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the holy see; but the pope, having of late refused to grant | factures. The chiet exports of Spain consist of wines-of bulls of confirmation to the ecclesiastics nominated by the which 4,130,755 gallons were shipped, in 1840, to England regent, almost all the sees of Spain are now administered alone-dried fruits, corn, oil, wool, quicksilver, lead, and ad interim by bishops appointed by the government. The some iron. The silk of Valencia, which is equal to that of wealth of the church was at one time immense; in 1780 Italy, is bought by the French manufacturers. the revenues of the archbishop of Toledo amounted to about half a million sterling. Since the Revolution the clergy have been deprived of the tithes; and, by a law passed in the last Cortes, and which has since obtained the royal sanction, the whole of the estates belonging to the cathedrals are to be sold for the discharge of the national debt, and the clergy are henceforth to be supported by the nation. The monastic orders have also been suppressed; and the convents, and the lands belonging to them, sold; but the convents of nuns have been suffered to remain until the death of the present occupants.

Education.-Education is not generally diffused; the lower classes have little or no instruction at all. Until lately education was almost entirely in the hands of the regular clergy, or of the Jesuits, who had colleges in the capital and in the principal cities of the Peninsula; but the suppression of that and the other monastic orders has been in this respect severely felt by the public, as no effectual provision has yet been made by government to supply the place of the schools and colleges formerly kept by them. A society ho vever has lately been formed at Madrid for the establishment of infant-schools, which has already produced some good results, and the example is now being followed by Barcelona, Valencia, and other large cities. The universities, which are nine in number, namely, Salamanca, Valladolid, Santiago, Alcalá, Zaragoza, Huesca, Cervera, Sevilla, and Toledo, are in a most deplorable condition, being attended only by students destined for the church, or those who follow the profession of law or of medicine, for which only academical studies are required. The children of the nobility and rich people are educated in France and other parts of the Continent. There are in the capital various academies and literary societies [MADRID], but their labours of late have been unimportant.

Government ana Constitution. The government of Spain during the midd.e ages was absolute, though, from the peculiar position of the country, and the earlier development of popular rights-the Cortes held at Burgos, in 1169, having preceded by nearly a century the celebrated Leicester parliament-the power of the king was more vir tually restricted than in any other country of Europe. Ferdinand the Catholic aimed the first blow at Spanish liberty, by avoiding, as much as possible, the convocation of the Cortes. His successor, Charles V., completed the ruin of the Cortez, by entirely disregarding their petitions and defeating the citizens who rose in arms to support the cause of national liberty. Spain continued to be ruled despotically by the kings of the houses of Austria and Bourbon until the French invasion in 1808, when the deputies of the several provinces assembled at Cadiz, and framed a new constitution, which was sworn to and promulgated in 1812. At the close of the war however, Ferdinand, who had recovered his liberty, refused to give it his sanction, and he re-established the old forms of government; but being compelled soon after (1820) by a military insurrection, at the head of which was General Riego, to swear to the constitution of 1812, it again became the law of the land, until it was a second time put down with the assistance of a French army.


Colonies. The only colonies now remaining to Spain, of her once extensive dominions in America, are the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico. She possesses the Philippine Islands in Asia, and the fortresses of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñon de la Gomera, on the northern coast of Africa, which are used as places of transportation for convicts. The islands of Fernando Po and Annabon, on the western coast of Africa, also belong to her.

On the death of Ferdinand (1832), his widow, Queen Christina, wishing to conciliate the liberal party, gave the nation a new charter (Estatuto Real), and re-established the antient Cortes of the kingdom, with some slight modifications, one of which was the appointment of two chambers, that of the Procuradores,' or Deputies, and that of the 'Proceres,' or Peers. This last was composed of all the grandees of Spain, who were declared peers by right of birth, as well as of a certain number of noblemen, high functionaries, bishops, &c., whom the crown reserved to itself the right of creating peers for life. The king alone had the power of convoking, suspending, and dissolving the Cortes: the only occasion which rendered their convocation imperative was the demise of the crown or the occurrence of any arduous affair which the government might consider so important as to require that they should be consulted. In the event of a dissolution another parliament was to be convoked before the lapse of the year. The Cortes had not the power of deliberating on any Revenue, Trade, &c.-The public revenue of Spain, in- matter which had not been expressly submitted to them; cluding that of her colonies, amounts to about 13,000,000Z. but they had the right of petition. The concession of these sterling; but the expenditure for several years has exceeded and other political rights not having satisfied the demands the revenue by nearly one-half. The public debt amounts of the Liberal party, several attempts were afterwards made to about 40,000,000%. sterling, upon which no dividends have to re-establish the Constitution of 1812, though the more been paid for some time. No country of Europe equals enlightened part of the nation had long acknowledged its Spain in patural commercial advantages, whether we con- impracticablity. At last, in 1836, the revision of the Consider its situation or its products. The coasts are ex-stitution was intrusted to the Chambers by the government; tensive, and the ports numerous and commodious; the and after a lengthy discussion, which lasted the whole of inhabitants, inured to a warm climate, visit the tropical re- the session, the new constitution of the Spanish kingdom gions with comparative safety; yet it is far behind any other was sworn to by the queen-regent, in June, 1837. This country in commercial importance. During the seventeenth differs materially from the old one of 1812. Instead of only century most of the Spanish trade with America was carried one chamber, as before, two were instituted-that of the on in Dutch or English vessels; and, with the exception Diputados and that of the Senadores-the members of of wine, wool, and oil, few if any of the productions of which are invested with equal powers, but all bills relating the Peninsula found their way to that market. About to taxation are to be presented in the first instance to the the close of the last century, under the enlightened admi- Lower Chamber. Instead of the indirect election, the direct nistration of Count Florida Blanca, Spanish commerce re- system is adopted. Both chambers are elected by the people, vived, and several manufactures were established through- the crown having the privilege of choosing one out of every out the country. These however were all destroyed during three senators presented by the electors of the provinces. the Peninsular war, and the subsequent separation of the By the Constitution of 1812, the Cortes met annually on a American colonies from the mother country has completely fixed day without being summoned by the king; and the annihilated the maritime trade of Spain. At present session lasted till another fixed day, two-thirds of the memCatalonia is almost the only province of Spain where bers having the power of adding a month to the session. manufacturing is carried on to any extent, but notwith- The veto of the crown moreover was only suspensive in the standing the enormous duties imposed for their protec- enactment of laws; but in the present constitution it is abtion, few products of Catalonian industry can enter into solute. Much of the democratic tendency of the former has competition with the corresponding articles of foreign been done away with, and it has in most points been asmanufacture; and the most scandalous contraband trade similated to the constitution of other representative states is carried on through Gibraltar, Portugal, and on the of Europe. It has however not been extended to the colonies. coast of the Mediterranean, to the great detriment of Laws.-During the period of Roman domination Spain the revenue. Were the Spaniards to devote their at- was governed by Roman law. The Northmen introduced tention to agriculture, and to establish speedy means of the Visigothic code, antiently called Forum Judicum, and communication between their provinces, by making roads Fuero Juzgo by the Spaniards. It was first promulgated or digging canals, it would prove a greater source of pros- by Euric (A.D. 466-83), and greatly improved or augmented Ferity to their country than the attempt to establish manu- by his successors, its principal groundwork being the Bre


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viarium, or body of law selected from the Theodosian Code, | Phænicians, they proceeded into the interior with a view to to bei

the Institutions of Gaius, and other sources, by command of the subjugation of the country, an attempt however in Alaric II., king of the Visigoths. Alfonso VI. caused it to which they completely failed; for although the Carthagibe translated into Castilian. Besides this written or statute nian generals, Hamilcar, his brother Hasdrubal, and his far law, the Visigoths and their successors had their peculiar more celebrated nephew Hannibal, completely reduced the customs, which might be ternied their common or unwritten southern part of the Peninsula, they were unable to subdue law, and which, together with the Fueros, or immunities the warlike tribes of the interior. This attempt led to the granted to the settlers in towns or districts conquered from second Punic war. The Romans, either alarmed at the ihe Mohammedans, formed the body of national law. The progress of Hannibal, who had taken Saguntum, B.C. 218, or progressive improvement of society in the thirteenth century wistring to have a footing in the Peninsula, sent the two having rendered most of the provisions of the Fuero Juzgo brothers Publius and Cneius Scipio to the assistance of the in practicable, Alfonso el Sabio' substituted for it the code of Spanish tribes, with whom they had previously formed an Las Siete Purtidas, so called from the seven parts into which offensive and defensive alliance. After several sanguinarv it is divided. It is a compilation from the code of Justinian, encounters, Publius was routed and slain by Mago, and his the Visigothic and unwritten law, the local fueros, the de. brother Cneius met with the same fate near Tarragona, B.C cretals of the councils, &c., and may be considered the most 211; but Publius Cornelius Scipio, afterwards surnamed Afrivaluable monument of legislation during the middle ages. It canus, who succeeded in command of the armies of the reis still the basis of the Spanish common law; for alihough public, soon turned the scale in favour of the Romans. After more recent compilations exist (Novisima Recopilacion), taking Carthago Nora (Carthagena), a town founded by they are chiefly founded on it; and cases which cannot be Hasdrubal, defeating Hanno, whom he took prisoner, and decided either by them or the local fueros, must be decided gaining a decisive victory over Hasdrubal, the son of Gisco, by the Purtidas. A commission appointed by the Cortes for he invested and took Cadiz, and for ever freed Spain from the purpose of making a civil and criminal code for the the Punic yoke. [Scipio.] But the Spaniards only changed Spanish kingdom, has been sitting for some time, but the masters; and Spain was made a Roman province, and result of their labours has not yet been made known. divided into Citerior and Ulterior, the Iberus or Ebro being

Army and Navy.Before the breaking out of the civil a boundary between them. The subjugation of Spain war, the standing army of Spain amounted to 60,000 men, however was not easily or speedily accomplished. Numanbesides a reserve of Milicias Provinciales, which consisted tia, when besieged by Scipio Amilianus, emulated the of 30,000 men. These forces were considerably increased in heroism of Saguntum. [NUMANTIA.) 1832, and, at the close of the war amounted to upwards of Until the time of Augustus, the Cantabri, the Gallaici, 300,000 men, including in this number several regiments and the Astures, who inhabited the north-western parts of of national guards, who performed the same service as the the Peninsula, were not even nominally subjected to the troops of the line. Since the peace this number has been republic; and the other portions of Spain-Celtiberia in the greatly reduced; the royal guard has been abolished, and north, Bætica in the souih, and Lusitania in the west-beits regiments have been incorporated with the rest of the came the scene of constant warfare and rebellion: The army. The navy is in the most deplorable condition, two most remarkable of the native insurrections was that orgaships of the line and half a dozen frigates, with a few nized in Lusitania by Viriatus, who, during more than smaller vessels, being all that remains to Spain of her once eleven years, defeated the ablest generals of the republic, magnificent fleet.

and was only put down by the treachery of Cæpio, B.C. 140.

(Viriatus.] Spain was soon afterwards the theatre of the Ilistory.—The history of the Peninsula may be divided civil war between Marius and Sulla. Sertorius, a leader of into four periods: 1, Spain before the invasion of the the defeated party, fled thither, and carried on the war for Arabs; 2, Spain divided into kingdoms; 3, Spain under some time. Spain having espoused the cause of Pompey, the kings of the house of Austria; 4, Spain under the Julius Cæsar repaired thither in person, and by his military house of Bourbon.

skill triumphed over his enemies. Cneius, the son of PomFirst Period. Spain before the invasion of the Arabs.- pey, was defeated at Munda, and peace was restored to the The history of the Peninsula, previous to the settlements country. of the Carthaginians, is unknown. The earliest inhabitants It was only under Augustus that Spain was completely mentioned by the Greek and Roman historians were the subdued; even the Cantabri and the Astures were reduced I beri. The Iberi were disturbed in their possessions by the to submission. Augustus himself visited Spain, and he diCeltae, who invaded the Peninsula from Gaul, or, as oihers vided the country into three great provinces, Bætica, Lusiwould have it (Masdeu, Hist. crit. de España, vol. ii., p. 116, tania, and Tarraconensis, a division which subsisted until et seq.), from Africa, and subsequently settled in the northern the reign of Constantine the Great. During this period districts. In many places however, but chiefly in the central Spain was considered one of the most valuable and flouclistricts of the Peninsula, the two races seem to have been rishing provinces of the empire. According to Pliny, it conamalgamated, and to have formed only one nation, known as tained three hundred and sixty large cities. The organizathe Celtiberians. (Celtiberi.] The rich corn-lands, the mines, tion of the Spanish provinces is fully stated by Pliny (iii., and seaports of the Peninsula, attracted the attention of the 1, &c.). Spain gave birth to the poets Lucan and Martial, early Phænician navigators. The time when the Phænicians to the philosopher Seneca, and to the emperors Hadrian first had commercial intercourse with the inhabitants of the and Trajan. southern coast of Spain is not ascertained; but it was About the beginning of the fifth century, the Suevi under doubtless before the foundation of either Rome or Carthage. their king Hermeric, the Alans under Atace, and the VanFor some time their settlements, of which Ghadir (now dals or Silingi under Gunderic, after overrunning the proCadiz) was the principal, were limited to the coasts of vinces of Gaul and crossing the Pyrenees, settled in the Bætica, whence they supplied the natives with the products Peninsula. They were speedily followed (A.D. 411) by a host of Asia, in exchange for the gold, silver, iron, and other of Visigoths led by their king Athaulf, who established valuable productions of the Peninsula. But as they became himself in Catalonia, though nominally dependent upon his better acquainted with the country, they penetrated into the brother-in-law Honorius, the Roman emperor.

Wallia, inierior, where they founded the city of Kartabah (now one of Athaulf's successors, obliged the Vandals and the Cordova), and explored the mountainous districts of Navarre Alans to quit Spain for Africa, and the Suevi, after being in search of iron. The Phænicians however were not the defeated in many battles, acknowledged his superiority only maritime nation which had settlements on the coast of (416-8). It was not however until the time of Euric (466Spain. The Rhodians visited the shores of Catalonia, and 83) that the Goths became complete masters of the Peninfounded a town, which they called Rhode (now Rosas). sula. Euric must be considered as the first Gothic sovereign [Rosas.] They were followed by the Phocæans, who of Spain, as the six kings, his predecessors, ruled over Gaul, founded the town which is now Denia, and probably and occasionally only over Spain. He was also the also that of Chersoneus (now Peñiscola), on the same first legislator of his nation, and the laws which he collected coast, and who, having in time dispossessed the Rho- or promulgated became in after time the foundation of the dians, exiended their settlements along the shores of Va- • Forum Judicum' or Fuero Juzgo. After the death of lencia. There were other Greek settlements, the names of Amalric, who fell in battle against Clovis, king of the which may still be recognised in their modern appellations, Franks (531), the Gothic kings appear to have been as Emporion, now Ampurias. The Carthaginians also either elective or hereditary according to circumstances directed their views towards Spain. Having insidiously The first king chosen was Theudis. His reign was troubled possessed themselves of Cadiz, which they took from the I wish wars, and terminated by his assassination in 548. One

private individual then followed another upon the throne, none of whom occupied it long or died a natural death. In 554, Athanagild, a noble Goth, having usurped the royal power, purchased the assistance of Justinian, the Eastern emperor, by surrendering to him some fortresses along the south-eastern coast, and promising to hold the rest of his dominions as a fief of the empire. Under the reign of this monarch, the Suevi, who still held some districts of Galicia, following the example of their king Theodomir, abjured Arianism, and were admitted into the bosom of the church. Spain was not entirely emancipated from her dependence upon the empire until the reign of Leovigild, one of the greatest Gothic kings, who subdued the Suevi, and incorporated that vassal state with his own kingdom. He was just and brave. His first wife Theodosia had three brothers, who were canonized by the Catholic church for their piety, namely, St. Isidore, St. Fulgentius, and St. Leander. His son Hermengild, who revolted against him, has been canonized by the papal see, and represented as an humble and persecuted martyr, instead of a rebellious and ungrateful son, merely because he abjured Arianism and embraced the Catholic faith. In 672 the throne of Gothic Spain was occupied by Wamba, a monarch distinguished by his virtues and abilities. The Saracens of Africa having attempted to land at Gibraltar, Wamba fitted out a fleet and defeated them in the first naval action recorded in the annals of Spain. He was succeeded by Ervigius, and Ervigius by Egica, who repulsed the attacks of the Saracens, but is best known for his legislative labours. Egica associated his son Witiza in the empire, whose depravity and misgovernment reduced the country to the most deplorable condition. He was dethroned by Roderic, under whose reign (A D. 711) the Arabs of Africa, commanded by Tárik Ibn Zeyád, crossed the straits, and, after defeating the whole force of the Gothic monarchy on the banks of the Guadalete [MOORS], took the capital, Toledo.

riage of Petronila, daughter of Ramiro II., with Raymond V., count of Barcelona.

The crowns of Castile and Leon were also united at times on the same head, either by marriage or by conquest. In 1072, after the assassination of Sancho II., king of Castile, before the walls of Zamora, his brother, Alfonso VI. of Leon, became king of Asturias, Leon, Galicia, and Castile. About the same time (A.D. 1095) the kingdom of Portugal was founded by Henry de Besançon, to whom Alonso gave in marriage his natural daughter Theresa, together with the right of conquest over the Moors. [PORTUGAL] To relate the particular history of these states falls not within the limits of this article. Their rulers were frequently at war with each other, instead of uniting their arms against the common foe, and thus the deliverance of the Peninsula from the infidel was retarded. It was not until the end of the eleventh century that these states began to extend their frontiers at the expense of the Mohammedans; and this was owing more to the dissensions and civil wars which broke out among their enemies, than to the wise policy or vigorous attacks of their Christian leaders. In 1085, Toledo and the neighbouring districts were reduced by Alonso III. of Castile, under whose reign Rodrigo de Vivar, surnamed E Cid, achieved most of his exploits. [ALONSO VI. His randson and successor, Alonso VIII., usually styled the Emperor, advanced the frontiers of Castile from the Tagus to the Sierra Morena. Ferdinand III. took Badajoz and Merida in 1230, Cordova in 1236, and Jaen, Seville, and Murcia in 1243. To his brilliant successes over the Mohammedans he owed the surname of El Santo' (the saint), which the Spaniards gave him, and which was afterwards confirmed by a bull of canonization from Clement X. in 1671. His son and successor, Alsonso X., surnamed el Sabio, or the learned, is better known for the Astronomical Tables' which pass under his name, and for the compilation of the laws of the Siete Partidas,' than for his conquests. During this time the kings of Aragon were not inactive. As early as the beginning of the eleventh century (1035-63) Ramiro I. had extended the frontiers of his little kingdom, and made the Moorish kings of Tudela, Saragossa, and Lerida his tributaries. His successor (1063-94) Sancho I. reduced all the Mohammedan fortresses between the Pyrenees and the Cinca. Alonso I. took Saragossa in 1118, and made it the capital of his kingdom. He also conquered all the country south of the Ebro, and from his warlike habits was suinamed el Batallador (the warlike). Jayme I., the most celebrated king in the antient annals of Aragon, prosecuted the conquests of his predecessors. In 1229 he took the Balearic Islands, which, though reduced in 1115 by Raymond III., count of Barcelona, had again fallen into the hands of the Mohammedan pirates. The important city of Valencia, the capital of a Moorish kingdom of that name, submitted to him in 1238. Owing to these and other conquests of the kings of Castile and Aragon, the Spanish Moslems were driven to the mountains of Granada, where, in 1248, Mohammed Ibnu-l-ahmar founded a new kingdom. [MOORS.]


Second Period.- Spain divided into Kingdoms (from A.D. 711 to A.D. 1518).-Músa Ibn Nosseyr, who followed in the steps of Tarik, prosecuted his conquests, and reduced the whole of Spain to the sway of Islám, with the exception of the mountainous districts of the Asturias, where the prelates and chiefs of the Goths fled for refuge. [MUSA.] It was from those mountains, the cradle of Spanish liberty, that a Gothic nobleman, named Pelayo, attempted to rescue his country from the yoke of the infidel. Profiting by the divisions among the Moslems, he seized on some towns among the mountains, defeated the forces sent against him, and, having successively enlarged his dominions, founded the small kingdom of Asturias, which he transmitted to his son and successor Favila, in 737. [PELAYO.] Alfonso, surnamed the Catholic, who succeeded Favila (in 739), made ample additions to his territories. He was succeeded by his eldest son Fruela (757), and Fruela by Aurelio (768), under whose rule no important accessions were made to the territory of the Christian kingdom. Pressed on every side by the victorious Abdu-r-rahmán I., who occupied the throne of Cordova, the little state of Asturias, with its possessions in Leon, seems only to have had a precarious existence. After this several unsuccessful attempts were made by Indeed Mauregato, a natural son of Alfonso the Catholic by the Africans to re-establish the rule of Islám in Spain. In a Mohammedan slave, who, with the aid of Abdu-r-rahmán, 1273 Abú Yúsuf Ya'kub Ibn 'Abdi-l-hakk, fourth sultan ascended the throne of Asturias in 783, is said to have in- of Marocco of the dynasty of the Benu Merin, crossed he sured peace only by payment of an annual tribute of 100 strait with a formidable host; but after some slight advanvirgins, half of noble and half of ignoble birth. While these tages, he returned to his dominions without making any events were passing in the north-western parts of the Pen-important conquest. In 1339 Abú-l-hasan, king of Fez, insula, another Christian kingdom was rising into existence having landed at Gibraltar with considerable forces, was in the recesses of the Pyrenees. In 758, according to the defeated on the banks of the river Salado, near Tarifa, by best native historians, Garcia Ximenez, a wealthy noble of the kings of Castile and Portugal united (October, 1340). Cantabrian origin, was proclaimed king by the inhabitants During the reign of Pedro IV. of Castile, England for of the country of Sobrarbe, which became in time the foun- the first time interfered in the internal affairs of dation of the two kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon; but Spain. That prince, who from his tyrannical rule and the early history of this little kingdom is involved in such cruelties, was surnamedel Cruel,' began his reign obscurity, that the successive labours of critics and his- with the murder of his father's mistress, Eleonora de torians have hitherto failed in attempting to separate his- Guzman; his nobles and high vassals fell the victims of torical truth from romance. his cruelty, or, as it has been qualified by his apologist Zuñiga, of his unflinching severity and love of justice. In 1358 he treacherously murdered his natural brother Don Fadrique, who was grand-master of Santiago. His next victim was his cousin Juan, prince of Aragon. He divorced his queen, Blanche of Bourbon, threw her into a dungeon, and afterwards had her poisoned. Henry, count of Trastamara, Pedro's natural brother, alarmed at the fate of his family, took shelter in France. Having, with the consent of Charles V., raised a strong body of mercenary

About the beginning of the ninth century, Wifrid, a governor of the Spanish March for the French, assumed the title of count of Barcelona. Nearly two centuries after (A.D. 1005), the ancient province of Bardulia, which, from the numerous forts erected by Alfonso I. for its defence, took the name of Castella, after being long governed by ceunts, the first of whom was Ferran Gonzalez, was formed into a kingdom by Sancho el Mayor, who was likewise king of Navarre. In 1137 Catalonia was annexed to Aragon by the mar-adventurers, commanded by Bertrand du Guesclin, he in

vaded Castile. Pedro was easily overpowered, and while his successful rival was proclaimed king at Burgos (1366), he hastily fled to Bordeaux, at that time the capital of the English dominions in France. He there implored the assistance of Edward, Prince of Wales, who, having obtained his father's consent, levied an army, and entered Spain. Henry encountered him at the head of 100,000 men, and, against the advice of Du Guesclin, gave him battle near Naxera. The English were victorious; Du Guesclin was made prisoner; Henry fled to France, and Pedro was again king of Leon and Castile. The Black Prince however had soon reason to repent of the aid he had given to Pedro, who not only refused the sums that he had agreed to pay for the English forces, but, disregarding the advice of his humane ally, again stained the throne with the blood of his relatives and courtiers. [PEDRO.] Accordingly, when Henry attacked him a second time, the Black Prince left him to his fate, and Pedro lost his throne and his life (1369). These events led to the connexion of the houses of Lancaster and Trastamara, by the marriage of Enrique III. of Castile with Catherine, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by Constanza, daughter of Pedro IV. Henry IV., surnamed the Impotent,' who succeeded John II. in 1455, was one of the weakest kings, both in mind and in body, that ever ascended a throne. The nobility, with the archbishop of Toledo at their head, combining against him, arrogated the right of trying and passing sentence on their king, whom they publicly deposed in 1465.

All the malcontent nobility were summoned to a plain not far from the city of Avila, where a scaffold was erected of sufficient elevation to be easily seen from the surrounding country. An image representing the king was seated on a chair of state, clad in sable robes and adorned with all the insignia of royalty; a sword at its side, a sceptre in its hand, and a crown upon its head. A manifesto was then read, and sentence of deposition pronounced, after which the archbishop of Toledo ascended the platform, and tore the crown from the head of the image; the marquis of Villena removed the sceptre, the count of Placencia the sword, the grand-master of Alcantara and the counts of Benavente and Paredes the rest of the regal insignia; the image, thus deprived of its honours, was precipitated from the scaffold amidst the mingled groans and clamours of the spectators. The young prince Alfonso, at that time only eleven years of age, was seated on the vacant throne, and the assembled nobility kissed his hand in token of obedience. This extraordinary transaction was followed by a civil war, which did not cease till after the death of the young prince, on whom the nobles had bestowed the kingdom. On the death of Alfonso (July 5, 1468), his sister Isabella was immediately proclaimed, but on her refusal to assume the government whilst her father was still living, the malcontents were compelled to come to terms with the dethroned king, who was suffered to resume his power on condition that he would divorce his queen, whose dissolute conduct was the cause of general detestation, and acknowledge Isabella, the only lawful heiress of the kingdom, to the prejudice of his daughter Joanna, who was reputed to be the daughter of his favourite, Don Beltran de la Cueva, duke of Albuquerque, whence she was called 'La Beltraueja. The next step taken by the insurgents was to secure the marriage of the princess, who, after several months spent in negotiation, was betrothed to prince Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469. On the death of Henry (December 11th, 1474), his daughter Isabella was raised to the throne, though not without opposition. A considerable number of the Castilian nobility espoused the cause of Joanna, whom they caused to be proclaimed queen of Castile at Placencia, and betrothed to her uncle Alfonzo V., king of Portugal, who prepared to assert her rights to the throne at the head of a powerful army. But the superior talents of Ferdinand prevailed; the Portuguese king was defeated at Toro (May, 1476), and after several years of desultory warfare was obliged to retreat into his dominions, and to give up the cause of his niece and intended bride, who retired into a convent. By the death of John II., Ferdinand's father, which happened about this ime (January 20, 1479), the kingdoms of Aragon and Sicily were annexed to the crown of Castile. No sooner were Ferdinand and Isabella delivered from their internal enemies, than they turned their arms against the Mohammedans, who in the late civil dissensions had been seldom disturbed. In 1481, the important city of Alhama, one of

the bulwarks of the Moorish kingdom, was reduced by the marquis of Cadiz; Loja, Velez, Malaga, Baza, and other strong places surrendered between 1483 and 1492; and the capital itself fell into the hands of Ferdinand after an obstinate and long protracted defence. [GRANADA; MOORS.] The conquest of Granada was followed by the expulsion, or rather the pillage of the Jews, who had engrossed nearly all the wealth and commerce of Spain. The next important event was the discovery of a new world by Columbus [COLUMBUS], the credit of which was entirely due to Isabella. The counties of Rousillon and Cerdagne, which the French had retained since 1462, were restored by Charles VIII., who wished to conciliate Ferdinand previous to his expedition into Italy, but Ferdinand could not overlook the wild ambition of the French king, who laid claim to the kingdom of Naples, whose sovereign, Ferdinand I., was closely related to the house of Aragon. Accordingly Ferdinand sent an army to his assistance, under the command of Gonsalvo de Cordova, who in less than one year expelled the French from their conquests and reseated the king of Naples on his throne. Seeing however that Lewis XII.. who succeeded Charles on the throne of France, was intent upon the subjugation of Naples, the wary Ferdinand proposed to him to divide that kingdom, on the plea that Frederic had refused his consent to the marriage of his son and heir the duke of Calabria with his aunt Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand II. of Naples, and had by ill treatment obliged that princess to quit Naples for Spain. Louis accepted the offer, and in 1501 Naples was conquered and divided between the allies. This infamous transaction turned entirely to the advantage of the Spanish king, who in 1506 caused his general Gonsalvo to attack the French, who were ultimately dispossessed of all their dominions in Italy. [GONSALVO; ITALY.] The establishment of the Inquisition in 1480 [OFFICE, HOLY], the compulsory baptism of the Moriscos, and the conquest of Navarre, which in 1512 was finally annexed to Spain, are among the important events of this reign. On the death of Isabella (1506), the crown of Castile devolved on her daughter Joanna, wife of Philip, archduke of Austria, and on the death of the latter, upon his son Charles V., afterwards emperor of Germany. Ferdinand died on the 23rd of January, 1516, after appointing Cardinal Ximenez regent of Castile until the arrival of his grandson Charles, who was only sixteen years old. Ximenez maintained order in the kingdom, and repressed the ambition of the haughty Castilian nobles, who disdained submission to one whom they considered their inferior. [CISNEROS.]

The history of Spain during this period is very rich in materials. Besides the Chronicles of Isidorus Pacensis, who lived in the eighth century; of Sebastian of Salamanca, of the anonymous monk of Abelda, who wrote in the ninth; of Sampiro, bishop of Astorga, whose narrative comes down to 982; of the monk of Silos, who brought down t national history to the reign of Alfonso VI.; and of Pelayo, bishop of Oviedo, who lived in the twelfth centuryall of which are in the collection of Florez, entitled 'España Sagrada,' Mad., 1754-84-the history of Spain at this period is mostly indebted to Don Lucas, bishop of Tuy, whose Chronicon Mundi' apud Schottum, Hisp. Illust., vol. ii. and iv., Francf., 1603-8), and to Don RodrigoXimenez, archbishop of Toledo, whose 'Rerum in Hispania Gestarum Chronicon (Gran., 1545), and Historia Arabum (Lugd. Bat., 1625), are most valuable. The reader may also consult Rodericus Sanctius, Historia Hispanica; Alfonsus à Carthagena, Anacephalæosis (apud Schottum, vol. i.); Zurita, Anales de Aragon (Sarag., 1610); Moret, Anales de Navarra (Pamp., 1665); Lopez Cortejano, Chronica de Fernando III. (Vallad., 1555); Villasan, Chronica de Don Alfonso XI. (Vallad., 1551); Ayala, Chronica de los Reyes de Castilla; Fernan Perez de Guzman, Chronica de Don Juan II.; and those of Ferdinand and Isabella by Valera, Palencia, and Nebrixa. A History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella,' by Mr. Prescott (Boston, 1839), is highly praised.


III. Establishment of the House of Austria (1518-16).Soon after his accession to the throne of Spain, Charles became one of the candidates for the vacant Imperial crown, and although Francis I. of France proved a dangerous competitor, he was chosen by the Diet in 1519. Thus originated the rivalry of the two kings, which gave birth to a series of wars, in which almost all Europe was involved. Whilst Charles was hastening to Aix-la-Chapelle to take possession of the empire, a formidable insurrection broke out in

Castile, which spread to other provinces of Spain. The avarice of the Flemings, to whom the administration of affairs had been almost entirely committed since the death of Ximenez, and the utter disregard shown by Charles himself of all constitutional forms, so incensed the people that they rose in arms for the defence of their rights. Toledo took the lead; the citizens expelled the king's officers, elected municipal governors and councils, to whom they gave the name of comunidades, and raised a body of troops, the command of which they entrusted to John of Padilla. The attempts made by Adrian, the regent of the kingdom during Charles's absence, to quell the insurrection proved unsuccessful. The royal troops were defeated near Segovia, and the rebellion spread through Leon, Galicia, and Estremadura. This seemed to Francis I. a favourable opportunity for reinstating Jean D'Albret in the kingdom of Navarre. A French army, under Andrew de Foix, speedily conquered that kingdom, the garrisons of which were then employed against the comuneros of Castile, but that young and inexperienced general having ventured to penetrate into Castile, the Spaniards, though divided, united their forces, routed his army, took him prisoner, and recovered Navarre in a shorter time than he had subdued it. The Count of Haro, who had succeeded Ronquillo in the command of the royal forces against the comuneros, retook Tordesillas, defeated the insurgents in several actions, and at length took Padilla prisoner, and had him executed. [PADILLA.] His widow Donna Maria, a woman of high spirit, induced the citizens of Toledo still to defend the cause for which her husband had fallen, but all her efforts were in vain. Toledo was taken by the royalists, and she fled to Portugal. The consequence of this unsuccessful rebellion was a material accession of power to the triumphant party, and a proportionate reduction of those rights for the extension of which the vanquished had fought. A league was about this time concluded by the intrigues of Cardinal Wolsey, between the Pope, Henry VIII., and Charles, against France. By granting him the revenues of two sees in Spain, and pledging his word that he would assist him in obtaining the papacy, Charles won over to his interests the ambitious cardinal. Strengthened by this alliance, the emperor proceeded to expel the French from the duchy of Milan, where the insolence and exactions of Marshal de Lautrec had inade them extremely odious. The papal army, commanded by Prospero Colonna, an experienced general, being joined by Spanish troops from Germany and Naples, attacked and defeated them, and after an unsuccessful campaign the French evacuated the duchy, retaining only the town of Cremona and the castle of Milan. The election of Cardinal Adrian, Charles's preceptor, who in 1521 was raised to the papal see, to the astonishment of all Europe, and to the great disappointment of Wolsey, roused the anger of his rival Francis, and war broke out again in Lombardy; but the advantage remained entirely with the Imperialists and Spaniards. At last, after a series of campaigns, during which the duchy of Milan, for which they chiefly contended, was alternately gained and lost by both parties, the year 1524 ended with the defeat and capture of the French king before Pavia on the 24th of February. [FRANCIS.] On his arrival in Madrid, where he was removed under the escort of Don Antonio de Leyva, Francis asked to see his rival, who refused him an interview, and kept him in rigorous confinement until the terms for his liberation should be agreed upon. After a great deal of negociating, a treaty was at length concluded (1526), by which Francis was to rede Burgundy; to give up all claims on Italy, as well as on the sovereignty of Flanders and Artois; to restore Charles de Bourbon to his dignities and states; to marry Eleanor, queen-dowager of Portugal, sister of the emperor, and finally to deliver his eldest and second son as hostages for the fulfilment of these agreements. Should the statesgeneral of his kingdom prevent the execution of this treaty, Francis solemnly swore to return to his prison. But while he pledged his oath and honour for the fulfilment of these conditions, Francis is said to have signed a secret protest against the validity of his promise, a subterfuge ill suiting a king whom the writers of his nation have represented as a model of chivalry and honour, in opposition to his imperial rival, whom they describe as equally perfidious and unfeeling. Long wars, acrimonious negociations, and a formal challenge to single combat from Francis to Charles ensued, ending in the taking and sack of Rome by the Constable of Bourbon (May, 1527) [BOURBON], the capture of Pope

Clement, who was sent a prisoner to Spain, and the treaty of Cambray, by which Francis agreed to pay two millions of crowns as the ransom of his two sons; to resign the sovereignty of Flanders and Artois; and to forego all his Italian claims, while Charles was not to demand the restitution of Burgundy.

During these transactions, war had been carried on with various success against the Turks, who in 1522 took the island of Rhodes, and against the piratical states on the northern coast of Africa. No sooner was the peace consolidated, than Charles determined to turn his arms against the African pirates. In 1535 an expedition, conducted by the emperor in person, sailed for the port of Tunis, which had lately fallen into the hands of the corsair Barbarossa; Muley Hasan, the dethroned king of Tunis, promising to assist Charles with his forces. Goletta, a seaport town, fortified with 300 pieces of cannon, was taken, with all the Turkish fleet within; the corsair himself was defeated in a pitched battle; and 10,000 Christian slaves, having knocked off their fetters, made themselves masters of the citadel, whilst Charles was engaging the enemy outside the town. The sceptre was restored to Muley Hasan on condition that be should acknowledge himself the vassal of the emperor, deliver up all his fortresses on the coast of Tunis, and pay an annual tribute of 12,000 crowns for the support of the Spanish garrisons. An attempt made some years after (1541) upon Algiers was not equally successful. A storm drove the fleet from its moorings; the army, being deprived of provisions and ammunition, was cut off by disease or the sword of the Arabs, and Charles was compelled to raise the siege of that city, leaving his artillery and baggage behind. The remainder of his reign was spent in war with France or with the Protestant princes of Germany, who, in August, 1552, obtained the free exercise of their religion in their dominions. [CHARLES V. OF GERMANY.] Soon after the decease of his mother Joanna (1555), Charles assembled the states of the Low Countries at Brussels on the 25th of October, and resigned the sovereignty of his paternal dominions to his son Philip, to whom he had already given his Italian possessions on the occasion of his marriage with Mary of England in 1554. Two weeks after he made over to him, before a large assembly of German princes and Spanish grandees, the rest of his European and American dominions; and in the following year (1556) he likewise resigned the Imperial crown to his brother Ferdinand, who had already been elected King of the Romans and his successor. In February, 1557, he retired to the monastery of St. Just, near Plasencia in Extremadura, where he passed the remainder of his days. During the reign of this able monarch, the empire of Mexico was conquered by Hernando Cortés (1318-21); Magalhaens, a Portuguese officer, discovered the westward passage to the East Indies, through the Strait of Magalhaens,' and opened to Spain the rich trade of India and China; in 1531 Pizarro, following in Balboa's steps, made his way to Peru, and overthrew the empire of the Incas. [CORTES; MAGALHAENS; PIZARRO.] The following are the best histories of this reign:-Sandoval, Historia de Carlos V.' (Pamplona, 1618, fol.); Vera, Epitome de la Vida,' &c. (Mad., 1613, 4to.); Ulloa, 'Vita del Imperatore Carlo V.' (Venetia, 1559, 4to.); and Robertson's invaluable work.

Philip II. had neither the inclination nor the talents for war of his father; accordingly his first step upon his accession was to negociate a peace with France, through the mediation of his wife Mary of England. This however was of short duration. Henry II., having been induced by the pope to re-assert the rights of France to the sovereignty of Naples, sent the duke of Guise into Italy at the head of a powerful army; but the superior talents of the duke of Alba, who commanded the Spanish forces, prevailed, and the French were expelled from the Neapolitan territory. In 1557 the united forces of Spain and England, commanded by the duke of Savoy, gained the battle of St. Quentin, in commemoration of which a monastery, sacred to St. Laurence, was built at considerable expense. [ESCURIAL.] The death of Mary, 1558, and the accession of Elizabeth to the throne of England, changed the state of affairs. Philip's return to Spain was followed by a most sanguinary persecution, by which he succeeded in crushing the germ of the Reformation in the Peninsula. The Moriscos, who, whatever might be their attachment to the habits and faith of their ancestors, had proved loyal subjects to his father, were so exasperated by his measures, that they revolted in several provinces of the kingdom; and after a furious and long

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