, and garnets. Salt is got madder and saffron on the table-land of Cuenca. In the near Cardona in Catalonia, from the layune called ihe southern districts the sugar-cane and cotton are cultivated, Albufera de Valencia, and from the sea-water along the and the aloe for the thread which is obtained from it. The coast between Cape Trafalgar and the boundary of Pormost common vegetables are onions, pumpkins, cucumbers, tugal. melons, water-melons, potatoes, beans, and peas. Many (Miñano, Diccionario Geogr. Estadist. de España, fc. ; fruit-trees are cultivated, as almonds, figs, pomegranates, Antillon’s Geografia de España; Bourgoing's Tableau de lemons, oranges, pistachia nuts, carobas, dates in the souihern T'Espagne Moderne; Laborde's Itinéraire descriptif de districts, walnuts, hazel-nuts, and especially chesnut-trees, l'Espagne; Swinburne's Travels through Spain ; Graham's which in some of the northern districts cover large tracts. Travels through Portugal and Spain; Temple's ObservaOlive-trees occur in all parts, except the northern mountain tions on a Journey to Spain and Italy; Temple's Second tracts, and the vineyards are extensive, except on the most Journey in Spain; Link’s Reisen durch Frunkreich, elevated regions. Several of the Spanish wines are consi- Spanien, und Portugal; Fischer's Gemählde von Valencia.) derable articles of commerce, as Xeres (Sherry), Malaga, Political Divisions. In former times Spain was divided Alicante, Malvasia, Tinto, and Val de Peñas. Brandy and into fourteen large provinces, some of which were called raisins also are articles of export. Among the wild trees kingdoms, as Granada, Seville, Jaen, Murcia, Valencia, &c.; are the sweet-acorn oak (Quercus ballota), the cork-tree others principalities, like Asturias; others counties, like (Quercus suber), the kermes oak (Quercus coccifera), and Barcelona, Niebla, &c.; and lastly, others were called the sumacb-tree. On the Montañas de Asturias and Aralar, provinces, like New and Old Castile, Estremadura, &c. and also on the western offsets of the Pyrenees, there are Biscay was termed Señorio. It is now divided into the follarge forests of fine timber-trees. The plant from which lowing forty-nine smaller provinces :- Alava, Albacete, the barilla is obtained grows partly wild and is partly culti- Alicante, Almeria, Avila, Badajoz, Baleares, Barcelona, vated in the plain of Murcia and some adjacent districts. Burgos, Caceres, Cadiz, Canarias, Castellon de la Plana, The liquorice-plant is abundant in the vicinity of Sevilla and Ciudad Real, Cordoba, Coruña, Cuenca, Gerona, Granada, near the mouth of the Ebro, and the prepared juice is sent | Guadalajara, Guipuzcoa, Huelva, Huesca, Jaen, Leon, Leto all parts of Europe. The esparto is used for making rida, Logroño, Lugo, Madrid, Malaga, Murcia, Navarra, ropes, mats, baskets, &c. On the naked rocks of the Mon- Orense, Oviedo, Palencia, Pontevedra, Salamanca, Santantañas of Asturias, lichen Islandicus and orchil are collected. der, Segovia, Sevilla, Soria, Tarragona, Teruel, Toledo, VaThe caper-bush grows wild in the countries along the Medi- lencia, Valladolid, Vizcaya, Zamora, Zaragoza. terranean, in which also manna is collected.

Population.—The present population of Spain is variously Among the doniestic animals the sheep and horses are estimated: some authors state it only at ten millions; distinguished. The sheep are noted for their fine wool, others at twelve; but in the absence of any official docuwhich forms an important article of export. They pass ments it is impossible to decide which estimate is nearest the summer on the Sierras de Guadarama, Avila, and the truth. The last census, made in 1803, gave a total of Gata, and the winter in the low mountains of Estremadura 10,351,000; which cannot have increased much owing to which lie between the Tajo and Guadiana. Their number the troubled state of the Peninsula since the commenceamounts to five or six millions. Sheep are also numerous ment of the present century. Don Sebastian Miñano, who, in other parts, but they have generally a coarse wool. in 1826, published a Geographical and Statistical Dictionary The horses of Spain, and especially those of Andalusia, are of the Peninsula (Diccionario Geográfico de España y Pornoted for tbeir beauty; but during the French occupation tugal, Mad., 1826-9, art. • España'), estimates the population (1808-1814), nearly all the fine breeds were sent to France, of Spain at 13,732,176; which number he says that he has and they are now rare. Cattle are only numerous and of obtained from documents and reports furnished him by the large size near the higher mountain-ranges; in other parts minister of the interior. But as the work of that author they are small. The asses and mules are distinguished by abounds in gross inaccuracies, and is well known to have their size and beauty. Pigs are not very numerous. Goats been written under the influence of a faction, and with a are more numerous than in any country of Europe, espe- view to exaggerate the population and resources of Spain, cially on the table-land. There are wild catile in the moun- no faith whatever can be placed in his statements. As a tain region of the Sierra Nevada, chamois in the Pyrenees, proof of the wilful exaggerations of which that writer has and porcupines in many places. The mountains also con- been guilty, we need only point out the fact of his having tain wolves, bears, lynxes, wild cats, and martens, the last given Madrid a population of upwards of 200,000; when, especially in Biscay. Chameleons are found near Cadız, by a census taken last year, it has been found to be only and monkeys on the rock of Gibraltar. The flamingo is 165.000. sometimes seen near Valencia, and there are also eagles. Religion. The established religion is the Roman Catholic, The care of the silkworm, the cochineal insect, and bees are and no other is allowed in the Spanish dominions. The crowra branches of industry. In no country of Europe, except | presents the arehbishops and bishops, who are confirmed bv

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