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becomes flat, and assumes a character resembling that of rounded with palisades, which is the residence of the chief the Steppe. All the rivers belong to the system of the of the Calmucks. The Russian or Cossack garrison is in Volga, which receives on the right the Ousa and the Sys- the upper town. The merchants reside together in a slobod, ran, and on the left the Tcheremchan,, the Sok after its and the citizens in the lower town. junction with the Kandoustcha, and the Samara. The SIMEON STYLI'TES. (MONACHISM.) Sviaga, running parallel to the Volga from south to SIMEON SETH (Equeñv ?ño), or SIMEON SETHUS, north, joins that river in the government of Kasan; and or Simeon the Son of Seth, the author of several Greek the Soura, which is navigable in spring, coming from Pensa, works still extant, lived at Constantinople towards the end traverses the western part of the government, and joins the of the eleventh century. He held there the office of putoVolga in the governinent of Nischnei Novgorod. The Bestápxns, or Master of the Wardrobe,' in the palace o. lakes and rivers are 560 in number, but they are all small. Antiochus, from whence originaled his title Magister ánThe climate is generally healthy; but the winter is very cold, tiochiae, and this gave occasion to the false opinion that he and the summer very hot. The Volga is usually frozen for was born at Antioch. His oflice appears to have given him five months in the year.

the charge of the imperial jewels, which were kept in the The soil is generally fertile, consisting of a good black palace named after the Eunuch Antiochus, who was consul mould, which requires no manure. It is pretty carefully A.D. 431. (Du Cange, Glossar. Med. ct Inf. Græcit., tom. cultivated, and produces more corn than is wanted for the i., p. 194, ed. Lugd., 1688, and Constantinop. Christ., lib.ii., home consumption: the principal species of grain are rye, cap. 16, ø 5, p. 168, ed Lutet. Paris., 1680.) Having taken wheat, and spelt; but there are likewise oats, barley, millet, the part of the unfortunate patrician Dalassenus against tho and buckwheat. The inhabitants cultivate also the poppy, usurper Michael of Paphlagonia, the latter banished him peas, lentils, tax, much hemp, tobacco, and some potatoes. from Constantinople, A.D. 1038. He retired to Thrace, and Horticulture is in a very backward state: none but the founded on Mount Olympus a monastery, in which lie commost ordinary kinds of culinary vegetables are grown, and posed several works, and peaceably ended his days. (Georg. the fruit is of bad quality. In the northern parts of the Cedreni Histor. Compend., p. 737, ed. Paris, 1647.) Somegovernment there are extensive forests; but in the south time after the foundation of this monastery, Michael Dukas they scarcely suffice for the supply of the inhabitants. having asceuded the throne, A.D. 1071, Simeon Seth dediThough there are good pastures, the breeding of cattle is cated to him his work entitled Eúvrayua nepi Tpopūv Avvánot much attended to, except among the Calmucks, in the newv, 'Syntagma de Cibariorum Facultate. This contains steppe of the circle of Slavrepel. The rich Calmucks have an alphabetical list of eatable things and their properties, one hundred horses, as many oxen, and four hundred sheep. according to the opinions of Greek, Persian, Agarenian (or The Tartars apply to agriculture with great success. Game Arabian), and Indian physicians;

and is the more valuable is pretly abundant, but the fur-bearing animals are scarce. as at that time the trade with the East, and the seeking after The fisheries of various kinds in the Volga are productive. foreign and costly articles of food at Constantinople, were very The minerals are alabaster, sulphur, and limestone; but extensive. It is compiled chietly from the treatise of Michael neither salt nor metals, except some iron.

Psellus on the same subject, and shows us that the Greeks The population amounts to 1,200,000, of whom about were beginning already to learn Materia Medica from the 1,080,000, are Russians and Cossacks: the remainder may Arabians, to whom in return they imparted their theories. be estimated as, Tartars 60,000, Tcheremisses 40,000, Simeon Seth also goes through the medicines then in use Mord wins 4000, Tchuswasches 5000, Calmucks 8000, and in alphabetical order, and he explains their mode of action Kissilbasches 2000. These numbers are of course only according to the elementary qualities of Galen, and their approximative. Not only the Russians, but most of the different degrees. He says that Asparagus had been for Tcheremisses, the Tchuswasches, and the Mordwius, profess some time introduced as an article of food (p. 6, ed. Gyrald.), the Greek religion: some few are still adherents to Shaman- and that it possesses great medicinal virtues. He is the ism, and the Tartars and Kissilbasches are Mohammedans. first who speaks of yellow Amber (äurap) which comes from

Though agriculture is the chief occupation of the in- a town in India, and which is the best; and also of Amberhabitants, there are some manufactures, both in the country gris, which is an animal production, coming from fish (p. 8). and in the towns; they are woollen cloths, blankets, carpets, Apricots (Bepikorka), he says, are indigestible and produce sail.cloth, leather, and some of silk and nankeen. Glass- poorness of blood (p. 9). His work contains the first descripwares, soap, and candles are also manufactured ; and there iion of Camphor, which he says is the resin of a very large are many brandy-distilleries. A great improvement in the Indian tree; that it is cold and dry in the third degree; and manufactures has been made of late years. The exports that it is used with much advantage in acute diseases, especonsist of horses, oxen, hemp, apples, water-melons, in good cially in inflammations (p. 35). He is also the first who years corn, fish, iallow, leather, raw hides, and millstones. speaks of Musk, of which the best is of a yellow colour, The principal trading towns are Simbirsk and Samara. and comes from a town to the east of Khorasan; the black The schools in this government are under the university of musk comes from India: the properties attributed to this Kasan ; but they are very few, and only a small proportion medicine are the same as those given to it in the present of the inhabitants receive any education. The government day (p. 41). The best Cinnamon comes from Mosul (p. 32). endeavours to remedy this want by establishing every year This work was first published, Basil., 1538, Gr. and Lal., some new schools.

8vo., ed. Lilius Greg. Gyraldus, ap. Mich. Isingrinium. The SIMBIRSK, the capital of the government, is situated Latin translation was improved and published separately; near the junction of the Sviaga and the Volga, on the right Basil., 1561, 8vo., ed. Domin. Monthesaurus, ap. Pet. Pero bank of ihe latter river. It stands on an eminence which The last and best edition was published Paris, 1658, commands a fine view of the Volga and over an immense Gr. and Lat., 8vo., ed. Mart. Bogdan, ap. Dion. Bechet et extent of country uninterrupted by forests. The town is not Lud. Billanium. regularly built, but there are some broad and straight streets. Another of lais works, entitled “Σύνοψις και Απάνθισμα Almost all the houses are of wood, but neat and convenient QVOLKWY TE Kai Locópwv Ao yuárwv,' 'Compendium et Flores within. The churches, 16 in number, are all of stone, Naturalium et Philosophorum Placitorum,' is still in MS. except one, which is of wood. There are two monasteries, in several European libraries. A long account of it (exa gymnasium, and manufactories of candles and soap, and tracted from Allatius, 'De Simeonum Scriptis') is given some tanneries. The town is in a very fertile plain, and on by Fabricius (Biblioth. Gr., tom. xi., p. 323-326, ed. Harles). one side there are gardens and orchards. The population But Simeon Seth is better known in the history of amounts to 13,500, who are in general in easy circum- literature than in that of medicine, as having translated stances ; but even the higher classes are without intellectual from the Arabic into Greek the work known under the resources. Of the other towns the most considerable are

name of · Pilpay's Fables,' in which fifteen moral and the following:-1, Sysran, on the river of the same name, political sentences' (says Gibbon, Decline and Fall, not far from its conflux with the Volga, has 7000 inhabit-chap. 42) "are illustrated in a series of apologues; but ants (Schnitzler says 9800); 2, Samara, on the Volga, be the composition is intricate, the narrative prolix, and the yond the bend which it makes here, is a trading town, with precept obvious and barren. An account of the history, 5000 inhabitants, which was built in 1591 as a defence Translations, and editions of this antient and curious work against the Calmucks; 3, Stavropol, the chief town of the is given under BidPai. (See also Fabricius, loco cit.; and Calmucks, on the right bank of the Volga, was built ex- Milman's note to Gibbon, vol. vii., p. 310.) He is also pressly for these people, on their conversion to Christianity, said to have translated from the Persian a fabulous bisabout the year 1737. In the centre is a kind of fort, sur-Itory of Alexander the Greek, which at present exists, says


Warton (Hist. of English Poetry, vol. 1., p. 129), under (Hassel; Hörschelmann; Kohl, Reise in Süd Russland, the adopted name of Callisthenes, and is no uncommon 1841.) manuscript in good libraries. It is entitled Bios ’Aležáv- SI'MIADÆ, the name of a quadrumanous family of opov ToŨ Macedóvos vai Ilpášers, De Vita et Rebus Gestis mammals. [A PE; ATELES; Baboon; CHEIROPODA; CHIMAlexandri Macedonis; and a long passage from the begin. PANZEE; HYLOBATES; LAGOTHRIX; MYCETES ; Nasalis; ning of the work is quoted by Abr. Berkel in the notes to ORANG-UTAN; QUADRUMANA ; Sakis ; SAPAJOUS; SEM Stephanus Byzantinus (in v. Bovkepáleta), and by Fabri- NOPITHECUS, &c.] cius, Biblioth. Gr., tom. xiy., p. 148-150 (ed. Vet.). This These animals were known at a very early period. Tho fabulous narrative is full (as might be expected) of pro- Kophim of the Scriptures (1 Kings x. 22; 2 Chron., digies and extravagancies, some specimens of which are ix. 21), the Ceph of ihe Ethiopians, the Keibi and Kubbi given by Warton. Of all the romances on the subject of the Persians, the kņbol of the Greeks, and Cephi of the of Alexander the Great, this by Simeon Seth was for Romans, were clearly apes. They are to be traced in some some centuries the best known and the most esteemed; of the earliest paintings of the Egyptians. (Rosellini, &c.) and it was most probably (says he) very soon af. In the garden of the Zoological Society of London, among terwards translated from the Greek into Latin, and at

a great variety of the Simiadæ, three of the forms which ap length from thence into French, Italian, and German. The proach nearest to the human race may now (Sept., 1841) Latin translation was printed at Colon. Argentorat., 1489; be studied; for three Chimpanzees (two males and a female), perhaps before, for in the Bodleian Library there is an an Orang-Utan, and a Gibbon (Hylobates agilis)-the two edition in 4to., without date, supposed to have been printed latter females-are all living at the menagerie in the Reat Oxford, by Fred. Corsellis, about the year 1468. It is gent's Park. said to have been made by one Æsopus, or by Julius Vale- The Cephi exhibited by Pompey (Pliny, Nat. Hist., viii. rius; supposititious names, which seem to have been forged 19), as well as those shown by Cæsar, appear to have been by the artifice or introduced through the ignorance of Ethiopian apes; and in the Greek name inscribed near the scribes and librarians. This Latin translation however is of quadrumanous animals, in the Prænestine pavement, the high antiquity in the middle age of learning; for it is oriental origin of the word is apparent. It is remarkable quoted by Gyraldus Cambrensis, who flourished about the that the name Cebus [SAPAJOUS] is applied by modern year 1190. It was translated into German by John Hart- zoologists to a genus of monkeys which could not have been lieb Moller, a German physician, at the command of Albert, known to the antients; for the Cebi of our present cataduke of Bavaria, and published at August. Vindel., fol., logues are exclusively American. 1478. Scaliger also mentions (Epist. ad Casaubon., 113,

Fossil SIMIADÆ. 115) a translation from the Latin into Hebrew by one who Remains of Simiade have been discovered and described adopted the name of Joseph Gorionides, called Pseudo Go- from the tertiary formations of India, France, England, and rionides.

Brazil. These fossils are illustrative of four of the existing SIMEON OF DURHAM, an English historical writer types of quadrumanous, or rather Simious form. Thus who lived about the beginning of the eleventh century. we have Semnopithecus from India; Hylobates from the He was a teacher of mathematics at Oxford, and was after- south of France; Macacus from Suffolk; and Callithrix, wards precentor in Durham cathedral. He wrote a his peculiar to America, found in Brazil. Nor is it unworthy tory of the kings of England from 616 to 1130, for which of remark, that we here have evidence that so high a quahe was at great pains to collect materials, especially in the drumanous form as the Gibbon, a genus in which the skull North of England, where the Danes had established them is even more approximated to that of man than it is in the selves. The work was continued to 1156 by John, prior of Chimpanzee, was living upon our globe with the Palæothere, Hexham. Simeon of Durham is supposed to have died Elephants, and other Pachyderms. We say that the skull soon after 1130, when his history terminates. This work is of the Gibbon comes nearest to that of man; because, included in Twysden's Anglicanæ Historiæ Scriptores though the cranium of the young Chimpanzee approaches Decem.' Simeon also wrote a history of Durham cathe- that of the human subject, it is far removed from it when dral, which was published in 1732: Historia Ecclesiæ the permanent teeth are developed. Dunhelmensis, cui præmittitur T. R. Disquisitio de Auctore From these evidences we have also proof that Simiade hujus Libelli; edidit T. Bedford,' Lond., 1732, 8vo. lived in our island during the Eocene period; whilst the

SIMFEROPOL, the seat of the Russian government of presence of fossil vegetables, abundant in the London clay Taurida, is situaled in 45° 12' N. lat. and 24° 8' E. long., on at Sheppy, and the remains of serpents in the same locality, an elevated plateau on the river Salgir. Simferopol is show the degree of heat that must have prevailed here a modern town. There was indeed on this spot, in the during that period, when Simiadæ were co-existent with time of the Khans, a place called Akmetschet (the white tropical fruits and Boa Constrictors. church), and sometimes called Sultan Serai, but it was of But Dr. Lund's observations relating to the extinct quadru: little importance, and now forms a small part of Simferopol, manous form detailed in his • View of the Fauna of Brazil, under the name of the Tartar quarter. I'he antient capital previous to the last geological revolution, require special of the Khans was Baktschiserai, but it is confined to a small notice. He states that it is certain that the family of Sispace in a rocky valley. The Russians, who love everything miadæ was in existence in those antient times to which the spacious and open, left that town to the Tartars, and built at fossils described by him belong; and he found an animal of Simferopol a capital according to their own taste, with im that family of gigantic size, a character belonging to the mensely long and broad streets, in which horse-races might organization of the period which he illustrates. He describes be held without interrupting the usual traffic. Being near the it as considerably exceeding the largest Oran-Utan or centre of the peninsula, it is well calculated for the seat of Chimpanzee yet seen; from these, as well as from the longgovernment. There are many pretty houses, with iron roofs armed apes (Hylobates), he holds it to have been generically painted green and adorned with many columns, like all the distinct." As it equally differs from the Simiudæ now living new Russian towns. Besides the government offices there in the locality where it was discovered, he proposes a generic are a Russian church, a pretty German church, one Greek distinction for it under the name of Protopithecus, and the and cne Armenian church, four Tartar chapels, a gymna- specific appellation of Protopithecus Brasiliensis. sium, and a seminary for Tartar schoolmasters. The popu- As connected with this discovery, Dr. Lund records a tra. lation, abcut 6900 inhabitants, is a med.ey of Russians, Tar- dition existing very generally over a considerable extent of tars, Armenians, Greeks, and 40 or 50 German families. the interior highlands, especially in the northern and There is here a very good botanic garden, or more properly western portions of the province of S. Paul and the Sertão speaking, a nursery where ail kinds of useful plants, shrubs, of S. Francisco. According to this tradition, that district and trees are cultivated, and sent to various parts of the is still inhabited by a very large ape, to which the Indians, empire. The town has no manufactures, and has only an from whom the report comes, have given the name of Cayinconsiderable trade by land, and scarcely any by sea. The pore, or Dweller in the Wood. This Caypore is said to be immediate vicinity of the town does not produce much of man's stature, but with the whole body and part of fruit or culinary vegetables. During the hot season fevers its face covered with long curly hair; its colour brown, are very prevalent, and the water is very indifferent. Use with the exception of a white mark on the belly immewoloiski (as quoted by Hassel in 1821) makes the number diately above the navel. It is represented as climbing of inhabitants 20,000; we imagine this is a misprint for trees with great facility, but most frequently going on 2090, for Stein in the same year gives 1800, and no sub- the ground, where it walks upright like a man. In youth sequent account that we have seen states it above 6000. it is held to be a quiet inoffensive animal, living ipon fruits,

on which it feeds with teeth formed like those of the human | indeed that errors or monstrosities of size are always more race; but as it advances in age, its character is denounced bearable than those of form, so much more do our concepas rapacious and blood-thirsty. Then it chooses birds and tions of objects depend upon the latter than the former. A small quadrupeds; large canine teeth project from its mouth, / painter is even obliged to diminish the size of the minor and it becomes formidable to man. Its skin is supposed to parts of his picture a little, to give room for the more imbe impenetrable to ball, with the exception of the white portant objects: but no one ever thought of making a change mark on the belly. It is an object of dread to the natives, of form, however slight, in one object, for the sake of its who shun its haunts, which are betrayed by the Caypore's effect on any other. The giant of Rabelais, with whole extraordinary footmark ending in a heel both before and nations carrying on the business of life inside his mouth, is bebind, so that it is impossible to know in what direction not so monstrous as it would have been to take the ground the animal is gone.

on which a nation might dwell, England, France, or Spain, Upon this tradition Dr. Lund remarks, that it easy to invest it with the intellect and habits of a human being, trace in it the childish embellishments of a savage race; and and make it move, talk, and reason: the more tasteful fiction he finds in the alleged double heel the meaning that the of Swift is not only bearable and conceivable, but has actuforepart of the foot is not broader than the hind and that ally made many a simple person think it was meant to be the impressions of the toes are not distinguishable. As 10 | taken as a true history. the white spot in the belly, he remarks, that all the long- Granting then a perfect notion of similarity, we now ask liaired apes now found in Brazil have the central part of in what way it is to be ascertained whether two figures are the belly very thinly covered with hair, so that when the similar or not. To simplify the question, let them be plane hair is of a dark colour and the skin light, an effect is pro- figures, say two maps of England of different sizes, but duced during the act of respiration as if there were a white made on the same projection. It is obvious, in the first spot on the stomach. The impenetrability of its bide, he place, that the lines of one figure must not only be related obseryes, may seem fabulous, but he states that he is ac- to one another in length in the same manner as in the other, quainted with a species of this family, the Guigo (Mycetes but also in position. Let us drop for the present all the crinicaudus, Lund), which has this property This unde- curved lines of the coast, &c., and consider only the dots scribed animal, he adds (which constitutes a remarkable which represent the towns. Join every such pair of dots by link between Mycetes and Cebus, inasmuch as it combines straight lines: then it is plain that similarity of form the vocal organs of the former with the perfectly hairy tail requires that any two lines in the first should not only be in of the latter), is provided with a skin clothed with such long the same proportion, as to length, with the two correspondand felted hair as to be shot-proof on the back and sides. It ing lines in the second, but that the first pair should incline would seem, says Dr. Lund, to be well aware of its shield; at the same angle to each other as the second. Thus, for instead of seeking safety in flight, like other simiadæ, if LY be the line which joins London and York, and FC when danger approaches it rolls itself up in a ball, so as to that which joins Falmouth and Chester, it is requisite that cover the least protected part, and thus defies the shot of LY should be to FC in the same proportion in the one map the hunter.

that it is in the other; and if FC produced meet LY proDr. Lund further remarks that he has introduced this duced in O, the angle COY in one map must be the same tradition, less on account of its zoological interest, than for as in the other. Hence, if there should be 100 towns, which the striking coincidence it displays in many points with the are therefore joined two and two by 4950 straight lines, stories related of the Pongo of Borneo. He asks, if no such giving about 12 millions and a quarter of pairs of lines, it is animal exists in the district where the tradition is current, clear that we must have the means of verifying 127 millions whence did it take its origin? Did the Indians receive it of proportions, and as many angular agreements. But if it from their forefathers ? May this tradition be considered be only assumed that similarity is a possible thing, it is one more testimony in favour of the Asiatic origin of the easily shown that this large number is reducible to twice 98. first inhabitants of America ? In the Sertão of S. Francisco For let it be granted that ly on the smaller map is to rethe tradition is coupled with additions which though, he present Ly on the larger. Lay down f and c in iheir proremarks, they weaken its zoological interest, impart to it per places on the smaller map, each wiih reference to l'and another, as betraying the only trace he had met with in that y, by comparison with the larger map: then f and c are in district of a belief in fairy existence. According to the va- iheir proper places with reference to each other

. For if not, tive of Seriáo, the Caypore is lord of the wild hogs, and one of them at least must be altered, which would disturb when one of them has been shot, his enraged voice may be the correctness of it with respect to l and y. Either then heard in the distance, when the hunter quits liis game to there is no such thing as perfect similarity, or else it may be save himself by tlight. The Caypore is said to have been entirely obtained by comparison with l and y only. beheld in the centre of a herd of swine riding on the We have hitherto supposed that both circumstances must largest, and indeed has been described as an ape above and be looked to; proper lengths and proper angles; truth of a liog below.

linear proportion and truth of relative direction. But it is SIMILAR, SIMILAR FIGURES (Geometry). Simi- one of the frst things which the student of geometry learns larity, resemblance, or likeness, means sameness in some, (in reference to this subject), that the attainment of correctif not in all, particulars. In geometry, the word refers to a ness in either secures that of the other. If the smaller map sameness of one particular kind. The two most important be made true in all its relative lengths, it must be true in notions which the view of a figure will give, are those of all its directions; if it be made true in all its directions, it size and shape, ideas which have no connection whatsoever must be true in all its relative lengths. The foundation of with each other. Figures of different sizes may have the this simplifying theorem rests on three propositions of the same shape, and figures of different shapes may have the sixth book of Euclid, as follows:same size. In the latter case they are called by Euclid 1. The angles of a triangle (any two, of course) alone are equal, in the former similar (similar figures, öuota oxhuara). enough to determine its form: or, as Euclid would express The first term [EQUAL; RELATION], in Euclid's first use of it, two triangles which have two angles of the one equal to it, includes united sameness, both of size and shape; but two angles of the other, each to each, have the third angles he soon drops the former notion, and, reserving equal to equal, and all the sides of one in the same proportion to signify sameness of size only, introduces the word similar to the corresponding sides of the other. denote sameness of form: so that the equality of the funda- 2. The proportions of the sides of a triangle (those of two mental definition is the subsequent combined equality and of them to the third) are alone enough to determine its form. similarity of the sixth book.

or if two triangles have the ratios of two sides to the third Similarity of form, or, as we shall now technically say, simi- in one, the same as the corresponding ratios in the other, the larity, is a conception which is better detined by things than angles of the one are severally the same as those of the by words; being in fact one of our fundamental ideas of other. figure. A drawing, a map, a model, severally appeal to a 3. One angle and the proportion of the containing sides known idea of similarity, derived from, it may be, or at least are sufficient to determine the form of a triangle: or, if two nourished by, the constant occurrence in nature and art triangles have one angle of the first equal to one of the of objects which have a general, though not a perfectly second, and the sides about those angles proportional, the mathematical, similarity. The rudest nations understand a remaining angles are equal, each to each, and the sides picture or a map almost instantly. It is not necessary to do about equal angles are proportional. more in the way of definition, and we must proceed to point From these propositions it is easy to show the truth of all out the mathematical tests of similarity. Wo may observe ) that has been asserted about the conditions of similarity,


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and the result is, that any number of points are placed | exhaustions [GEOMETRY, p. 154), or by the theory of limits similarly with any other number of poinis, when, any two applied to the proposition, that any curve may be approached being taken in the first, and the corresponding two in the in magnitude by a polygon within any degree of nearness. second, say A, B, and a, b, any third point of the first The theory of similar solids resembles that of similar polygives a triangle ABC, which is related to the corresponding gons, but it is necessary to commence with three points iniriangle abc of the second, in the mauner described in either stead of two. Let A, B, C, and a, b, c, be two sets of three of the three preceding propositions. For instance, let there points each, and let the triangles ABC and abc be similar: be five points in each figure:

let them also be placed so that the sides of one arc parallel to those of the other. If then any number of similar pyramids be described on ABC and abc, the vertices of these pyramids will be the corners of similar solids. If P and p be the vertices of one pair, then the pyramids PABC and pabc are similar if the vertices P and p be on the same side

of ABC and abc (SYMMETRY), and one of the triangles, say In the triangles BAE and bae, let the angles AEB and PAB, be similar to its corresponding triangle pub, and so EBA be severally equal to aeb and eba. In the triangles placed that the angle of the planes PAB and CAB is the ADB and adb let DA : AB :: da : ab, and DB: BA :: db: same as that of the planes pab and cab. The simplest ba. In the triangles ACB and acb let the angles ABC and similar solids are cubes; and any similar solids described on abc be equal, and AB : BC :: ab : bc. These conditious two straight lines are in the same proportion as the cubes being fulfilled, it can be shown that the figures are similar on those lines. Similar curve surfaces are those which are in form. There is no angle in one but is equal to its corre- such that every solid which can be inscribed in one has ansponding angle in the other; no proportion of any two lives other similar to it, capable of being inscribed in the other. in one but is the same as that of the corresponding line in It is worthy of notice that the great contested point of the other. Every conception necessary to the complete geometry (PARALLELS] would lose that character if it were notion of similarity is formed, and the one figure, in common agreed that the notion of form being independent of size, is language, is the same as the other in figure, but perhaps on as necessary as that of two straight lines being incapable of a different scale.

enclosing a space; so that whatever form can exist of any The number of ways in which the conditions of similarity one size, a similar form must exist of every other. There can be expressed might be varied almost without limit; it can be no question that this universal idea of similarity inthere be n points, they are twice (n-2) in number. It volves as much as this, and no more; that in the passage would be most natural to take either a sufficient number of from one size to another, all lines alter their lengths in the ratios, or else of angles: perhaps the latter would be best. same proportion, and all angles remain the same. It is the Euclid confines himself to neither, in which he is guided by subsequent mathematical treatment of these conditions the following consideration :-He uses only salient or con- which first points out that either of them follows from the vex figures, and his lengths, or sides, are only those lines other. If the whole of this notion be admissible, so in any which form the external contour. The internal lines or thing less; that is, the admission implies it to be granted diagonals he rarely considers, except in the four-sided that whatever figure may be described upon any one line, figure. He lays it down as the definition of similarity, that another figure having the same angles may be described all the angles of the one figure (meaning only angles made upon any other line. If then we take a triangle ABC, and by the sides of the contour) are equal to those of the other, any other line ab, there can be drawn upon ab a triangle each to each, and that the sides about those angles are pro- having angles equal to those of abc. This can only be done portional. This gives 2n conditions in an n-sided figure, and hy drawing two lines from a and b, making angles with ab consequently four redundancies, two of which are easily de- equal to BAC and ABC. These two lines must then meet tected. In the above pentagons, for instance, if the angles in some point c, and the angle acb will be equal to ACB. at A, E, D, C, be severally equal to these at a, e, d, c, there if then two triangles have two angles of one equal to two is no occasion to say that that at B must be equal to that at angles of the other, each to each, the third angle of the one b, for it is a necessary consequence: also, if BÁ: AE :: ba: must be equal to the third angle of the other; and this ae, and so on up to DC : CB :: dc:cb, there is no occasion to much being established, it is well known that the ordinary lay it down as a condition that CB : BA :: cb: ba, for it is theory of parallels follows. The preceding assumption is again a consequence. These points being noted, the defini- not without resemblance to that required in the methods of tion of Euclid is admirably adapted for his object, which is, Legendre. [PARALLELS.) in this as in every other case, to proceed siraight to the ŠIMILE is admirably defined by Jolinson to be a comestablishment of his propositionswithout casting one parison by which anything is illustrated or aggrandised,' a thought upon the connection of his preliminaries with na- definition which has been often neglected by poets. A Me. tural geometry.

taphor differs from a Simile in expression, inasmuch as a Let us now suppose two similar curvilinear figures, and metaphor is a comparison without the words indicating the to simplify the question, take two arcs AB and ab. Having resemblance, and a simile is a comparison where the objects already detected the test of similarity of position with refer compared are kept as distinct in expression as in thought.

Dr. Thomas Brown has well said, 'The metaphor expresses P

with rapidity the analogy as it rises in immediate sugges. tion, and identifies it, as it were, with the object or emotion

which it describes; the simile presents not the analogy 6 merely, but the two analogous objects, and traces their

resemblances to each other with the formality of regular ence to any number of points, it will be easy to settle the comparison. The metaphor, therefore, is the figure of pasconditions under which ihe arc AB is altogether similar to sion; the simile the figure of calm description.' (Lectures, ab. By hypothesis, A and B are the points corresponding xxxv.) The metaphor is only a bolder and more elliptical to a and b. Join A, B, and a, b; and in the arc AB take simile. When we speak of the rudeness of a man, and say any point P. Make the angle bap equal to BAP, and abp. Mr. Jones is as rude as a bear,' we use a simile, for the equal to ABP; and let up and bp meet in p. Then, if the rudeness of the two are kept distinct but likened; when we curves be similar, p must be on the arc ub; for every point say that bear Mr. Jones,' we use a metaphor, the points of on AB is to have a corresponding point on ab. Hence the resemblance being confounded in the identification of rudedefinition of similarity is as follows:-Two curves are simi. ness with a bear. So, brave as a lion' is a simile-the lar when for every polygon which can be inscribed in the lion Achilles' a metaphor. Where the resemblance is obfirst, a similar polygon can be inscribed in the second. vious, it may be more forcibly and as intelligibly expressed

It is easily shown that if on two lines, A and a, be de- by a simple metaphor; but when the resemblance is not so scribed a first pair of polygons, P and p, and a second pair, obvious, it requires fuller elucidation, and then it must be Q and q, the proportion of the first and second pairs is the expressed by a simile. Similes therefore, from their tensame, or P:p::Q:9. The simplest similar polygons are dency to detail, are usually misplaced in passionate poetry, squares; consequently, any similar polygons described on A but metaphors constitute the very language of passion; for and a are to one another in the proportion of the squares on the mind, when moved, catches at every slight association A and a. This is also true if for the polygons we substitute to express itself, but never dwells on them with the delibesimilar curves; and it must be proved by the method of rateness of a comparison.




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Poets should never forget that similes are not used for, and renewed the treaties of alliance which Jonathan had their own sake, but for the sake of illustrating or aggran- made with the Romans and Spartans. (1 Macc., xiv., sv.) dising the object or emotion they would express: hence an In the year 141 B.C., the people met at Jerusalem, and important but overlooked canon of criticism. Metaphors registered a public act recounting the services of the house may be indefinite, for they are themselves the expressions of Mattathias, and recognising Simon and his heirs as perof strong but indefinite emotions; but similes must be uni- petual prince and high-priest of the Jews; and this act was formly definite, clear, and correct, otherwise they are use- afterwards confirmed by Demetrius. (1 Macc., xiv. 35.) less; for the simile is used to illustrate, by a known object, After the capture of Demetrius by the Parthians, his sucone unknown or indescribable: hence the necessity for its cessor Antiochns Sidetes renewed the treaty with Simon, being intelligible. Moreover, images addressed to the eye allowed him to coin money, and declared Jerusalem a free must be such as are visually clear. These rules are conti- and holy city. Soon afterwards however Antiochus not nually violated by minor poets, but there are few cases of only refused to ratify this treaty, but demanded of Simon such violation in the greater poets, and even there the ex- the surrender of several fortified places, including the citadel ceptions prove the rule.

on Mount Zion, or the payment of 1000 talents

. Simon (Brown's Lectures on the Philosophy of the Mind; refused these demands, and Antiochus sent a large army Kames's Elements of Criticism ; Bishop Lowth's Lectures into Palestine, which was soon however driven back by John on Hebrew Poetry; Hegel's Vorlesungen über die Esthe- Hyrcanus and Judas, the sons of Simon (B.C. 139-8). For tik; Solger's Æsthetik.)

the next three years the Jews again enjoyed a season of SIMMENTHAL. (BERN.]

tranquillity, during which Simon occupied himself in inSI'MMIAS was a native of Thebes, and is said to have specting and improving the state of the country. In the been a disciple of Philolaus. He was a friend of Socrates course of his tour he visited his son-in-law Ptolemy, at his (Plat., Crito, p. 45, B), and is introduced by Plato as one of castle of Doc, where he and his two sons Mattathias and the speakers in his Phædon.' (Diogenes Laertius (ii. 16, Judas were treacherously put to death by Ptolemy, who 124) mentions the titles of twenty-three dialogues which aimed at the principality of Judæa (B.C. 135). He was sucwere in his time attributed to Simmias (Suidas, v. Eippias), ceeded by his surviving son John Hyrcanus. (HYRCANUS, but none of his works have come down to us.

John; ASMONAEANS; MACCABLES.] A second SIMMIAS, a grammarian, was a native of Rhodes, The coinage of Simon is the first of which we have any and probably lived about the year 300 B.C. He is said to historical account among the Jews. [SHEKEL.] bare written a work on languages, consisting of three books, (Josephus, Antiq.; Prideaux's Connection ; Jahn's Heand a collection of miscellaneous poems, consisting of four brew Commonwealih ; Winer's Biblisches Realwörterbuch.) books. (Suidas, v. Seppias; Strabo, xiv., p. 655.) Some SIMON MAGUS, that is, the magician, is mentioned in of his poems, which however are of little value, are contained the Acts of the Apostles as liaving imposed upon the people in the 'Anthologia Græca.' (Compare Athen., vii., p. 327 ; of Samaria by magical practices. When Philip the Deacon xi., p. 472 and 491.)

preached the gospel at Samaria, Simon was among those A third Simmias, who lived about the commencement of who received baptism at his hands. But when Peter and the Olympiads, wrote a work called 'Apxalodoyía Tūv Zapiwv, John came down to Samaria, and Simon perceived that the of which nothing has come down to us. Suidas confounds Holy Ghost was received by those upon whom they laid their this historian with Simmias the grammarian,

hands, he offered them money if they would give him the SIMNEL, LAMBERT. (HENRY VII.)

same power. Peter vehemently rebuked him, and he showed SI'MOIS, River. (TROAD.]

some appearance of penitence (Acts, viii. 9-24); but the SIMON MACCABAEUS, or MATTHES, surnamed early Christian writers represent him as afterwards becomThasi, was the second son of Mattathias, and brother of ing one of the chief opponents of Christianity. According to Judas Maccabaeus and Jonathan Apphus. Mattathias, them he was the founder of the Gnostic heresy, and was adwhen dying, recommended him to his brethren as their dicted to magical practices and to abominable vices. After counsellor (1 Macc., ii. 3). He distinguished himself on travelling through several provinces, endeavouring as he went several occasions during the lives of Judas and Jonathan. to spread his errors and to damage Christianity as much as (1 Macc., v. 17; x. 74; 2 Macc., viii. 22 ; xiv. 17). Under possible, he came to Rome, where it is said that he worked the latter he was made, by Antiochus Theos, governor over miracles which gained bim many followers, and obtained for the coast of the Mediterranean from Tyre to the frontier of him the favour of Nero. At last, as he was exhibiting in Egypt (1 Macc., xi. 59); and here he took the fortified towns the emperor's presence the feat of flying through the air in of Bethsur and Joppa, and founded Adida, in the plain of a fiery chariot, which he was enabled to perform by the aid Sephela. (1 Macc. xi. 65; xii. 33, 38.)

of dæmons, the united prayers of Peter and Paul, who were After the treacherous seizure of Jonathan by Trypho present on the occasion, prevailed against him, and the dæ(JONATHAN APPHUS), Simon was chosen by the people as mons threw him to the ground. There are also other martheir chief (1 Macc., xiii); and, according to Josephus vellous stories about his life and doctrines. (Antiq., xiii. 6, 6), as high-priest also. After putting Jeru- (Calmet's Dictionary; Winer's Biblisches Realwörtersalem in a state of defence, he marched out to meet Trypho, buch; Lardner's Credibility) who did not venture to give him battle, and who was soon SIMON MATTHES. SIMON MACCABAEUS.] after compelled to retreat into winter-quarters in Gilead, SIMON, RICHARD, was born at Dieppe, in Normandy, where he murdered Jonathan and his two sons. Simon May 13, 1638. After he had finished his studies, he entered recovered his brother's corpse, and interred it in his father's into the Congregation of the Oratory, and became lecturer on sepulchre at Modin, and built over it a magnificent mauso- philosophy at the College of Juilly: Being summoned by leum, which was standing in the time of Eusebius. About his superiors to Paris, he applied himself to the study of this time (B.C. 143) Trypho had murdered Antiochus, and divinity, and made great progress in oriental learning. proclaimed himself king. Simon immediately declared for There being a valuable collection of oriental manuscripts in liis competitor, Demetrius Nicator, with whom he made a the Oratory of Rue St. Honoré, Simon was directed to make very favourable treaty, whereby Simon was recognised a catalogue of them, which he did with great skill. In 1668 prince and high-priest of the Jews, all claims upon whom he returned to Juilly, and resumed his lectures on philofor tribute Demeirius relinquished, and consented to bury sophy, and two years after published his defence of a Jew in oblivion their offences against him. Thus the Jews be- whom the parliament of Metz condemned to be burned on came once more free and independent, and they began to the charge of having murdered a Christian child : Factum reckon from this period (170 Aer. Seleuc.; 143-142, B.C.) a pour le Juif de Metz,' &c. Paris, 1670. In the following year, new civil æra, which is used on the coins of Simon as well with a view to show that the opinions of the Greek church as by Josephus and the author of the First Book of Macca- are not materially different from those of the Church of bees (1 Macc., xiii. 41.). The last remains of their bondage Rome with respect to the Sacrament, he published his to the Syrians were removed in the next year by the Fides Ecelesiæ Orientalis, Paris, 1671, 8vo., and 1682, surrender of the Syrian garrison in the citadel of Jeru- 4to. This work, which is a translation of one of the tracts salem.

of Gabriel, metropolitan of Philadelphia, with notes, Simon The succeeding period of peace was employed by Simon gave as a supplement to the first volume of the · Perpetuity in extending and consolidating his power, and improving of the Faith respecting the Eucharist,' whose authors he the condition of his people. He made a harbour at Joppa, accused of having committed many gross errors, and not established magazines and armouries, improved the laws and having sufficiently answered the objections raised by the administered them with vigour, restored the religious rites, Protestant minister Jean Claude, in his 'Reponse au Trait

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