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the holy see; but the pope, having of late refused to grant factures. The chiet ex ports of Spain consist of wines-of bulls of confirmation to the ecclesiastics nominated by the which 4,130,755 gallons were shipped, in 1840, to England regent, almost all the sees of Spain are now administered alone-dried fruits, corn, oil, wool, quicksilver, lead, and ad interim by bishops appointed by the government. The some iron. The silk of Valencia, which is equal to that of wealth of the church was at one time immense; in 1780 Italy, is bought by the French manufacturers. the revenues of the archbishop of Toledo amounted to Government ana Constitution. — The government of about half a million sterling Since the Revolution the Spain during the midd.e ages was absolute, though, from clergy have been deprived of the tithes; and, by a law the peculiar position of the country, and the earlier devepassed in the last Cortes, and which has since obtained lopment of popular rights—the Cortes held at Burgos, in the royal sanction, the whole of the estates belonging to the 1169, having preceded by nearly a century the celebrated cathedrals are to be sold for the discharge of the national Leicester parliament--the power of the king was more vir: debt, and the clergy are henceforth to be supported by the tually restricted than in any other country of Europe. Fernation. The monastic orders have also been suppressed; dinand the Catholic aimed the first blow at Spanish liberty, and the convents, and the lands belonging to them, sold ; by avoiding, as much as possible, the convocation of the but the convents of nuns have been suffered to remain until Cortes. His successor, Charles V., completed the ruin of the the death of the present occupants.

Cortez, by entirely disregarding their petitions and defeating Education.- Education is not generally diffused; the the citizens who rose in arms to support the cause of nalower classes have little or no instruction at all. 'Until tional liberty. Spain continued to be ruled despotically by lately education was almost entirely in the hands of the regu- the kings of the houses of Austria and Bourbon until the lar clergy, or of the Jesuits, who had colleges in the capital | French invasion in 1808, when the deputies of the sereral and in the principal cities of the Peninsula; buî the sup- provinces assembled at Cadiz, and framed a new constitution, pression of that and the other monastic orders has been in which was sworn to and promulgated in 1812. At the close ihis respect severely felt by the public, as no effectual pro- of the war liowever, Ferdinand, who had recovered his livision has yet been made by government to supply the berty, refused to give it his sanction, and he re-established the place of the schools and colleges formerly kept by them. A old forms of government; but being compelled soon after society ho never has lately been formed at Madrid for the (1820) by a military insurrection, at the head of which was establishment of infant-schools, which has already produced General Riego, to swear to the constitution of 1812, it again some good results, and the example is now being followed became the law of the land, until it was a second time put by Barcelona, Valencia, and other large cities. The univer- down with the assistance of a French army. sities, which are nine in number, namely, Salamanca, Val- On the death of Ferdinand (1832), his widow, Queen ladolid, Santiago, Alcalá, Zaragoza, Huesca, Cervera, Se-Christina, wishing to conciliate the liberal party, gave the villa, and Toledo, are in a most deplorable condition, being nation a new charter (Estatuto Real), and re-established attended only by students destined for the church, or those the antient Cortes of the kingdom, with some slight modiwho follow the profession of law or of medicine, for which fications, one of which was the appointment of two chambers, only academical studies are required. The children of the that of the Procuradores,' or Deputies, and that of ihe ‘Pronobility and rich people are educated in France and other ceres,' or Peers. This last was composed of all the grandees parts of the Continent. There are in the capital various of Spain, who were declared peers by right of birth, as well as academies and literary societies (Madrid), but their labours of a certain number of noblemen, high functionaries, bishops, of late have been unimportant.

&c., whom the crown reserved to itself the right of creating Colonies. - The only colonies now remaining to Spain, of peers for life. The king alone had the power of convoking, susher once extensive dominions in America, are the islands pending, and dissolving the Cortes: the only occasion which of Cuba and Puerto Rico. She possesses the Philippine rendered their convocation imperative was the demise of Islands in Asia, and the fortresses of Ceuta, Melilla, the crown or the occurrence of any arduous affair which the and Peñon de la Gomera, on the northern coast of Africa, government might consider so important as to require that which are used as places of transportation for con- they should be consulted. In the event of a dissolution anvicts. The islands of Fernando Po and Annabon, on the other parliament was to be convoked before the lapse of the western coast of Africa, also belong to her.

year. The Cortes had not the power of deliberating on any Revenue, Trade, fc.—The public revenue of Spain, in matter which had not been expressly submitted to them; cluding that of her colonies, amounts to about 13,000,0001. but they had the right of petition. The concession of these sterling ; but the expenditure for several years has exceeiled and other political rights not having satisfied the demands the revenue by nearly one-half. The public debt amounts of the Liberal party, several attempts were afterwards made to about 40,000,000!. sterling, upon which no dividends have to re-establish the Constitution of 1812, though the more been paid for some time. No country of Europe equals enlightened part of the nation had long acknowledged its Spain in patural commercial advantages, whether we con- impracticablity. At last, in 1836, the revision of the Consider its situation or its cts. The coasts are ex- stitution was intrusted to the Chambers by the government; tensive, and the ports numerous and commodious; the and after a lengthy discussion, which lasted the whole of inhabitants, inured to a warm climate, visit the tropical re- the session, the new constitution of the Spanish kingdom gions with comparative safety; yet it is far behind any other was sworn to by the queen-regent, in June, 1837. This country in commercial importance. During the seventeenth differs materially from the old one of 1812. Instead of only century most of the Spanish trade with America was ca rried one chamber, as before, two were instituted—that of the on in Dutch or English vessels; and, with the exception Diputados and that of the Senadores - the members of of wine, wool, and oil, few if any of the productions of which are invested with equal powers, but all bills relating the Peninsula found their way to that market. About to taxation are to be presented in the first instance to the the close of the last century, under the enlightened admi- Lower Chamber. Instead of the indirect election, the direct nistration of Count Florida Blanca, Spanish commerce re- system is adopted. Both chambers are elected by the people, vived, and several manufactures were established through the crown having the privilege of choosing one out of every out the country. These however were all destroyed during three senators presented by the electors of the provinces. the Peninsular war, and the subsequent separation of the By the Constitution of 1812, the Cortes met annually on a American colonies from the mother country has completely fixed day without being summoned by the king; and the anmhilated the maritime trade of Spain. At present session lasted till another fixed day, two-thirds of the memCatalonia is almost the only province of Spain where bers having the power of adding a month to the session. manufacturing is carried on to any extent, but notwith- | The veto of the crown moreover was only suspensive in the standing the enormous duties imposed for their protec- enactment of laws; but in the present constitution it is abtion, few products of Catalonian industry can enter into solute. Much of the democratic tendency of the former has competition with the corresponding articles of foreign been done away with, and it has in most points been asmanufacture; and the most scandalous contraband trade similated to the constitution of other representative siates is carried on through Gibraltar, Portugal, and on the of Europe. It has however not been extended to the colonies. coast of the Mediterranean, to the great detriment of Luws.-During the period of Roman domination Spain the revenue. Were the Spaniards to devote their at- was governed by Roman law. The Northmen introduced tention to agriculture, and to establish speedy means of the Visigothic code, antiently called Forum Judicum, and communication between their provinces, by making roads Fuero Juzgo by the Spaniards. It was first promulgated or digging canals, it would prove a greater source of pros- by Euric ( A.D. 466-83), and greatly improved or augmented rerity to their country than the attempt to establislı manu- by his successors, its principal groundwork being the Bre

viarium, or body of law selected from the Theodosian Code, | Phænicians, they proceeded into the interior with a view to the Institutions of Gaius, and other sources, by command of the subjugation of the country, an attempt however in Alaric II., king of the Visigoths. Alfonso VI. caused it to which they completely failed; for although the Carthagibe translated into Castilian. Besides this written or statute nian generals, Hamilcar, his brother Hasdrubal, and his far law, the Visigoths and their successors had their peculiar more celebrated nephew Hannibal, completely reduced the customs, which might be termed their common or unwritten southern part of the Peninsula, they were unable to subdue law, and which, together with the Fueros, or immunities the warlike tribes of the interior. This attempt led to the granted to the settlers in towns or districts conquered from second Punic war. The Romans, either alarmed at the ihe Mohammedans, formed the body of national law. The progress of Hannibal, who had taken Saguntum, B.C. 218, or progressive improvement of society in the thirteenth century wistring to have a footing in the Peninsula, sent the two having rendered most of the provisions of the Fuero Juzgo brothers Publius and Cneius Scipio to the assistance of the impracticable, Alfonso 'el Sabio'substituted for it the code of Spanish tribes, with whom they had previously formed an Las Siete Purtidas, so called from the seven parts into which offensive and defensive alliance. After several sanguinarv it is divided. It is a compilation from the code of Justinian, encounters, Publius was routed and slain by Mago, and his the Visigothic and unwritten law, the local fueros, the de- brother Cneius met with the same fate near Tarragona, B.C cretals of the councils, &c., and may be considered the most 211; but Publius Cornelius Scipio, afterwards surnamed Afrivaluable monument of legislation during the middle ages. It canus, who succeeded in command of the armies of the reis still the basis of the Spanish common law; for although public, soon turned the scale in favour of the Romans. After more recent compilations exist (Novisima Recopilacion), taking Carthago Nova (Carthagena), a town founded by they are chiefly founded on it; and cases which cannot be Hasdrubal, defeating Hanno, whom he took prisoner, and decided either by them or the local fueros, must be decided gaining a decisive victory over Hasdrubal, the son of Gisco, by the Purtidas. A commission appointed by the Cortes for he invested and took Cadiz, and for ever freed Spain from the purpose of making a civil and criminal code for the the Punic yoke. [Scipio.) But the Spaniards only changed Spanish kingdom, has been sitting for some time, but the masters; and Spain was made a Roman province, and result of their labours has not yet been made known. divided into Citerior and Ulterior, the Iberus or Ebro being

Army and Navy.Before the breaking out of the civil a boundary between them. The subjugation of Spain war, the standing army of Spain amounted to 60,000 men, however was not easily or speedily accomplished. Numanbesides a reserve of Milicias Provinciales, which consisted tia, when besieged by Scipio Amilianus, emulated the of 30,000 men. These forces were considerably increased in heroism of Saguntum. [NUMANTIA.] 1832, and, at the close of the war amounted to upwards of Until the time of Augustus, the Cantabri, the Gallaici, 300,000 men, including in this number several regiments and the Astures, who inhabited the north-western parts of of national guards, who performed the same service as the the Peninsula, were not even nominally subjected to the troops of the line. Since the peace this number has been republic; and the other portions of Spain-Celtiberia in the greatly reduced; the royal guard has been abolished, and norih, Bætica in the south, and Lusitania in the west-beits regiments have been incorporated with the rest of the came the scene of constant warfare and rebellion. The army. The navy is in the most deplorable condition, two most remarkable of the native insurrections was that orgaships of the line and half a dozen frigates, with a few nized in Lusitania by Viriatus, who, during more than smaller vessels, being all that remains to Spain of her once eleven years, defeated the ablest generals of the republic, magnificent fleet.

and was only put down by the treachery of Cæpio, B.C. 140.

[VIRIATUS.] Spain was soon afterwards the theatre of the Ilistory.—The history of the Peninsula may be divided civil war between Marius and Sulla. Sertorius, a leader of into four periods: 1, Spain before the invasion of the the defeated party, fled thither, and carried on the war for Arabs; 2, Spain divided into kingdoms; 3, Spain under some time. Spain having espoused the cause of Pompey, the kings of the house of Austria; 4, Spain under the Julius Cæsar repaired thither in person, and by his military house of Bourbon.

skill triumphed over his enemies. Cneiis, the son of PomFirst Period. Spain before the invasion of the Arabs.- pey, was defeated at Munda, and peace was restored to the The history of the Peninsula, previous to the settlements country. of the Carthaginians, is unknown. The earliest inhabitants It was only under Augustus that Spain was completely mentioned by the Greek and Roman historians were the subdued; even the Cantabri and the Astures were reduced Iberi. The Iberi were disturbed in their possessions by the to submission. Augustus himself visited Spain, and he diCeltae, who invaded the Peninsula from Gaul, or, as oihers vided the country into three great provinces, Bætica, Lusiwould have it (Masdeu, Hist. crit. de España, vol. ii., p. 116, tania, and Tarraconensis, a division which subsisted until et seq.), from Africa, and subsequently settled in the northern the reign of Constantine the Great. During this period districts. In many places however, but chiefly in the central Spain was considered one of the most valuable and floudistricts of the Peninsula, the two races seem to have been rishing provinces of the empire. According to Pliny, it conamalgamated, and to have formed only one nation, known as tained three hundred and sixty large cities. The organizathe Celtiberians. [CELTIBERI.] The rich corn-lands, the mines, tion of the Spanish provinces is fully stated by Pliny (iii., and seaports of the Peninsula, attracted the attention of the 1, &c.). Spain gave birth to the poets Lucan and Martial, early Phænician navigators. The time when the Phænicians to the philosopher Seneca, and to the emperors Hadrian first had commercial intercourse with the inhabitants of the and Trajan. southern coast of Spain is not ascertained; but it was About the beginning of the fifth century, the Suevi under doubtless before the foundation of either Rome or Carthage. their king Hermeric, the Alans under Atace, and the VanFor some time their settlements, of which Ghadir (now dals or Silingi under Gunderic, after overrunning the proCadiz) was the principal, were limited to the coasts of vinces of Gaul and crossing the Pyrenees, settled in the Bætica, whence they supplied the natives with the products Peninsula. They were speedily followed (A.D. 411) by a host of Asia, in exchange for the gold, silver, iron, and other of Visigoths led by their king Athaulf, who established valuable productions of the Peninsula. But as they became himself in Catalonia, though nominally dependent upon his better acquainted with the country, they penetrated into the brother-in-law Honorius, the Roman emperor. Wallia, interior, where they founded the city of Kartabah (now one of Athault's successors, obliged the Vandals and the Cordova), and explored the mountainous districts of Navarre Alans to quit Spain for Africa, and the Suevi, after being in search of iron. The Phænicians however were not the defeated in many battles, acknowledged his superiority only maritime nation which had settlements on the coast of (416-8). It was not however until the time of Euric (466Spain. The Rhodians visited the shores of Catalonia, and 83) that the Goths became complete masters of the Peninfounded a town, which they called Rhode (now Rosas). sula. Euric must be considered as the first Gothic sovereign [Rosas.] They were followed by the Phocæans, who of Spain, as the six kings, his predecessors, ruled over Gaul, founded the town which is now Denia, and probably and occasionally only over Spain. He was also the also that of Chersoneus (now Peniscola), on the same first legislator of his nation, and the laws which he collected coast, and who, having in time dispossessed the Rho- or promulgated became in after time the foundation of the dians, extended their settlements along the shores of Va- • Forum Judicum' or Fuero Juzgo. After the death of lencia. There were other Greek settlements, the names of Amalric, who fell in battle against Clovis, king of the which may still be recognised in their modern appellations, Franks (531), the Gothic kings appear to have been as Emporion, now Ampurias. The Carthaginians also either elective or hereditary according to circumstances directed their views towards Spain. Having insidiously | The first king chosen was Theudis. His reign was troubled porsessed themselves of Cadiz, which they iook from the I wish wars, and terminated by his assassination in 548. One private individual then followed another upon the throne, , riage of Petronila, daughter of Ramiro II., with Raymond none of whom occupied it long or died a natural death. Inv., count of Barcelona. 554, Athanagild, a noble Goth, having usurped the royal The crowns of Castile and Leon were also united power, purchased the assistance of Justinian, the Eastern at times on the same head, either by marriage or by emperor, by surrendering to him some fortresses along the conquest. In 1072, after the assassination of Sancho south-eastern coast, and promising to hold the rest of his 11., king of Castile, before the walls of Zamora, his dominions as a fief of the empire. Under the reign of this brother, Alfonso VI. of Leon, became king of Asturias, monarch, the Suevi, who still held some districts of Galicia, Leon, Galicia, and Castile. About the same time (A.D. following the example of their king Theodomir, abjured 1095) the kingdom of Portugal was founded by Henry de Arianism, and were admitted into the bosom of the church. Besançon, to whom Alonso gave in marriage his natural Spain was not entirely emancipated from her dependence daughter Theresa, together with the right of conquest upon the empire until the reign of Leovigild, one of the over the Moors. (PORTUGAL.] To relate the particular hisgreatest Gothic kings, who subdued the Suevi, and incorpo- tory of these states falls not within the limits of this article. rated that vassal state with his own kingdom. He was just Their rulers were frequently at war with each other, instead and brave. His first wife Theodosia had three brothers, of uniting their arms against the common foe, and thus the who were canonized by the Catholic church for their piety, deliverance of the Peninsula froin the infidel was retarded. namely, St. Isidore, St. Fulgentius, and St. Leander. His It was not until the end of the eleventh century that these son Hermengild, who revolted against him, has been states began to extend their frontiers at the expense of the canonized by the papal see, and represented as an humble Mohammedans; and this was owing more to the dissensions and persecuted martyr, instead of a rebellious and ungrateful and civil wars which broke out among their enemies, thian son, merely because he abjured Arianism and embraced the to the wise policy or vigorous attacks of their Christian Catholic faith. In 672 the throne of Gothic Spain was oc- leaders. In 1085, Toledo and the neighbouring districts cupied by Wamba, a monarch distinguished by his virtues were reduced by Alonso III. of Castile, under whose reign and abilities. The Saracens of Africa having attempted to Rodrigo de Vivar, surnamed E. Cid, achieved most of his land at Gibraltar, Wamba fitted out a tfeet and defeated them exploits. [ALONSO VI.! His randson and successor, in the first naval action recorded in the annals of Spain. Alonso VIII., usually styled the Emperor, advanced the He was succeeded by Ervigius, and Ervigius by Egica, who frontiers of Castile from the Tagus to the Sierra Morena. repulsed the attacks of the Saracens, but is best known for Ferdinand III. took Badajoz and Merida in 1230, Cordova his legislative labours. Egica associated his son Witiza in 1236, and Jaen, Seville, and Murcia in 1243. To his in the empire, whose depravity and misgovernment reduced brilliant successes over the Mohammedans he owed the the country to the most deplorable condition. He was de- surname of ‘ El Santo' (the saint), which the Spaniards gare throned by Roderic, under whose reign (A D. 711) the Arabs him, and which was afterwards confirmed by a bull of caof Africa, commanded by Tárik Ibn Zeyád, crossed the nonization from Clement X. in 1671. His son and successtraits, and, after defeating the whole force of the Gothic sor, Alsonso X., surnamed el Sabio, or the learned, is beiter monarchy on the banks of the Guadalete (Moors), took known for the 'Astronomical Tables' which pass under liis the capital, Toledo.

name, and for the compilation of the laws of the Siete Second Period. Spain divided into Kingdoms (from Partidas,'han for his conquests. During this time the A.D. 711 to A.D. 1518).— Músa Ibn Nosseyr, who followed kings of Aragon were not inactive. As early as the beginin the steps of Tarik, prosecuted his conquests, and reduced ning of the eleventh century (1035.63) Ramiro I. had exthe whole of Spain to the sway of Islám, with the exception tended the frontiers of bis little kingdom, and made the of the mountainous districts of the Asturias, where the Moorish kings of Tudela, Saragossa, and Lerida his tribuprelates and chiefs of the Goths fled for refuge. (Musa.] taries. His successor (1063-94) Sancho I. reduced all the It was from those mountains, the cradle of Spanish liberty, Mohammedan fortresses between the Pyrenees and the that a Gothic nobleman, named Pelayo, attempted to rescue Cinca. Alonso I. took Saragossa in 1118, and made it the his country from the yoke of the infidel. Profiting by the capital of his kingdom. He also conquered all the country divisions among the Moslems, he seized on some towns south of the Ebro, and from his warlike habits was suiarnong the mountains, defeated the forces sent against him, named el Batallador (the warlike). Jayme I., the most and, having successively enlarged his dominions, founded the celebrated king in the antient annals of Aragon, prosecuted small kingdom of Asturias, which he transmitted to his son the conquests of his predecessors. In 1229 he took the Baand successor Favila, in 737. [PELAYO.) Alfonso, sur- learic Islands, which, though reduced in 1115 by Raymond named the Catholic, who succeeded Favila (in 739), made III., count of Barcelona, had again fallen into the hands of ample additions to his territories. He was succeeded by his the Mohammedan pirates. The important city of Valencia, eldest son Fruela (757), and Fruela by Aurelio (768), under the capital of a Moorish kingdom of that name, submitted whose rule no important accessions were made to the terri- to him in 1238. Owing to these and other conquesis of the tory of the Christian kingdom. Pressed on every side by kings of Castile and Aragon, the Spanish Moslems were the victorious Abdu-r-rahmán I., who occupied the throne driven to the mountains of Granada, where, in 1248, Moof Cordova, the little state of Asturias, with its possessions hammed Ibnu-l-ahmar founded a new kingdom. [Moors.) in Leon, seems only to have had a precarious existenc. Afier this several unsuccessful attempts were made by Indeed Mauregato, a natural son of Alfonso the Catholic by the Africans to re-establish the rule of Islám in Spain. In a Mohammedan slave, who, with the aid of Abdu-r-rahman, 1273 Abú Yusuf Ya'kub Ibn 'Abdi-l-bakk, fourih sultan ascended the throne of Asturias in 783, is said to have in- of Marocco of the dynasty of the Benu Merin, crossed the sured peace only by payment of an annual tribute of 100 strait with a formidable host; but after some slight adranvirgins, half of noble and half of ignoble birth. While these tages, he returned to his dominions without making any events were passing in the north-western parts of the Pen- important conquest. In 1339 Abú-l-hasan, king of Fez, insula, another Christian kingdom was rising into existence having landed at Gibraltar with considerable forces, was in the recesses of the Pyrenees. In 758, according to the defeated on the banks of the river Salado, near Tarifa, by best native historians, Garcia Ximenez, a wealthy noble of the kings of Castile and Portugal united (October, 1340). Cantabrian origin, was proclaimed king by the inhabitants During the reign of Pedro IV. of Castile, England for of the country of Sobrarbe, which became in time the foun- the first time interfered in the internal affairs of dation of the two kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon; but Spain. That prince, who from his tyrannical rule and the early history of this little kingdom is involved in such cruelties, was surnamed 'el Cruel," began his reigu obscurity, that the successive labours of critics and his- with the murder of his father's mistress, Eleonora de torians have hitherto failed in attempting to separate his- Guzman; his nobles and high vassals fell the victims of torical truth from romance.

his cruelty, or, as it has been qualified by his apologist About the beginning of the ninth century, Wifrid, a go- Zuñiga, of his unflinching severity and love of justice. In vernor of the Spanish March for the French, assumed the 1358 he treacherously murdered his natural brother Don title of count of Barcelona. Nearly two centuries after Fadrique, who was grand-master of Santiago. His next (A.D. 1005), the ancient province of Bardulia, which, from victim was liis cousin Juan, prince of Aragon. He dithe numerous forts erected by Alfonso I. for its desence, vorced his queen, Blanche of Bourbon, threw her into a took the name of Custella, afier being long governed by dungeon, and afterwards had her poisoned. Henry, count ceunts, the first of whom was Ferran Gonzalez, was formed of Trastamara, Pedro's natural brother, alarmed at the fate into a kingdom by Sancho el Mayor, who was likewise king of his family, took shelter in France. Having, with the of Navarre.

consent of Charles V., raised a strong body of mercenary In 1137 Catalonia was annexed to Aragon by the mar- 1 adventurers, commanded by Bertrand du Guesclin, he invaded Castile. Pedro was easily overpowered, and while the bulwarks of the Moorish kingdom, was reduced by the his successful rival was proclaimed king at Burgos (1366). marquis of Cadiz; Loja, Velez, Malaga, Baza, and other he hastily fled to Bordeaux, at that time the capital of the strong places surrendered between 1483 and 1492; and the English dominions in France. He there implored the capital itself fell into the hands of Ferdinand after an obstiassistance of Edward, Prince of Wales, who, having ob- nate and long protracted defence. (GRANADA; Moors.] tained his father's consent, levied an army, and entered The conquest of Granada was followed by the expulsion, Spain. Henry encountered him at the head of 100,000 or rather the pillage of the Jews, who had engrossed nearly men, and, against the advice of Du Guesclin, gave him all the wealth and commerce of Spain. The next important battle near Naxera. The English were victorious; Du event was the discovery of a new world by Columbus Guesclin was made prisoner; Henry fled to France, and [COLUMBUS), the credit of which was entirely due to IsaPedro was again king of Leon and Castile. The Black bella. The counties of Rousillon and Cerdagne, which the Prince however had soon reason to repent of the aid he had French had retained since 1462, were restored by Charles given to Pedro, who not only refused the sums that he had VIII., who wished to conciliate Ferdinand previous to his agreed to pay for the English forces, but, disregarding the expedition into Italy, but Ferdinand could not overlook the advice of his humane ally, again stained the throne with wild ambition of the French king, who laid claim to the the blood of his relatives and courtiers. [PEDRO.] Accord kingdom of Naples, whose sovereign, Ferdinand I.

, was ingly, when Henry attacked him a second time, the Black closely related to the house of Aragon. Accordingly FerdiPrince left him to his fate, and Pedro lost his throne and nand sent an army to his assistance, under the command of his life (1369). These events led to the connexion of the Gonsalvo de Cordova, who in less than one year expelled houses of Lancaster and Trastamara, by the marriage of the French from their conquests and reseated the king of Enrique III. of Castile with Catherine, daughter of John of Naples on his throne. Seeing however that Lewis XII., Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by Constanza, daughter of who succeeded Charles on the throne of France, was intent Pedro IV. Henry IV., surnamed 'the Impotent,' who suc- upon the subjugation of Naples, the wary Ferdinand ceeded John II. in 1455, was one of the weakest kings, proposed to him to divide that kingdom, on the plea both in mind and in body, that ever ascended a throne. that Frederic had refused his consent to the marriage The nobility, with the archbishop of Toledo at their head, of his son and heir the duke of Calabria with his combining against him, arrogated the right of trying and aunt Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand II. of Naples, passing sentence on their king, whom they publicly de- and had by ill treatment obliged that princess to quit posed in 1465.

Naples for Spain. Louis accepted the offer, and in 1501 All the malcontent nobility were summoned to a plain Naples was conquered and divided between the allies. not far from the city of Avila, where a scaffold was erected This infamous transaction turned entirely to the advantage of sufficient elevation to be easily seen from the surround of the Spanish king, who in 1506 caused his general Goning country. An image representing the king was seated salvo to attack the French, who were ultimately disposon a chair of state, clad in sable robes and adorned with all sessed of all their dominions in Italy. [Gonsalvo; Italy.] the insignia of royalty; a sword at its side, a sceptre in its The establishment of the Inquisition in 1480 [Office, hand, ani a crown upon its head. A manifesto was then Holy), the compulsory baptisın of the Moriscos, and the read, and sentence of deposition pronounced, after which conquest of Navarre, which in 1512 was finally annexed to the archbishop of Toledo ascended the platform, and tore Spain, are among the important events of this reign. On the crown from the head of the image; the marquis of Vil the death of Isabella (1506), the crown of Castile devolved lena removed the sceptre, the count of Placencia the sword, on her daughter Joanna, wife of Philip, archduke of Austria, the grand-master of Alcantara and the counts of Benavente and on the death of the latter, upon his son Charles V., afterand Paredes the rest of the regal insignia; the image, wards emperor of Germany. Ferdinand died on the 23rd of thus deprived of its honours, was precipitated from the January, 1516, after appointing Cardinal Ximenez regent scaffold amidst the mingled groans and clamours of the of Castile until the arrival of his grandson Charles, who spectators. The young prince Alfonso, at that time only was only sixteen years old. Ximenez maintained order in eleven years of age, was seated on the vacant throne, and the kingdom, and repressed the ambition of the haughty the assembled nobility kissed his hand in token of obedience. Castilian nobles, who disdained submission to one whom This extraordinary transaction was followed by a civil war, they considered their inferior. (CISNEROS.] which did not cease till after the death of the young prince, The history of Spain during this period is very rich in on whom the nobles had bestowed the kingdom. On the materials. Besides the Chronicles of Isidorus Pacensis, death of Alfonso (July 5, 1468), his sister Isabella was who lived in the eighth century; of Sebastian of Salaimmediately proclaimed, but on her refusal to assume manca , of the anonymous monk of Abelda, who wrote in the government whilst her father was still living, the the ninth; of Sampiro, bishop of Astorga, whose narrative malcontents were compelled to come to terms with comes down to 982; of the monk of Silos, who brought the dethroned king, who was suffered to resume his down t national history to the reign of Alfonso VI.; and of power on condition that he would divorce his queen, Pelayo, bishop of Oviedo,who lived in the twelfth centurywhose dissolute conduct was the cause of general detes- all of which are in the collection of Florez, entitled 'España tation, and acknowledge Isabella, the only lawful heiress Sagrada,' Mad., 1754-84—the history of Spain at this of the kingdom, to the prejudice of his daughter Joanna, period is mostly indebted to Don Lucas, bishop of Tuy, who was reputed to be the daughter of his favou- whose • Chronicon Mundi' apud Schottum, Hisp. Illust., rite, Don Beltran de la Cueva, duke of Albuquerque, vol. ii. and iv., Francf., 1603-8), and to Don RodrigoXimenez, whence she was called · La Beltraueja. The next step archbishop of Toledo, whose . Rerum in Hispania Gestarum taken by the insurgents was to secure the marriage of the Chronicon (Gran., 1545), and Historia Arabum (Lugd. Bat., princess, who, after several months spent in negotiation, 1625), are most valuable. The reader may also consult was betrothed to prince Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469. On Rodericus Sanctius, Historia Hispanica; Alfonsus à Carthe death of Henry (December 11th, 1474), his daughter Isa- thagena, Anacephalæosis (apud Schottum, vol. 1.); Zurita, bella was raised to the throne, though not without opposi- Anales de Aragon (Sarag., 1610); Moret, Anales de Nation. A considerable number of the Castilian nobility varra (Pamp., 1665); Lopez Cortejano, Chronica de Ferespoused the cause of Joanna, whom they caused to be pro- nando III. (Vallad., 1555); Villasan, Chronica de Don claimed queen of Castile at Placencia, and betrothed to her Alfonso XI. (Vallad., 1551); Ayala, Chronica de los Reyes uncle Alfonzo V., king of Portugal, who prepared to assert de Castilla ; Fernan Perez de Guzman, Chronica de Don her rights to the throne at the head of a powerful army. But Juan II.; and those of Ferdinand and Isabella by Valera, the superior talents of Ferdinand prevailed; the Portuguese Palencia, and Nebrixa. A ‘History of the Reign of Ferking was defeated at Toro (May, 1476), and after several dinand and Isabella,' by Mr. Prescott (Boston, 1839), is years of desultory warfare was obliged to retreat into his highly praised. dominions, and to give up the cause of his niece and in- 111. `Establishment of the House of Austria (1518-16). — tended bride, who retired into a convent. By the death of Soon after his accession to the throne of Spain, Charles Jóbn II., Ferdinand's father, which happened about this became one of the candidates for the vacant Imperial crown,

ime (January 20, 1479), the kingdoms of Aragon and and although Francis I. of France proved a dangerous comSicily were annexed to the crown of Castile. No sooner petitor, he was chosen by the Diet in 1519. Thus originated were Ferdinand and Isabella delivered from their internal the rivalry of the two kings, which gave birth to a series enemies, than they turned their arms against the Moham- of wars, in which almost all Europe was involved. Whilst medans, who in the late civil dissensions had been seldom Charles was hastening to Aix-la-Chapelle to take possession disturbed. In 1481, the important city of Alhama, one of of the empire, a formidable insurrection broke out in

Castile, which spread to other provinces of Spain. The Clement, who was sent a prisoner to Spain, and the avarice of the Flemings, to whom the administration of treaty of Cambray, by which Francis agreed to pay two affairs had been almost entirely committed since the death millions of crowns as the ransom of his two sons; to resign of Ximenez, and the utter disregard shown by Charles the sovereignty of Flanders and Artois; and to forego all himself of all constitutional forms, so incensed the people his Italian claims, while Charles was not to demand the that they rose in arms for the defence of their rights. restitution of Burgundy. Toledo took the lead; the citizens expelled the king's During these transactions, war had been carried on with officers, elected municipal governors and councils, to whom various success against the Turks, who in 1522 took ile they gave the name of comunidades, and raised a body of island of Rhodes, and against the piratical states on the troops, the command of which they entrusted to John of northern coast of Africa. No sooner was the peace cousoli. Padilla. The attempts made by Adrian, the regent of dated, than Charles determined to turn his arms against the kingdom during Charles's absence, to quell the the African pirates. In 1535 an expedition, conducted by insurrection proved unsuccessful. The royal troops were the emperor in person, sailed for the port of Tunis, which defeated near Segovia, and the rebellion spread through had lately fallen into the hands of the corsair Barbarossa ; Leon, Galicia, and Estremadura. This seemed to Francis I. Muley Hasan, the dethroned king of Tunis, promising to a favourable opportunity for reinstating Jean D'Albret in assist Charles with his forces. Goletta, a seaport town, fortithe kingdom of Navarre. A French army, under Andrew fied with 300 pieces of cannon, was taken, with all the Turkish de Foix, speedily conquered that kingdom, the garrisons of fleet within; the corsair himself was defeated in a pitched which were then employed against the comuneros of Cas-battle; and 10,000 Christian slaves, having knocked off tile, but that young and inexperienced general having ven- their fetters, made themselves masters of the citadel, whilst tured to penetrate into Castile, the Spaniards, though Charles was engaging the enemy outside the town. The divided, united their forces, routed his army, took him sceptre was restored to Muley Hasan on condition that he prisoner, and recovered Navarre in a shorter time than he should acknowledge himself the vassal of the emperor, dehad subdued it. The Count of Haro, who had succeeded liver up all his fortresses on the coast of Tunis, and pay an Ronquillo in the command of the royal forces against the annual tribute of 12,000 crowns for the support of the comuneros, retook Tordesillas, defeated the insurgents in Spanish garrisons. An attempt made some years after several actions, and at length took Padilla prisoner, and had (1541) upon Algiers was not equally successful. A storm him executed. [Padilla.] His widow Donna Maria, a drove the fleet from its moorings; the army, being deprived woman of high spirit, induced the citizens of Toledo still to of provisions and ammunition, was cut off by disease or the defend the cause for which her husband had fallen, but sword of the Arabs, and Charles was compelled to raise the all her efforts were in vain. Toledo was taken by the siege of that city, leaving his artillery and baggage belind. rovalists, and she fled to Portugal. The consequence of The remainder of his reign was spent in war with France or this unsuccessful rebellion was a material accession of with the Protestant princes of Germany, who, in August, power to the triumphant party, and a proportionate reduc. 1552, obtained the free exercise of their religion in Their tion of those rights for the extension of which the van- dominions. (Charles V. OF GERMANY.] Soon after the quished had fought. A league was about this time con- decease of his mother Joanna (1555), Charles assembled the cluded by the intrigues of Cardinal Wolsey, between the states of the Low Countries at Brussels on the 25th of OcPope, Henry VIII., and Charles, against France. By tober, and resigned the sovereignty of his paternal dominions granting him the revenues of two sees in Spain, and to his son Philip, to whom he had already given liis Italian pledging his word that he would assist him in obtaining the possessions on the occasion of his marriage with Mary papacy, Charles won over to his interests the ambitious of England in 1554. Two weeks after he made over cardinal. Strengthened by this alliance, the emperor pro- to him, before a large assembly of German princes and ceeded to expel the French from the duchy of Milan, where Spanish grandees, the rest of his European and American the insolence and exactions of Marshalde Lautrec had dominions; and in the following year (1556) he likewise inade them extremely odious. The papal army, commanded resigned the Imperial crown to his brother Ferdinand, who by Prospero Colonna, an experienced general, being joined had already been elected King of the Romans and his sucby Spanish troops from Germany and Naples, attacked and In February, 1557, he retired to the monastery of defeated them, and after an unsuccessfulcanipaign the French St. Just, near Plasencia in Extremadura, where he passed evacuated the duchy, retaining only the town of Cremona the remainder of his days. During the reign of this able and the castle of Milan. The election of Cardinal Adrian, monarch, the empire of Mexico was conquered by IlerCharles's preceptor, who in 1521 was raised to the papal nando Cortés (1318-21); Magalhaens, a Portuguese officer, sce, to the astonishment of all Europe, and to the great discovered the westward passage to the East Indies, througlı (lisappointment of Wolsey, roused the anger of his rival the 'Strait of Magalhaens,' and opened to Spain the rich Francis, and war broke out again in Lombardy; but the trade of India and China; in 1531 Pizarro, following in advantage remained entirely with the Imperialists and Balboa’s steps, made his way to Peru, and overthrew the Spaniards. At last, after a series of campaigns, during empire of the Incas. [Cortes ; MAGALHAENS; PIZARRO.) which the duchy of Milan, for which they chiefly contended, The following are the best histories of this reign :-Sanwas alternately gained and lost by both parties, the year doval, Historia de Carlos V.' (Pamplona, 1618, fol.); Vera, 1524 ended with the defeat and capture of the French king 'Epitome de la Vida,' &c. (Mad., 1613, 4to.); Ulloa, Vita before Pavia on the 24th of February. [FRANCIS.) On his del Imperatore Carlo V!' (Venetia, 1559, 410.); and Roberts arrival in Madrid, where he was removed under the escort son's invaluable work. of Don Antonio de Leyva, Francis asked to see his rival, Philip II. had neither the inclination nor the talents who refused him an interview, and kept him in rigorous for war of his father; accordingly his first step upon his confinement until the terms for his liberation should be accession was to negociate a peace with France, through the agreed upon. After a great deal of negociating, a treaty mediation of his wife Mary of England. This however was at length concluded (1526), by which Francis was to was of short duration. Henry II., having been induced by rede Burgundy; to give up all claims on Italy, as well as the pope to re-assert the rights of France to the sovereignty on the sovereignty of Flanders and Artois; to restore of Naples, sent the duke of Guise into Italy at the head of a Charles de Bourbon to his dignities and states; to marry powerful army; but the superior talents of the duke of Eleanor, queen-dowager of Portugal, sister of the emperor, Alba, who commanded the Spanish forces, prevailed, and and finally to deliver his eldest and second son as hostages the French were expelled from the Neapolitan territory. for the fulfilment of these agreements. Should the states- In 1557 the united forces of Spain and England, commanded general of his kingdom prevent the execution of this treaty, by the duke of Savoy, gained the battle of St. Quentin, in Francis solemnly swore to return to his prison. But while commemoration of which a monastery, sacred to St. Lauhe pledged his oath and honour for the fulfilment of these rence, was built at considerable expense. (Escurial.] The conditions, Francis is said to have signed a secret protest death of Mary, 1558, and the accession of Elizabeth to the against the validity of his promise, a subterfuge ill suiting throne of England, changed the state of afairs. Philip's a king whom the writers of his nation have represented as return to Spain was followed by a most sanguinary persea model of chivalry and honour, in opposition to his imperial cution, by which he succeeded in crushing the germ of the rival, whom they describe as equally perfidious and unfeel. Reformation in the Peninsula. The Moriscos, who, what. ing. Long wars, acrimonious negociations, and a formal ever might be their attachment to the habits and faith of challenge to single combat from Francis to Charles ensued, their ancestors, bad proved loyal subjects to his father, were ending in the taking and sack of Rome by the Constable of so exasperated by his measures, that they revolted in several Bourbon (May, 1527) (BOURBON), the capture of Pope' provinces of the kingdom; and after a furious and long.


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