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well cultivated. Wheat, barley, and maize are grown. | Great quantities of cider are annually made and exported. Chesnut-trees are so common, that the chesnuts not only supply the lower classes with food, but also are exported to a great extent. The climate does not differ much from that of the western maritime tract, being also very wet, but the cold is greater, though the gallegos, or northern winds, are not experienced in the same degree as in Galicia.
desert. The desert is not far from the banks of the river, and extends from the vicinity of Zaragoza on the west, to near Mequinenza on the east, a distance of more than 50 miles in a straight line. It is about 10 or 12 miles in width, and formed by a swell of the ground, which in its highest part may rise 1500 feet above the level of the Ebro. The surface is a succession of slight ascents and descents, and the soil is extremely arid. This tract is called the Sierra de Alcubierre, or the Desert of Fraga, being traversed by the road which leads from Fraga on the Cinca to Zaragoza. It is nearly uninhabited, and almost a useless waste. A cultivated country surrounds it on all sides, though the soil is in general of indifferent quality, and the crops far from being abundant. But the extensive tract which extends at the base of the mountains, from Barbastro on the Cinca to Balaguer on the Segre, and thence eastward to Cervera at the foot of the Sierra de Llena, is an exception. On the south it terminates on the banks of the Ebro between the mouth of the Segre and the southern extremity of the Sierra de Llena. This tract, called the plain of Lerida, is distinguished by fertility. The surface is often undulating and sometimes hilly, especially towards the Sierra de Llena, but the soil being rich, cultivation is general, and the waste lands are of small extent. It produces good crops of maize, wheat, rye, barley, oats, leguminous vegetables, fruit, wine, and oil.
The countries within the basin of the Ebro south of the river contain a much larger proportion of arable land, and are much more populous than those on the north of the river. That part of it which extends between Logroño and the mouth of the Xalon, from the banks of the river southward to the base of the Sierra de Cameros, is probably the most fertile tract in the interior of Spain. West of Calahorra the surface is in general hilly, and the fertility not so great as east of that town, where the district of Rioja and Bureva is almost a plain, which is annually covered with the most abundant crops. In approaching the mouth of the Xalon, the surface of the country is again intersected by hills, and the fertility decreases.
Near the mouth of the river Aragon, and at no great distance from the banks of the Ebro, commences a ridge of high lands, which at first runs south-south-west to the point where the Xiloca falls into the Xalon. Here it attains an elevation of probably more than 2000 feet above the sea, and forms the edge of the table-land from the mouth of the Xiloca as far as the summit of the Peñagolosa. From the last-mentioned height a tolerably elevated range runs eastward until it approaches the Mediterranean within about fifteen miles, when it turns northward, and extending parallel to the sea, terminates on the banks of the Ebro opposite the extremity of the Sierra de Llena. This ridge, which is about six or eight miles across, attains a mean elevation of between 1500 and 2000 feet; and the most elevated summit, Mount Malasima, rises to 2504 feet. The range itself bears the name of Sierra Monsia. The country surrounded by the ridge just mentioned has nearly the form of a semicircle, of which the Ebro forms the diameter, and may be called the plain of Ixa, from the town of that name which is situated in the middle of its northern edge. The surface is generally hilly or undulating, and it contains a much greater portion of arable land than the countries north of the river, but the soil is of moderate fertility and badly cultivated. The average elevation of this plain above the sea-level is probably not more than 300 feet.
The country which extends between the Sierra de Llena and the Mediterranean, and the lower course of the Ebro, may be considered an appendage of the basin of the Ebro. With few exceptions, the surface is very hilly, and in some parts even mountainous, as in the vicinity of Vique. The ridges of hills which traverse it run partly parallel to the Sierra de Llena, and partly in an opposite direction towards the Mediterranean; the fertility is various. Some districts are very fertile and well cultivated, as the valley of the river Fluvia, not far from the boundary of France, which is called El Apurdan; and the fine plain in which the town of Reus is situated, and which is fifteen miles long and six wide. In general the valleys and depressions are rather fertile and well cultivated; but there are also extensive tracts which have a very stony and sterile soil, as the country between Vique, Gerona, and Hostalrich, and Mount Lazamos, which extends from the plain of Reus to the mouth of the Ebro, and whose sandy soil is covered with a forest of stunted furs. Cultivation has attained a high degree of improvement in this tract, and the water of the
III. The Basin of the River Ebro occupies a part of Old Castile, the province of Alava, the kingdom of Navarre, the greater part of Aragon, and a considerable portion of Catalonia. The northern boundary, from the sources of the river Segre on the east to those of the Arga on the west, is formed by the high chain of the Pyrenees. [PYRENEES.] West of the sources of the Arga river a chain of mountains begins, which runs westward until it meets, near the sources of the Ebro, the Sierra de Sejos, or the eastern portion of the Montañas de Asturias. This range, which is called Sierra de Aralar, is about 120 miles in length. It is much less elevated than the two-great mountain-systems which it connects. The mean elevation probably does not exceed 3000 feet above the sea-level. The highest summits which have been determined are Mount Adi, which is 4766 feet high, and Mount Arza, which is 4268 feet high, both in Guipuzcoa. The higher portion of the basin of the Ebro is considerably lower than the plain of Old Castile, which joins it on the south. Espinosa de los Monteros, a small town not far from the source of the river, is 2478 feet above the sea, and 400 feet lower than the town of Burgos; and Miranda, through which town the road from Biscay to Burgos runs, is only 1514 feet above the sea-level. Thus this part of the basin of the Ebro forms a considerable depression between the two adjacent countries. The interior of the basin, in this part, is nearly a plain, which extends north to Vittoria and south to Nagera, and is here and there intersected by detached groups of limestone hills. It has a tolerably fertile soil, and produces good crops of corn. Farther east many offsets branch off from the Sierra de Aralar and the Pyrenees, and west of the river Aragon these ridges cover at least threefourths of the country north of the Ebro. Near the principal ridges they constitute extensive mountain-masses, which are separated by narrow valleys. The masses themselves are unfit for cultivation, but are used as pasture-grounds, and a great part of them is covered with forests containing many fine timber-trees. The valleys are cultivated, but they are not distinguished by fertility. About 12 miles from the river the mountain masses decrease in size and elevation, and soon sink down to hills, which extend to the banks of the river. Their slopes are partly cultivated, and as the soil is fertile, this tract yield good crops of maize, wheat, and other grain; there are also numerous plantations of vines, olivetrees, and chesnut-trees. Hemp and flax are extensively grown. Grain, oil, and wine are exported to a considerable
East of the river Aragon, more than half of the country north of the Ebro is covered with the branches of the Pyrenees. Near 2° E. long. a range detaches itself from that chain, which runs first south-west and afterwards south, and again south-west until it terminates on the banks of the Ebro about 30′ E. long. This range is called in its southern portion Sierra de Llena, and may be considered as the eastern boundary-line of the basin of the Ebro, as nearly all the rivers which originate on its eastern declivity descend to the south-east and enter the Mediterranean. Between the sources of the rivers Aragon and Segre (that is, between 1° W. long, and 2o E. long.) is the highest portion of the Pyrenean mountains, containing the lofty summits and extensive mountain masses of the Pic du Midi, of Mount Perdido, and the Peña de Maladeta. In this part the northern declivity is extremely steep. But towards the south the range slopes down in a long inclined plain, which terminates about 40 miles from the highest part of the range, north of 42° N. lat. The rocks of which these mountain masses are composed are mostly bare of trees, and have only a scanty vegetation, but they serve as sheep-walks. The irregularly inclined plain is furrowed by deep and narrow valleys. Near the great chain these valleys are almost unfit for cultivation, on account of the severity of the climate; but farther down narrow tracts occur which are cultivated with the grains of Northern Europe and with flax. As the mountains terminate north of 42° N. lat., a considerable tract of country extends between them and the banks of the Ebro. This tract is partly cultivable and partly a
numerous perennial rivers is used for irrigating the 'culti- | the piain of Valencia, no tract of Spain yields such abunvated grounds. Among the mountains of this region, the dant crops of wheat. The southern plain, which is called Montserrat rises in terraces to the elevation of more than the plain of Murcia, is divided from the sea, which is to the 4000 feet, and the hill of salt near Cardona, which is above south of it, by another low but rather steep ridge, which tertwo miles in circuit, to nearly 600 feet. Great quantities minates at Cabo de Palos. The soil is less fertile, and imof salt are annually taken from it. pregnated with salt, which renders it fit for the cultivation of the various plants from which barilla is obtained, which forms an important article of export from Spain. This region, more than any other part of Spain, is subject to earthquakes, and it suffered much from them in 1829. This region also suffers from want of moisture; sometimes it does not rain all the year round, but the rivers always yield a plentiful supply of water for irrigation.
The countries included in the basin of the Ebro differ greatly in climate, the valleys within the Pyrenees being so cold that the common kinds of grain do not succeed, while along the sea-shore and towards the mouth of the river most of the fruits of Southern Europe attain perfection. In general it may be observed that the part of the basin which is north of the river, with the exception of the tracts immediately situated on the shores of the Mediterranean, has more severe winters and colder summers than the great table-land, whilst the countries south of the river have a mild winter, and a much more temperate summer. The mean annual quantity of rain is between 20 and 26 inches, but it is much more in the elevated valleys of the Pyrenees. In the interior the climate is healthy, but not so on the coast. Barcelona has occasionally suffered from the yellow fever.
V. The Basin of the River Guadalquivir lies between the great table-land and the mountain region of the Sierra Nevada. On the north is the Sierra Morena, and on the east the Sierra de Segura and that of Cazorla. The mountains which constitute the southern boundary-line run along 37° 35′ N. lat., east of 4° 30′ W. long., but west of that meridian they decline to the south-west and terminate on the Atlantic in Cape Trafalgar. The lower level of this country is about 1500 feet below the high countries which lie north and south of it. The source of the river Guadalquivir, which is at the base of the Sierra de Cazorla, and three miles south of the town of that name, is only 526 feet above the sea-level. Such a difference in the level of the country must of course be attended by a corresponding difference in vegetation and productions. [ANDALUSIA, vol. i., p. 512] But the basin of the Guadalquivir is not a complete level: it varies greatly in aspect and productions. The most eastern portion, or that which is east of 4° W. long., is traversed in the northern and also in the southern districts by several ridges which branch off from the Sierra Morena and the Montes de Granada, and these offsets, with the intervening valleys, occupy about two-thirds of the surface. The ridges are not high, and the valleys are open and wide, and rather fertile and well cultivated. The country between the extremities of the mountains, occupying the central districts, is generally an undulating plain interspersed with a few hills. It is of considerable fertility and well cultivated, and produces much wine, oil, and all kinds of grain.
The central part of the basin is only mountainous to the north of the Guadalquivir, where several ridges of the Sierra Morena approach to the banks of the river. The valleys between them are very narrow and difficult of access. They contain very little arable land, and are badly cultivated. The slopes can only be used as sheep-walks, and the grass in general is scanty. Many of them are covered with thin forests of stunted evergreen oaks, and many are quite bare. The level tracts along the river are generally from 100 to 200 feet above it; they are very fertile and well cultivated, especially in the neighbourhood of Cordova. The tracts south of the river can hardly be called hilly, except in a few places; the surface is diversified by long and broad swells, which usually rise with a gentle slope, and have only steep sides where they approach the Montes de Granada. Some of these swells are dry, and of very indifferent fertility, and generally covered with pine-trees, but most of them are planted with olive-trees or vines. The broad level depressions between the swells are tolerably fertile, and usually well cultivated. This region extends to 5° W. long.
IV. The Eastern Declivity extends from the mouth of the Ebro to Cabo de Palos, and contains four regions, which differ in their natural features and productive powers. The most northern extends from the Ebro to Murviedro. Along the sea-shore there is a narrow strip of level ground, hardly more than two or three miles wide, which in a few places is interrupted by low hills. It is generally fertile, and in some places highly fertile. The hills which lie at the back of it, and the valleys between them, are also tolerably fertile and well cultivated, but where the country approaches the high table-land of Cuença, the soil is dry and less productive.
South of this hilly country is the plain of Valencia, which extends on the sea shore from Murviedro to Gandia, a distance of more than 40 miles, and in its widest part, at the back of the town of Valencia, it extends about twenty miles inland. It is abundantly irrigated, and the whole is under cultivation. It is no less noted for the great variety of its fruits, and rich crops of rice, wheat, and other grain, than for the mildness of the climate, which never experiences frost, but yet is not considered healthy.
The country which lies south of the plain of Valencia, and extends along the sea-shore from Gandia to the vicinity of Alicante and Elche, is extremely broken. It may be considered the most eastern offset of the great table-land, for its central districts are at a great elevation above the sea-level, as may be inferred from the severe cold which is experienced in the winter months, and from the circumstance that the most elevated of its ridges, the Sierra de Peñaquila, south of Alcoy, is covered for some months of the year with snow, which is collected and sent to the lower countries lying south and north of it. The valleys are usually narrow, and the level tracts between the mountains of small extent, and their fertility not much above mediocrity; but as this tract has become the seat of an extensive manufacturing industry, all the arable land is cultivated with the greatest industry, and the crops of maize and corn are tolerably abundant.
South of this mountainous region the eastern declivity extends much farther inland. On the west it reaches to the Sierra de Cazorla and the Sierra de Segura, two ridges of considerable elevation, situated near 3° W. long., and on the south it extends to the Sierra de Aguaderas (37° 20' N. lat.). The western portion of this region (west of 2° W. long.) is almost entirely filled up with mountains which rise to between 4000 and 5000 feet above the sea-level. It is probable that the general elevation of the valleys is not less than 2000 feet, and that this tract unites the great tableland with the mountain region of the Sierra Nevada. The long narrow valleys are not fertile, and they are badly cultivated. East of 2° W. long. the mountains recede and leave wide valleys between them, of which the northern, or that of the river Segura, is distinguished by great fertility, and the southern, or that of the river Sangonara, may also be called fertile. Both are covered with corn-fields and plantations of fruit-trees. These valleys do not extend beyond 1° 25' W. long., where they pass into two plains separated by a low ridge, which runs north-east, and terminates near the mouth of the river Segura. The northern is called the plain of Orihuela, and the soi! is of the finest quality. Though its products are less various than those of
The lower basin of the Guadalquivir extends from 5° W. long. to the Atlantic. That portion which lies north and west of the river contains two regions, which differ in their natural features. The northern, or that which is north of the road from Sevilla to the town of Ayamonte, at the mouth of the Guadiana, is hilly, and in its northern districts even mountainous. Though the ranges occupy a considerable portion of it, the valleys between the offsets of the Sierra Morena are much wider than farther east, and contain large tracts of arable land, but the soil is not so fertile as that of the valleys north of the range. It is tolerably well cultivated. South of the road between Sevilla and Ayamonte the country is almost a useless waste: it is a dead level, and hardly elevated above the sea. Though the supply of rain is far from being abundant, the whole region, for want of sufficient draining, is converted into a swamp, which is covered with low bushes. It is only along the road, where it is somewhat higher and drier, that a portion of it is cultivated: the remainder is uninhabited, except by fishermen and persons occupied in making salt from sea-water. South of the Guadalquivir is a plain,
which is traversed, in the vicinity of the river, by a few low the Cerro de Murtas. These mountains are characterized broad swells, but in approaching the mountain region of the by a rich vegetation which clothes their northern declivity. Sierra Nevada and ine banks of the river Guadalete it This declivity descends by genıle slopes to the broad valleys rises into hills. The northern and eastern districts have which lie between the Alpujarras and the Sierra Nevada. generally a good clayey soil, and as they are also well The fine pastures on the mountain slopes and the fertility of watered by numerous small rivers that are used for irriga- the valleys are partly to be attributed to the great quantity tion, agriculture is in a good condition, and the crops of grain of rain, which amounts annually to between 25 and 30 are plentiful. The plantations of olive-trees, vines, and inches. This is owing to the Sierra Nevada, as the southern fruit-trees, among which the oranges of Sevilla are noted, slope of the Alpujarras is nearly bare of trees and vegetation, occupy large tracts. The southern district, which extends and almost uninhabited, except in the valleys formed by the from the small town of Utrera to Xerez de la Frontera, is a rivers, which intersect the range, and flow to the sea. desert nearly without inhabitants and without cultivation, The river Guadalfeu is considered the western boundary though the soil, which is clayey, apparently possesses a con- of the Alpujarras, but the range of mountains continues siderable degree of fertility. But the most southern corner, westward." it is there called Sierra de Jolucar, and is of which surrounds the bay of Cadiz, is famous for its vine- moderate elevation (2632 feet above the sea level); but at yards and large plantations of olive-trees. The sugar-cane some distance from the river, where it takes the name of is cultivated, and the cochineal insect is now reared. Sierra de Lujar, it rises to 6218 feet; and farther west, in
VI. The Mountain region of the Sierra Nevada extends the Sierra de Tejada, it attains the height of 7671 feet. over the most southern part of Spain, lying along the sea This part of the mountain region is similar in fertility to which divides Spain from Africa, and along the Strait of the Alpujarras, and somne geographers consider it a part of Gibraltar. Its northern boundary on the east is marked by that region. But the mountains do not generally advance elevated ranges, extending east and west near 37° 25' N. close to the sea : they slope towards it with a long and gentle lat. The most eastern is called Sierra de Aguaderas, then declivity, and a narrow, level, though not a low tract interfollows the Sierra de Estancias, and farther west the Montes venes between the base of the declivities and the sea-shore. de Granada, which reach to the towns of Cabra and Lucena, On this level tract and the slopes of the mountains are near 4° 30' W. long. From this point to the Atlantic near those extensive vineyards which supply the wine that is Cape Trafalgar, or rather Torre de Roche, the boundary exported from Malaga. This is also the only tract in Eus runs south-west, and is not formed by a distinct ridge, but rope where sugar is raised to any extent and as an obby a mountainous tract consisting of the offsets of tho ject of rural economy. Much cotton is also grown, and Sierra de Cabras and Sierra de Ronda. This mountain- among the trees two or three kinds of palms are found. It system covers nearly 12,000 square miles, and contains is the hottest country in Europe. two regions, a more elevated one to the east of 4° 20' W. Along the northern base of the Sierra Nevada extends long., and a lower one west of that line.
the plain of Granada, which is famed for its natural richThe centre of the more elevated region is occupied by the ness and picturesque beauties, and its relics of the Moorish Sierra Nevada, a lofty range of mountains running east times. [ALHAMBRA ; GRANADA.] North of the plain are and west, and about 10 miles wide. The highest part lies the southern slopes of the Montes de Granada." On the between 30 and 4° W. long., nearly the whole of which is east this range is connected with the mountain-knot of covered with snow all the year round. On the 15th August, Baza, and runs westward nearly parallel to the Sierra 1804, the lowest line of snow on these mountains was 9064 Nevada. It may extend about 50 miles in length, and is feet above the sea-level, but many of the summits rise to a about 10 miles across. It does not rise with a sieep ascent, much greater elevation. The highest is the Pico de Mulhacen, like the Sierra Nevada, but slopes gently to the south and which is the highest mountain in Spain, and attains 11,666 north. These slopes are usually either covered with plantafeet above the sea-level ; west of it stands the Pico de tions of olive-trees and vines, or cultivated with grain, Veleta, which rises to 11,387 feet. But there are many though the range rises to a considerable elevation. The other summits which are nearly as elevated, as the Cerro de town of Alcalá la Real, situated near its western extremity, los Machos, Cerro de la Caldera, and the Cerro de Fachos is 2805 feet above the sea; but the mountains rise much Altos. In advancing east of 3° and west of 4° W. long., the higher to the north-east of Granada, where the Sierra chain grows lower, and none of the summits attain the Elvira, or de los Infantes, exceeds 5000 feet. East of the show-line. Between 2° 40' and 3° 10' W. long. is a mountain- town of Granada, the Xenil river, which divides the decliviknot from which several ridges branch off: it lies between ties of the Sierra Nevada from those of the Montes de the towns of Baza on the east and Guadix on the west, and Granada, tlows in a valley of moderate width, but tolerably is called the Sierra de Baza. From its southern edge the well cultivated. Near the town the valley widens to a Sierra de Gador issues, and running southward terminates plain, which extends on both sides of the river as far as on the sea-shore between Punta de Santa Elena and the Loja, a distance of nearly 20 miles in a straight line, and Castello de Guardias Vejas, with high rocks. This chain varies in breadth from eight to ten miles. The whole is rises, at no great distance from the sea, to 7130 feet. Two covered with fields and gardens, intermixed with houses other chains issue from the eastern side of the mountain- and villages. In no part of Europe is irrigation better unknot of Baza. The southern chain runs east, and is called derstood. Every kind of grain yields abundant crops. On Sierra de Bucares: it is of considerable elevation, as the the slopes of the Sierra Nevada there are excellent pastures. eastern extremity, the Sierra de Maria, about two miles The mountain region which begins west of the plain of from Vera, is 6274 feet above the sea-level. A branch Granada and the Sierra Nevada, extends south-west, occuof the Sierra de Bucares, cailed the Sierra de Ujamilla, or pying the whole of the tract between the Mediterranean Aljamilla, runs southward, and occupies with its extensive and the river Guadalete, which falls into the bay of Cadiz. masses the whole space between the Gulf of Almeria and It terminates on the west between Torre de Roche and the small plain that surrounds Vera. It does not appear Tarifa. Nearly in the middle of it runs an elevated tract to rise so high as the Sierra de Bucares. The northern about ten miles wide, which however is not immediately conchain issuing from the Sierra de Baza also runs eastward, nected with the Sierra Nevada, but rather with the Sierra and bears first the name of Sierra de Estancias, and where Tejada. East of 5° W. long. it is called Sierra de Cabras; it approaches the Mediterranean, that of Aguaderas. No but farther west it takes the shape of two parallel ridges, of part probably rises above 3000 feet. The few valleys of this which the western is called Sierra de Ronda, and the eastmountain region are very small, and enclosed by steep de- ern Sierra de Tolox. The high mountains terminate in the clivities. The arable tracts are of inferior quality, and vicinity of Medina Sidonia. The mountains do not attain a the whole appears to be a very desolate country. But this great elevation. The Sierra de Cabras may rise to between part of Spain is rarely visited by travellers, and a great 4000 and 5000 feet above the sea-level ; but farther west it portion of it is almost entirely unknown.
sinks lower, and near Medina Sidonia it hardly exceeds South of the Sierra Nevada are the Alpujarras, a name 2000 feet. But the surface of the whole tract is extremely which properly indicates a range of mountains that runs pa- broken, like the Sierra Morena. Steep ridges and high rallel to the great chain and the shores of the sea, nearly peaks lie close together, and are divided rather by ravines half-way between them. They extend from the Sierra de iban by valleys. Travellers find it very difficult to cross this Gador, which is considered a part of them, westward to the tract. On the north-west and south this mountain region river Guadalfeo, where it runs southward. This chain is of is surrounded by a hilly country, which in many places has a moderate elevation, probably nowhere more than 5000 a very broken surface, but also contains a considerable feet above the sea-level, an elevation which is attained by number of wide valleys and extensive plains. The hilis, P. C., No. 1395.
which are numerous, with few exceptions do not rise more than a thousand feet above the sea; and nearly the whole of the country, where not cultivated, is covered with forests. A great part of it is used as pasture-ground, but other parts are generally cultivated. The soil is moderately fertile Along the Mediterranean, between Malaga and Marbella, are extensive vineyards, plantations of sugar and cotton, date-trees, and other fruit-trees in great abundance.
The region of the Sierra Nevada enjoys the advantages resulting from abundant rains more than any other part of Spain, not even the northern and western coasts of the northern provinces excepted. The annual quantity of rain varies between 25 and 30 inches, being greater near the elevated ridges, and less plentiful near the sea. This, united to the powerful effects of a southern sun, renders it fit for the production of a great number of fruits and plants which do not succeed in any other part of Spain.
Rivers. Spain is drained by a great number of rivers, and some of them run for several hundred miles; but only a very few are navigable for small boats, and that only towards their mouths. Travellers generally attribute this to want of energy in the government or in the nation; but the rivers have only a very small quantity of water. This is mainly to be ascribed to the small amount of rain which falls on the table land and the adjacent tracts, in which almost all the rivers rise; and this small quantity is very soon evaporated, as the highest parts of the interior are destitute of trees. Though the number of mountainranges is very great, most of them are only for a few months of the year covered with a thin layer of snow, which dissolves very rapidly. It is remarkable that those rivers which are navigable become so only at places where they are joined by tributaries which originate in such mountains as rise above the snow-line. The Ebro becomes navigable at Tudela, after having been joined by the Aragon, which originates with numerous branches in the snowcovered mountains which surround the Pic du Midi. The Tagus is not navigable even for small boats above Alcantara, which town lies near the boundary of Portugal, and where it is joined by the Alagon, which river is supplied during the whole year with water from the snow-covered summit of the Sierra de Gredos. The Guadalquivir can only be navigated by small boats from the town of Palma downwards, for at that place it receives the Xenil, which derives the great supply of water that it brings down from the Sierra Nevada. We do not precisely know where the Duero begins to be navigated, but probably this takes place at the confluence with the Ezla, which originates in the Montañas de Asturias, and derives one of its branches from the high summit of the Peña de Peñaranda. But though the rivers of Spain are nearly useless for the transport of its productions, they are of great importance for fertilising the ground by irrigation. This practice is nearly general in all the countries which extend along the Mediterranean, and in the basin of the Guadalquivir. It cannot be introduced on the table-land, as the rivers which water it generally run in so deep a bed, and so much below the general surface of the country, that their waters cannot be made available for that purpose. In the northern and north-western maritime countries the rains are sufficiently abundant for the growth of corn without such artificial
The largest rivers are noticed under their proper heads. [DOURO; EBRO; TAGUS.] We shall here briefly mention a few others.
The Miño, or, as it is called by the Portuguese, Minho, rises with numerous branches in the north eastern districts of Galicia, where the Montañas de Asturias form nearly a circle, whose circumference is open towards the south. All the waters collected on the inner edge of this circular range unite and form the Miño. Where the river issues from the circle, below the town of Lugo, it has scoped its way through an elevated rocky ridge. It continues to run in a southern direction to Orense, where it again runs between high ridges, after having been joined by the Sil, which in its upper course drains a similar circular region, and also in the middle of its course traverses a narrow cleft between high mountains. Below Orense the Miño runs mostly south-west, and from Melgaço to its mouth it constitutes the boundary-line between Spain and Portugal. The mouth is between Guardia in Spain and Caminha in Portugal. Its course in a straight line is about 115 miles, and along the windings 160 miles. Though abundantly supplied with
water, this river is not navigable within Spain, on account of its great rapidity. It is however navigated from Salvatierra to its mouth.
The Guadiana rises with numerous branches on the tableland of Cuença, between 2° and 3° W. long. and 39° and 40° N. lat. That branch which is called Guadiana origi nates near 39° N. lat., in a series of small lakes called Lagunas de Ruydera; and after having run a few miles, it disappears underground, and it continues to run underground for more than twelve miles: it issues from the earth as a strong stream between Villarta and Daymiel. The place where the river re-appears is called Los Ojos de Guadiana (the eyes of the Guadiana). Soon after it is joined by a large tributary, the Giguela, which runs nearly 100 miles, and drains an extensive country. It then runs for more than 120 miles westward through the plains of La Mancha, without being joined by any considerable affluent. East of 6° W. long. it is joined by the Zujar, which descends from the Sierra Morena, and runs more than 100 miles, but has very little water. Continuing westward without receiving any considerable tributary, it begins to form the boundary between Portugal and Spain near Badajoz ; and after running about 30 miles along the boundary in a south-south-western direction, it enters Portugal, where it runs in a very narrow valley near the town of Serpa, separating the western offsets of the Sierra Morena from the Sierra de Caldarao, and forms a cataract, called El Salto del Lobo (the leap of the wolf). Afterwards it turns to the east of south, and from the confluence of the river Chanza to its mouth it again runs along the boundary between Spain and Portugal. Its course exceeds 450 miles; but it has little water, and can only be ascended by flat-bottomed small river-barges to Mertola in Portugal, not much more than 30 miles from its mouth.
The Guadalquivir originates in the Sierra de Cazorla, east of 3° W. long., and near 37° 50′ N. lat.; and after a course of about 30 miles, mostly west, it is met by the Guadiana Menor, which drains the country enclosed by the mountain-knot of Baza, and runs south, west, and north, nearly 100 miles, before it joins the Guadalquivir. The Guadalquivir, after running 30 miles mose to the west, is joined from the north by the Guadarmena, which originates on the table-land of Cuença; and, after leaving it, flows south-west in a narrow valley of the Sierra Morena. It flows nearly 150 miles before it joins the Guadalquivir. Below the confluence of the Guadarmena, the Guadalquivir receives only the waters of one considerable affluent, the Xenil or Genil, which brings down the waters from the Sierra Nevada, and runs first west and afterwards northwest. Though its course does not exceed 100 miles, at its confluence with the Guadalquivir it is the larger river, and brings to it such a volume of water, that from this place the Guadalquivir becomes navigable for river-boats. At the town of Sevilla the Guadalquivir changes its southwestern course into a nearly southern course; and here the banks, which up to this point were rather high, sink down almost to the level of the river. In the low plain through which it flows it divides into several branches, which enclose two large islands, Isla Menor and Isla Mayor, which are very low and swampy: though fertile, they are nearly uninhabited. Below Isla Mayor, where the river runs in one channel, it forms a small æstuary, which is connected with the sea at S. Lucar de Borrameda. The whole course of the Guadalquivir falls short of 300 miles; but if the Guadarmena is considered as the principal branch, it runs nearly 100 miles more. Sloops may ascend the river to the town of Sevilla.
Among the rivers which fall into the Mediterranean besides the Ebro, the Segura, Xucar, and Guadalaviar require notice. The Segura originates in the Sierra de Segura north of the source of the Guadalquivir, and in its upper course, which nearly forms a semicircle running north, northeast, east, and south, it flows in a narrow valley between high mountains. Afterwards it runs east in the Vale of Murcia, and becomes navigable at that town for river barges, though a great volume of water is drawn from it to irrigate the extensive plain of Orihuela; where it enters that plain it is joined from the south by the Sangonera, which originates on the eastern declivity of the mountain-knot of Baza, and brings down a considerable volume of water. This river runs above 200 miles.
The Xucar rises on the elevated plain of Cuença, at the place where the Sierra de Molina is connected with the Sierra de Albaraçin, and it runs for more than 100 miles, mostly
south, in a broad and moderately fertile valley, without | Italy, is so much silk obtained as in the eastern and southern receiving any tributary. It then gradually turns to the provinces of Spain. The cochineal insect has been reared east, and after descending from the table-land near its con- in the last twenty years in Andalusia, Granada, and Estrefluence with the Cabriel, it flows in a wide and fertile valley madura, and it is said to thrive well. Bees are very abununtil it enters the plain of Valencia about 12 miles from its dant, and much honey and wax are obtained. Only a few inouth. It probably would be navigable for the last 30 or kinds of fish are met with in the rivers, but the fishery in 40 miles from its mouth, if the waters were less abundantly the Atlantic is important. On the coast of Galicia great applied to the irrigation of the adjacent country. Its course numbers of sardines are taken, and along the coast between considerably exceeds 200 miles.
Cadiz and Gibraltar the tunny and anchovies. The Guadalaviar or Turia rises on the north-eastern edge Spain abounds in minerals. Gold and silver are known of the table-land, in the mountain-ridge which runs from to exist in several places, but they were neglected whilst Montalban to the Peñagolosa. After having run about 30 Spain was in possession of the American colonies. The miles to the town of Teruel, its surface is still 2887 feet Darro, a small affluent of the Xenil, brings down from the above the sea-level. Its general course is to the south, but Sierra Nevada particles of gold. Silver-ore is extracted from after passing 40° N. lat. it gradually declines to the south- some mines near Guadalcanal, where platinum also has been east, and the course is nearly east where it enters the plain found. Some copper-mines are worked, but the produce is of Valencia, which is abundantly irrigated by its waters. small. A rich mine of quicksilver is worked near Almaden. After tlowing more than 20 miles in the plain, it falls into | Lead is very abundant, especially in the Sierra de Gador, the Mediterranean near Grao, where there is a bad roadstead. and the annual produce of the lead-mines is 600,000 cwt. Its whole course is about 150 miles.
Iron-ore is very abundant in the Sierra de Aralar, in the Productions. The most common kinds of grain which Sierra Nevada, and in the Alpujarras. That of the Sierra are cultivated in Spain are wheat, maize, barley, and rice. de Aralar is of the best quality, and the mines are worked The largest quantity of wheat is cultivated in Caialonia and to a cousiderable extent.' There are also tin, calamine, bisin the western portion of the plain of Old Castile and Leon. muth, cobalt, alum, vitriol, and sulphur, In some parts Rice is only grown in the countries along the Mediterranean, large quantities of salıpetre are collected. Coal occurs in from the boundary of France to Cabo de Palos. Frequently the Montañas de Asturias and in the Sierra Morena, but it the produce of the crops is not sufficient for home consump- is not much worked. Many kinds of marble are got in tion, and grain is imported. Other objects of agriculture Catalonia. Several precious stones are found, as rubies, are hemp and fax, especially in the basin of the Ebro, and topazes, amethysts, turquoises, and garnets. Salt is got madder and saffron on the table-land of Cuenca. In the near Cardona in Catalonia, from the lagune called the southern districts the sugar-cane and cotton are cultivated, Albufera de Valencia, and from the sea-water along the and the aloe for the thread which is obtained from it. The coast between Cape Trafalgar and the boundary of Pormost common vegetables are onions, pumpkins, cucumbers, tugal. melons, water-melons, potatoes, beans, and peas. Many (Miñano, Diccionario Geogr. Estadist. de España, &c.; fruit-trees are cultivated, as almonds, figs, pomegranates, Antillon's Geografia de España; Bourgoing's Tableau de lemons, oranges, pistachia nuts, carobas, dates in the southern T Espagne Moderne; Laborde's Itinéraire descriptif de districts, walnuts, hazel-nuts, and especially chesnut-trees, l'Espagne; Swinburne's Travels through Spain; Graham's which in some of the northern districts cover iarge tracts. Travels through Portugal and Spain; Temple's ObservaOlive-trees occur in all parts, except the northern mountain tions on a Journey to Spain and Italy; Temple's Second tracts, and the vineyards are extensive, except on the most Journey in Spain; Link's Reisen durch Frunkreich, elevated regions. Several of the Spanish wines are consi- Spanien, und Portugal; Fischer’s Gemählde von Valencia.) derable articles of commerce, as Xeres (Sherry). Malaga, Political Divisions.-In former times Spain was divided Alicante, Malvasia, Tinto, and Val de Peñas. Brandy and into fourteen large provinces, some of which were called raisins also are articles of export. Among the wild trees kingdoms, as Granada, Seville, Jaen, Murcia, Valencia, &c.; are the sweet-acorn oak (Quercus ballota), the cork-tree others principalities, like Asturias; others counties, like (Quercus suber), the kermes oak (Quercus coccifera), and Barcelona, Niebla, &c.; and lastly, others were called the sumach-tree. On the Montañas de Asturias and Aralar, provinces, like New and Old Castile, Estremadura, &c. and also on the western offsets of the Pyrenees, there are Biscay was termed Señorio. It is now divided into the follarge forests of fine timber-trees. The plant from which lowing forty-nine smaller provinces :- Alava, Albacete, the barilla is obtained grows partly wild and is partly culti- Alicante, Almeria, Avila, Badajoz, Baleares, Barcelona, vated in the plain of Murcia and some adjacent districts. Burgos, Caceres, Cadiz, Canarias, Castellon de la Plana, The liquorice-plant is abundant in the vicinity of Sevilla and Ciudad Real, Cordoba, Coruña, Cuenca, Gerona, Granada, near the mouth of the Ebro, and the prepared juice is sent Guadalajara, Guipuzcoa, Huelva, Huesca, Jaen, Leon, Leto all parts of Europe. The esparto is used for making rida, Logroño, Lugo, Madrid, Malaga, Murcia. Navarra, ropes, mats, baskets, &c. On the naked rocks of the Mon- Orense, Oviedo, Palencia, Pontevedra, Salamanca, Sanian tañas of Asturias, lichen Islandicus and orchil are collected. der, Segovia, Sevilla, Soria, Tarragona, Teruel, Toledo, VaThe caper-bush grows wild in the countries along the Medi- lencia, Valladolid, Vizcaya, Zamora, Zaragoza. terranean, in which also manna is collected.
Population. The present population of Spain is variously Among the doniestic animals the sheep and horses are estimated: some authors state it only at ten millions; distinguished. The sheep are noted for their fine wool, others at twelve; but in the absence of any official docuwhich forms an inportant article of export. They pass ments it is impossible to decide which estimate is nearest the summer on the Sierras de Guadarama, Avila, and the truth. The last census, made in 1803, gave a total of Gata, and the winter in the low mountains of Estremadura 10,351,000; which cannot have increased much owing to which lie between the Tajo and Guadiana. Their number the troubled state of the Peninsula since the commenceamounts to five or six millions. Sheep are also numerous ment of the present century. Don Sebastian Miñano, who, in other parts, but they have generally a coarse wool. in 1826, published a Geographical and Statistical Dictionary The horses of Spain, and especially those of Andalusia, are of the Peninsula (Diccionario Geografico de España y Pornoted for tbeir beauty; but during the French occupation tugal, Mad., 1826-9, art. • España'), estimates the population (1808-1814), nearly all the fine breeds were sent to France, of Spain at 13,732,176; which number he says thai he has and they are now rare. Cattle are only numerous and of obtained from documents and reports furnished him by the large size near the higher mountain-ranges; in other parts minister of the interior. But as the work of that author they are small. The asses and mules are distinguished by abounds in gross inaccuracies, and is well known to have their size and beauty. Pigs are not very numerous. Goats been written under the influence of a faction, and with a are more numerous than in any country of Europe, espe- view to exaggerate the population and resources of Spain, cially on the table-land. There are wild catile in the moun- no faith whatever can be placed in his statements. As a tain region of the Sierra Nevada, chamois in the Pyrenees, proof of the wilful exaggerations of which that writer has and porcupines in many places. The mountains also con- been guilty, we need only point out the fact of his having tain wolves, bears, lynxes, wild cats, and martens, the last given Madrid a population of upwards of 200,000; when, especially in Biscay. Chameleons are found near Cadız, by a census taken last year, it has been found to be only and monkeys on the rock of Gibraltar. The flamingo is 165.000. sometimes seen near Valencia, and there are also eagles. Religion.-The established religion is the Roman Catholic, The care of the silkworm, the cochineal insect, and bees are and no other is allowed in the Spanish dominions. The crowna branches of industry. In no country of Europe, except | presents the archbishops and bishops, who are confirmed bu