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de la Perpétuité de la Foi sur l'Eucharistie.' (CLAUDE.] ; in other remains of his poetry. He is stated to have had This involved him in a controversy with the writers of Port the superiority over Aeschylus in an elegy which he com Royal, and laid the foundation of that opposition which he posed in honour of those who died at Marathon, when the afterwards met with from the learned of his own communion. Athenians instituted a contest of the chief poets. But some His next publication, which came out under the assumed of Simonides's best poems are epigrams, which species of name of Recared Simeon, was a French translation of the poetry he carried to greater perfection than any of his prework of Leo of Modena : Cérémonies et Coutumes qui decessors. The Persian war gave constant employment to s'observent aujourd'hui parmi les Juifs, Paris, 1674, 12mo. this muse, as he was frequently employed by the different A second edition appeared in:1681, under the name of the states of Greece to adorn with inscriptions the tombs of Sieur de Simonville, containing also a supplement respect those who sell, and the votive offerings which were dediing the Caraites and the Samaritans, and a comparison be- cated in the various temples. We still possess several of his tween the ceremonies of the Jews and the discipline of the epigrams belonging to ihis period. Of these one of the Church. In 1675 he published the 'Voyage de Mont Liban,' most celebrated is upon the Spartans who fell at Thermofrom the Italian of Dandini, with notes, and about the same pylæ : 'Stranger, tell the Lacedæmonians that we are lying rime bis • Factum du Prince de Neubourg, abbé de Fes- here in obedience to their laws;' and another upon the champs, contre les Religieux de cette Abbaye,' in which work, | Athenians who fell at Marathon : ' Fighting in the van of as was usual with him, he took an opportunity to attack the Greeks, the Athenians at Marathon destroyed the power the Benedictines. But the work which rendered him most of the glittering Medians. Simonides also celebrated the famous is his · Histoire Critique du Vieux Testament,' which sea-figlits of Artemisium and Salamis in two larger poems, immediately after its publication (Paris, 1678, 8vo.) was sup- which are often referred to by antient writers, but of which pressed on ihe ground that it contained doctrines dangerous no fragments have come down to us. to religion and the Church. The work however was so The remains of the poems of Simonides have been pubmuch admired for its learning and criticism, that it was re lished by Schneidewin, under the the title of Simonidis printed the year after, and translated into Latin at Am- Carminum Reliquiæ,' Bruns., 1835, 8vo. The Greek letters sterdam, 1681, and into English at London, 1682, 4to., by E, Y, 2, are said to have been invented by Simonides, who John Hampden. After the publication of his ‘Histoire is also stated to have converted the sign of the aspirate H Critique,' Simon left the Congregation of the Oratory, and into a long e. repaired to Belleville, a village near Caux, where he held a Simonides of Ceos must not be confounded with Simocuracy; but in 1682 he resigned his office and removed to nides of Amorgus, which is an island not far from Paros. Dieppe, and thence to Paris to renew his studies and make The latter was a contemporary of Archilochus, and flourished arrangements for the publication of other works. In 1684 from B.C. 693 to 662. He wrote iambics, in which he athe published at Frankfort, * Histoire de l'Origine et du Pro- vacked private persons, and of which a few fragments have grès des Revenues Ecclésiastiques,' under the name of come down to us. He also wrote a satirical poein upon Jerome à Costa, of which a second edition appeared at the women in the iambic metre, which is still extant. The same place in 1709, in 2 vols. 8vo. In the same year (1684) ! fragments of his poems have been published by Welcker he printed in London his · Disquisitiones Criticæ de variis i Born, 1835. per diversa Loca et Tempora Bibliorum Editionibus,' whichi (Müller's History of the Literature of Greece, p. 125, was immediately translated into English. In 1688 he pub- &c., 140; Bode's Geschichte der Lyrischen Dichtkunst der lished at Frankfort, under the name of John Reuchlin, Hellenen, vol. 1., p. 318, &c.; vol. ii., p. 122, &c.) • Dissertation Critique sur la Nouvelle Bibliothèque des SIMONY is the buying or selling for money or other Auteurs Ecclésiastiques par Du Pin,' in whiclı he defends corrupt consideration any ecclesiastical benefice, dignity, or some opinions contained in his Histoire Critique,' which preferment, or the causing a clerk to obtain or to relinquish had been controverted by Du Pin. His next publication such benefice or preserment for corrupt consideration. The was Histoire Critique du Nouveau Testament,' Rotter- word is derived from Simon, who is mentioned in the 'Acts dam, 1689, 410., an English version of which appeared the of the Apostles' (viii., 18-24) as having offered money to same year at London. Besides the above, Simon was the Peter and John in order that he might obtain from them author or editor of many other works. He was unquestion. apostolical powers. ably a man of profound learning and great acuteness, and Whether Simony was an offence at common law is at he contributed in 110 small degree to lessen the authority least doubiful. Lord Coke, it is true, repeatedly says that of his own church; but a love of controversy, in all its bit- | the common law doth abhor Simony, and adduces as evidence terness, and too great a propensity to depreciate and abuse of this repugnance the fact that a patron of a living could not Those who happened not to acquiesce in his opinions, ren- by the common law recover a pecuniary compensation for dered him equally obnoxious to Protestants and Roman being impeded in his presentation. It is certain that Simony Catholics. He died at Dieppe, in April, 1712, in the seventy- is a great ecclesiastical offence by the canons both of the fourth year of his age.

Roman Catholic and of the Anglican church. The 401h SIMOʻNIDES was a native of Iulis, in the island of canon of the latter (A.D. 1603), “to avoid the detestable crinie Ceos, and was born about B.C. 556. His father's name was of Simony,' and because the buying and selling of spiritual Leoprepes, and his grandfather's Simonides, who was also a and ecclesiastical functions, &c. is execrable before God,' poet.

prescribes an oath to be ministered to every person assumSimonides is said to have obtained great fame as a poet ing such offices, by wliich be denies that he has made any at an early age. He appears to have remained in Ceos till Simoniacal payment, contract, or promise, directly or indiabout b.c. 525, when he removed to Athens, where he was rectly, for procuring such ecclesiastical office, or that he honourably received by Hipparchus, and became acquainted will perform any such contract made on his belialf without with Anacreon and Lasus (Plato, Hipparch., p. 228; Aelian, his knowledge. Var. Hist., viii. 2). After the murder of Hipparchus, he took But the offence now depends on the statute 31 Elizabeth, refuge with the Aleuadae and Scopadae in Thessaly, whose 6, although the word Simony is not mentioned in the act. praises he celebrated in some of his poems (Theocrit., xvi. 34, By that statute any person presenting to a benefice for &c., with the Schol.; compare Plato, .Protagor., p. 333). How profit or any such corrupt cause' forfeits to the crown that long Simonides remained in Thessaly is not known; but after presentation and double the value of ore year's profit of the the battle of Marathon (B.C. 490) we find him again at benefice, and the person paying the price is rendered inAthens. For the next ten years he appears to have lived capable of holding that benefice ($ 5). Any person so corchiefly at Athens, and to have been actively engaged in the ruptly admitting or instituting another is subject to the pursuit of his art. After the banishment of Themistocles like pecuniary penalty, and the benefice is ‘estsoons merely and the death of Pausanias, with both of whom he lived.on void,' and the presentation reverts to the patron as though intimate terms, he retired to Hieron's court at Syracuse the party so admitted were dead ($ 6).' An incumbent (Aelian, Var. Hist., ix. 1; iv. 15), where he died, B.C. 467, in resigning or exchanging a benefice with cure of souls for his ninetieth year.

profit, and the person with whom the bargain is made, both Most of the poems of Simonides are lost; but enough forfeit double the price, together with two years' profit of have come down to us to enable us to form some opinion of the benefice ($ 8).' Any person obtaining for such corrupt the merits of his poetry, and to justify the panegyrics which consideration the ordaining of a minister, forfeits 401., and the antient writers bestow upon him. He was one of the the minister so corruptly ordained forfeits 101. and is inmost distinguished of the elegiac poets, and particularly ex: capable of holding any ecclesiastical preserment for seven celled in the pathetic, as we see in his ‘Lament of Danae' and I years. The modifications which that enactment has under

gone by subsequent statutes and decisions will be found 1 It has been translated into English by Dr. G. Stanhope, under the head BENEFICE (p. 223-6).

London, 1704, 8vo. ; into French by Dacier, Paris, 1715; The indignation of ecclesiastical authorities against and into German by Schulthess, Zürich, 1778. Simony, excepting in so far as relates to the admission of SIMPLON. (SWITZERLAND.] persons into the ministry, seems somewhat unreasonable, SIMPSON, THOMAS, a distinguished English matheand is certainly inefficacious, for the trafficking in ecclesias- matician, was born at Market-Bosworth in Leicestershire, tical preferment is extensively pursued. Provided that the August 20, 1710. He appears even in his boyhood to have qualification of persons for holy orders is carefully in- had a strong inclination for acquiring information by readvestigated before their admission to the ministry, and that ing and conversation ; but his father, who was a weaver, the discipline of the church can be strictly and easily en- intending that he should follow that occupation, endeaforced by the bishops and other ecclesiastical authorities, the voured 10 divert him from a pursuit which interfered with reason why a minister who has been admitted to a benefice the labour of his hands. The impulse of genius however for a pecuniary consideration should be disqualified for his prevailed over the remonstrances of the parent, and the office is not very obvious, especially in a country where youth, having quitted his father's house, went to reside advowsons are by law a marketable commodity, and the at Nuneaton, where, in the exercise of his trade, he oblegislature recognises a bargain for compelling a minister tained the means of subsisting, and during the intervals to resign a benefice in favour of another person, provided of leisure he indulged his taste for the acquisition of knowthe latter is within certain degrees of consanguinity to the ledge. patron.

Young Simpson was led to the study of mathematics by (Rogers's Ecclesiastical Law; Bacon's Abridgment, 'Si- having accidentally obtained possession of a copy of Cocker's mony.')

Arithmetic,' to which was annexed a short treatise on SIMOOM. (SAMIELI.]

algebra; and, similarly to what is related of Tycho Brahé, SIMPLE BODIES. (Atomic THEORY.]

it is said that he applied himself to astronomy from admiSIMPLE CONTRACT debts are those which are con- ration of the science in consequence of the occurrence (in tracted without any engagement under the seal of the debtor 1724) of a great eclipse of the sun at the time, which had or of his ancestor, and which are not of record by any judg- been predicted. It is added that an itinerant pedlar and ment of a court. Money due for goods bought by the debtor fortune-teller instructed him at the same time in the mysis the most usual of simple contract debts; and the declara. teries of judicial astrology, and this art he occasionally praction against a defendant, in an action for goods sold, usually tised during several years. alleges that the defendant undertook (or contracted) to pay While yet a stripling he married a woman about fifty the plaintiff the sum due. Şimple contract debts are the last years of ge, the widow of a tailor and the mother of two which are payable out of a deceased person's estate, when children, of whom the younger was his senior by two years : the assets are insufficient. [Executor.]

all the family however appear to have lived together in larSIMPLI'CIUS, a native of Tibur, succeeded Hilarius as mony, Simpson working at his trade by day, and increasing bishop of Rome, A.D. 467. He had a controversy with his income by keeping a private school in the evenings. In Acacias, Patriarch of Constantinople, about precedence. 1733 he went to reside at Derby, where he continued to folSimplicius dedicated several churches at Rome to particular low the united avocations of weaver and schoolmaster, and saints, and he also framed several regulations concerning where he found means to increase his knowledge of mathethe discipline of the clergy of Rome. He died A.D. 483. matics. With arithmetic, geometry, and algebra he was

SIMPLICIUS was a native of Cilicia, and lived in the already acquainted; and now, having obtained a loan of reign of Justinian. He had been trained in the study of Stone's translation of the Marquis de l'Hôpital's · Analyse philosophy by Ammonius, and appears to have been engaged des Infinimens Petits,' he was enabled by the force of in teaching at Athens when Justinian issued the decree which genius and unremitting application to make himself master imposed perpetual silence on the few yet remaining votaries of the direct and inverse method of fluxions. Being thus of heathen science and superstition in that city. Simplicius qualified, he began in or before the year 1735 to write and six of his philosophic friends, who were resolved not to answers to the mathematical questions in the 'Ladies' abandon the religion of their forefathers, left Athens, to seek Diary,' and even to propose questions for solution in that in a fureign land the freedom which was denied to them at work. Some of the questions have a certain degree of home. They went to Persia, where Chosroes then reigned, intricacy, and they afford evidence that, at this time, the expecting to find all their hopes realised; but when they scientific attainments of Simpson, considering his means, saw the actual state of affairs in the East, they repented of must have been very extensive. the steps which they had taken, and declared that they In the year 1735 or 1736 Simpson came to London and would rather die on the borders of the empire than enjoy took lodgings in Spitalfields, where at first he both worked the favours and the wealth which the barbarian monarch at the loom and gave instruction, as he had done in the might bestow upon them. They returned to their country; country ; but his great abilities becoming known to the and Chosroes, in a treaty which he at the time concluded world, and being perhaps more conspicuous from the obwith the Greek emperor, nobly stipulated that the seven scurity of his situation, he was enabled to give up his trade philosophers who had visited his court should be exempt and devote himself wholly to science. Having brought his from the penal laws which Justinian enacted against his family to the metropolis, he established himself there as a pagan subjects. Simplicius and his friends, after their teacher of the mathematics, and employed his leisure hours return, lived in peace and retirement at Athens, where they | in extending his researches into the highest branches of the devoted the remainder of their lives to the study of philo-science. sophy, enjoying the reputation of being wise and virtuous On the death of Dr. Derham, Mr. Simpson was, in

1743, appointed professor of mathematics in the Royal Simplicius wrote Commentaries on Aristotle's Catego- Military Academy at Woolwich; and this post be heid goriæ, Physica, De Coelo, and De Anima. One of his objects during nearly all the rest of his life. He is said to have in these commentaries is to reconcile the Platonic and Stoic been successful in acquiring the friendship and esteem of systems with the Peripatetic school, to which he himself be- his pupils; and while exerting himself diligently in fulfillonged. They are the most valuable of all the extant Greek ling his public duties, he found time to compose numerous commentaries on Aristotle; for Simplicius possessed a pro. works on the most abstruse points in the mathematical and found knowledge of his author, as well as of other philosophysical sciences. phical writers of antiquity; and as he frequently quotes the In 1746 he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, opinions of antient philosophers whose works are no longer and on account of the mediocrity of his circumstances he extant, his commentaries are a fruitful source for those who was excused the payment of the admission fee and the anwish to study the history of autient philosophy. His com- nual subscriptions : several of his mathematical papers were mentaries are printed in some of the early editions of Aris. printed in the Transactions, but most of them were aftertotle ; they are also contained in ‘Scholia in Aristotelem, wards republished in the volumes of his works. In 1760, collegit Ch. A. Brandis,' Berlin, 1836, &c.

when the present bridge at Blackfriars was about to be Simplicius also wrote a Commentary on the Enchiridion built, Mr. Simpson was consulted with other mathematiof Epictetus, which for its pure and noble principles of mo. cians concerning the form whuch would be most advanrality has commanded the admiration of all ages. The best tageous for the arches; he appears in consequence to have separate edition of this commentary is that by Schweig- taken some pains in investigating the conditions of the stahauser, with a Latin translation, in 2 vols., Leipzig, 1800. bility of vaults, and to have given the preference to those P C., No. 1363.

Vol. XXII.-F

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of a hemi-cylindrical form, but he did not live to complete nation of the elements of the orbits of the earth, moon, and the work, and the results of his researches have never been planets; these bodies being supposed to perturbate each made public.

other's motions by their mutual attractions, as well as to be As Mr. Simpson advanced in life, he became gradually subject to the general attraction of the sun. In the prosea prey to melancholy, which appears to have been in- cution of the research, the mathematicians Clairaut, creased by the influence of bad habits; bis mentál faculties D'Alembert; and Euler particularly investigated the effect were at length so far impaired that he became incapable of of the sun's attraction in causing a progression of the apogee performing the duties of his professorship, and in the be- of the moon's orbit

, which progression, being a remarkable ginning of the year 1761 he was prevailed on to retire to consequence of perturbation, was considered as a test of the his native town. The fatigues of the journey increased his correctness of the general principle and law of attraction disorder, and he died May 14, in that year, in the fifty-first which had been assumed by Newton. The first efforts of year of his age.

M. Clairaut showed an amount of progression in the period Considering the circumstances attending Simpson's early of a revolution of the moon about the earth, equal to about life, and the laborious occupation in which he was after half only of that which had been determined from astronowards engaged, it is not without surprise that we contem- mical observations ('Mémoires de l'Académie,' 1747); and it plate the number of works which he wrote, and the pro- is remarkable that both D'Alembert and

Euler obtained at found research those works display. His first publication, the same time 'a like 'erroneous result. This circumstance which came out in 1737, was entitled 'A New Treatise of at first caused some doubts to be entertained of the truth of Fluxions, in which the direct and inverse methods, as they Newton's hypothesis, that the force of attraction varies inwere called, are demonstrated with considerable precision versely' as the square of the distance: but the process emand perspicuity, and agreeably to the manner of Newton; ployed by the three mathematicians being one of successive the work also contains several useful applications of the cal approximations only, it was afterwards discovered by Clairaut culus to subjects in natural philosophy and astronomy: that, on continuing the process, the second step in the Thirteen years afterwards, that is, in 1750, he published approximation produced a quantity nearly equal to that * The Doctrine and Applications of Fluxions, which he which had been obtained by the first step; and thus the dedicated to the earl of Macclesfield, and which, though it computed progression was found to coincide with the results embraces the same subjects as form the body of the Trea- of observation. Now Simpson, employing a differential tise,' must, from the numerous improvements it contains, be equation of motion like that which had been used by the considered as a separate work.

foreign mathematicians, obtained the values of its terms by In 1740 Simpson published A Treatise on the Nature means of indeterminate coefficients; a method which enand Laws of Chance' besides · Essays on several subjects tirely avoided the inaccuracy resulting from the species of in pure and mixed Mathematics; and two years afterwards approximation which they had adopted, and thus he arrived • The Doctrine of Annuities and Reversions, with tables at once true value of the progression. showing the yalues single and joint lives. These works

years after Physical and Analytical Subjects," among which will be interval, thát mathematician during a visit to England bad found an investigation of the figure of a planet revolving an interview with Simpson; the latter states however, in on its axis, and of the force of attraction at the surfaces of the preface to his "Tracts, that previously to having had bodies which are nearly spherical, also à theory of the any communication with M. Clairaut, he had discovered tides and of astronomica, refractions. These dissertations that the

movement of the moon's apogee could be accounted were dedicated to Martin Folkes, Esq., the president of the for on the Newtonian 'law of gravitation. There is thereRoyal Society

fore no reason to doubt that Simpson had the merit of An Elementary Treatise on Algebra' was published in arriving at a determination which served to confirm the 1745; The Elements of Geometry, in 1747; and in the truth of that law by a process entirely his own: the whole next year . A Tract on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, investigation exliibits profound mathematical skill, and fully with the Theory of Logarithms. With the elements of entitles him to the character of having been one of the geometry are given notes in which are suggested improve- ablest'analysts, for all the purposes of Practical science, of ments on some of the demonstrations of Euclid; but in which the country can boast. making occasional obseryations on the notes given in the Mr. Simpson continued during the whole of his life his first edition of Pr. Robert Simson's 'Euclid;" for example contributions to the · Ladies' Diary, of which work he was on the note to the first proposition of the eleventh book,

he the editor from 1754 to 1160. has fallen into some slight inaccuracies which have been SIMSON, ROBERT, one of the many mathematicians remarked on in the succeeding editions of the latter work. who have given a lustre to the universities of Scotland, was A second edition of Thomas Simpson's "Geometry' was pub- a son of Mr. John Simson, of Kirton Hall in Ayrshire, and lished in 1760.

was born in October, 1687. 'About the year 1701 he was In the year 1752 he published Select Exercises in Ma- sent to the university of Glasgow, where he acquired that thematics, in which are given many geometrical and proficiency in the learned languages which he retained duralgebraical problems with their solutions, and a theory of ing 'all his life, and at the same time he made considerable gunnery; but his last and most valuable work was that progress in 'moral philosophy and theology, being destined which is entitled 'Miscellaneous Tracts' (1754). This by his father for the church.' Young Simson soon however consists of eight separate papers, four of which relate to found a pursuit more congenial to his taste in the study of pure mathematics, and the others to physical astronomy. mathematics, and chiefly of the antient geometry: to this The first paper contains investigations for determining the subject' he applied himself at first as a relief from what he precession of the equinoxes and the nutations of the earth's considered as a more laborious occupation, and it became at axis; the second contains equations for correcting the place length almost the sole employment of his life.” of a planet in its orbit on the hypotheses of Bullialdus and In 1710" Mr. Simson made a visit to London, where he Seth Ward; and the third is on the manner of transferring remained about a year, and where he became acquainted the motion of a come from a parabolical to an elliptical with Dr. Halley, Mr. Caswell, Dr. Jurin, and Mr. Ditton ; orbit. In the fourth paper are explained the advantages, in from the conversation of the last gentleman, who was then point of accuracy, which arise from using a mean of several mathematical master of Christ's Hospital, he gained, not as astronomical observations instead of one single observation. à pupil, but' as a friend, a considerable accession to his The fifth contains the determination of certain fluents; the knowledge of science. sixth, the resolution of algebraic equations by means of On the resignation of Dr. Robert Sinclair, Mr. Simson surd divisors; and the seventh, a general rule for the reso was appointed, in 1711, to succeed him as professor of malution of isoperimetrical propositions. The eighth paper thematics in the university of Glasgow. He then applied contains the resolution of some important problems in himself to the duties of his office, and regularly gave lecastronomy; the propositions in the third and ninth sectures on five days in each week during the session of seven tions of the first book of Newton's Principia' are demon- months. This practice he continued for nearly fifty years ; strated, and the general equations are applied to the deter- but in 1758, being then seventy-one years of age, he was mination of the lunar orbit.

obliged to employ an'assistant, and three years afterwards In order that the merit of this last paper may be rightly the Rev. Dr. Williamson, who had been one of his pupils, appreciated, it is necessary to observe that about the year was appointed his successor. 1745 the modern analysis was first applied to the determi In 1735 Dr. Simson published in 4to. a 'Treatise on Conio

1

Sections, and a second edition in 1750 : in this work the and those sins which are only those of contemplation and investigations are conducted agreeably to the spirit of the thought: since the Christian rule commands us not to antient geometry, and propositions are introduced expressly neglect the performance of our duties, and to keep a watch that, it might serve as an introduction to the treatise of over the thoughts as well as over the actions and words. Apollonius on the same subject.

It was this comprehensive and most excellent law which By the advice, it is said, of Dr. Halley, Simson early di- was in the mind of the Apostle when he said that ‘sin was rected his attention to a restoration of the works of the transgression of the law,' or at least that other divine law Greek geometers, and his first effort was made on the which bound the conscience of the Jews. But the expresporisms of Euclid : a branch of the antient analysis which sion may be taken to express more generally any law which is only kpown from the short account in the works of Pap- a person holds in his conscience to be binding upon him, pus. In this difficult task however he succeeded, but his whether it be a law of nature only, or a law in which the Tract' on the subject was not published till after his natural perception of right and wrong is modified by and death. Having acquired, a sort of key to that analysis, mixed with what is received as the will of God concerning he undertook a restoration of the loci plani' of Apollonius, us by direct revelation from him. and this he completed about the year 1738. The work was When the word sin is however applied to any act, it is first published in 1746, and Dr. Simson acquired by it the always, among correct writers or speakers, used with referreputation of being one of the most elegant geometers of ence, either expressed or implied, to religious obligation, the age. Another subject on which the peculiar talents of and to the responsibility in which we stand to God, and the Dr. Simson were exercised, was the 'sectio determinata 'of liability in which we are to future punishment. To do Apollonius, and this also he was so fortunate as to restore. wrong would express the same act as to commit sin ;' but The work appears to have been commenced at an early pe we use the former phrase without thinking of the offence riod of his life, but it was only published, along with the which is done against God in any act of the kind; not so Porisms, after bis death,

when we use the other phrase. A perfect edition of the principal part of Euclid's . Ele Under this definition it is evident that there may be ments' was the next object of Dr. Simson’s labours. Nu- degrees in sin: and we mention this to remove what we merous errors were known to exist in the Greek copies, and deem an erroneous opinion on this subject, which goes the the correction of these was a task worthy of a scholar who length of saying thai there is really no difference between had made the antient geometry almost exclusively his the slightest violation of any moral obligation and the more study. An edition of the Elements' and of the Data' was heinous transgressions. The error on this point arises out of published in 4to. about. 1758, and the work tas always en one of the commonest mistakes in respect of language-conjoyed a high character both for precision in the definitions founding words in their abstract with words in their concrete and accuracy in the demonstrations. It is probable that the state. It is true that sin in the abstract is one and indivisiBritish mathematician has even corrected errors which ble, and there are no degrees in it; it expresses that which existed in the original text, though his high regard for is most offensive in the sight of a pure, holy, and judging Euclid has led him to assume that all those which he has God. But when we say 'a sin,' we then refer to some pardiscovered have arisen from the negligence or unskilful- ticular act; and common sense tells us that in all acts in ness of the antient editors or copyists. Having been very which the law is transgressed there is not the same amount generally used for the purposes of elementary instruction, of moral turpitude, the same amount of defiance to the many editions of this work have since been published. Divine Power, the same injury to society or to our neigh

After his retirement Dr. Simson employed himself chiefly bour, and consequently not the same amount of offence in in correcting his mathematical writings; but though he the sight of God. At the same time it cannot be too strongly had several works nearly fit for publication, he printed inculcated upon all to keep a watchful guard upon themnone except a new edition of Euclid's .Data.' He was selves lest they commit even the smaller offences; for seriously ill only during a few weeks previously to his death, nothing is more certain in the philosophy of mind, than that which took place October 1, 1768, in the eighty-first year of small offences lead imperceptibly to the toleration of

greater, so that the man who thinks little of small offences In 1776 Earl Stanhope published, at his own expense, may become, before he is aware, guilty of those of the most and for private circulation, the above-mentioned restora- heinous nature. tions of Euclid's books of Porisms, and of the two books of There is also what divines call Original Sin; a phrase Apollonius ' De Sectione Determinata :' together with these which is differently interpreted by different persons. By works the same nobleman published a tract on the limits some it is considered as being the act of sin committed by of ratios and another on logarithms, both of which had also our first parents when they transgressed the law which had been written by Dr. Simson. An edition of the works of bound them not to eat of the fruit of a certain tree; and Pappus was found among the Doctor's MSS., and was sent this act of sin is regarded as partaken in by all the posterity by his executors to the University of Oxford.

of Adam, who were, as it were, existent in him their comDr. Simson, though devoted to geometry, was well ac mon father, and as fixing upon all the guilt of his sin, and quainted with the modern analysis, and the latter was exposing them to punishment which would be inflicted for occasionally the subject of his college lectures; it is how this particular sin, to say nothing of their own sin, but for ever to be regretted that so much of his time was spent in the great redemption. There are many modifications of the effort to restore the precise works of the antients, when this notion and many intermediate shades of opinion till we it might have been more profitably employed in forming a arrive at the view of original sin which represents the connected system of their analysis, and in showing its appli- nature of man as changed by the transgression in this parcation to the solution of problems relating to physical ticular of our common ancestor; so that a nature previously science. He was never married, and the greater part of perfectly innocent and free from the least tendency to sin, his long life was spent within the walls of the college; his became changed into one in which the disposition to sin is hours of study, his exercises, and even his amusements be- inherent and the repugnance to the Divine will strong and ing regulated with great precision. In his disposition he universal. There are some classes of professing Christians was cheerful and sociable; and his conversation, which who do not use the phrase original sin, though they admit was animated, abounded with literary anecdote and good the proneness of man to sin, attributing it to his ignorance humour, though he was subject, when in company, to occa, and imperfection, to the violence of his appetites and passional fits of absence. He was a man of strict integrity and sions, and in general referring it to that state of probation in pure morals, and he appears to have had just impressions which it seems to them to have been the intention of their of religion, though he never allowed the subject to be intro- Maker to place us. duced in mixed society.

SINAI, MOUNT. [ARABIÀ, p. 213.) SIN. One of the few passages of Scripture in which we SINA'PIS, the name of a genus of plants belonging to have something which approaches to the character of a the natural order Cruciferæ or Brassicaceæ. All the species definition relates to this word : Sin is the transgression of are known by the name of mustard, a word derived from the law. (1 John, iii. 4.) Within this definition would be mustum ardens, in allusion to their hot and biting characcomprehended all actual sins, when the word law is inter- ter. The genus is known by its siliquose fruit, which is preted to mean the Christian law, the rule by which the rather terete with nerved valves; small, short, acute style ; minds of all who profess Christianity are bound; and not subglobose seeds disposed in one row in each cell, and spreadmerely open palpable offences against the law, such as mur- ing calyx, The leaves are of various forms, lyrate or deeply der, theft, lying, and the like, but sinful omissions of duty, tootlied. The flowers yellow, arranged on terminal

bractless

his age.

racemes. They are chiefly natives of the temperate parts fat matter, gummy matter, sugar, colouring matter, sina. of both hemispheres of the old world. Between 40 and 50 pisin, free acid, peculiar green matter, and some salts, species of this genus are enumerated. Of these two species chiefly sulphate and phosphate of lime. The volatile oil are well known and much cultivated in this country, Sina- does not pre-exist in the mustard, but is formed, when water pis nigra and S. alba, the black and white mustard. is added, " by the mutual action of the contained myrosyne

S. nigra, the black mustard, is known by its smooth, even, and myronate of potash (sinapisin ?).' It may be obtained somewhat tetragonal siliques closely prossed to the pe- by distilling one part of the marc (i.e. the cake of bruised duncle ; lyrate lower leaves, and lanceolate upper leaves. mustard-seeds which remains after the fixed oil has been It is found in cultivated fields, waste grounds, and road expressed) with from five to eight parts of water. It is sosides throughout Europe. The young plants of both black luble in alcohol and æther, and also, what is very singular, and white mustard are eaten as salad, and are both culti. in water, requiring howerer five hundred parts for its soluvated for this purpose. The black however differs from the tion. Water in which it is dissolved is a powerful vesicant white mustard in the flowers and seed being much smaller, and rubefacient. It has been recommended as a counterand in the latter being black. But the great purpose for irritant in the same cases as sinapisms or mustard-ponltices which the black mustard is grown is for the seeds, which are employed. It possesses the advantage of extreme rawhen ripened and powdered form the well-known condi- pidity of action; and when used in cases of torpor or coma, ment mustard. "To raise the seed for flour of mustard and if on the return of sensibility the patient complains of pain other officinal occasions, sow either in March or April in an from the application, this can be immediately removed by open compartment, or large sowings in fields, where designed washing the part with sulphuric æther, a property no other for public supply. Sow moderately thick, either in drills six rubefacient agent possesses, and which entitles it to a preor twelve inches asunder, or broad-cast, after the ground has ference in many cases. It is the only volatile oil of indibeen properly plouglied and harrowed, and rake or harrow genous origin which is heavier than water, its specific in the seed. When the plants are two or three inches high, gravity being 1.015 at 68° of Falır. It possesses the same hoe or thin them moderately where too thick, and clear power as other volatile oils in preventing the development them from weeds. They will soon run up 10 stalks, and in of fungi. July, August, or September return a crop of seed ripe for The fixed oil is perfectly bland, like that of olive or rape, gathering ; being tied up in sheaves and left three or four which last it greaily resembles. It exists to the extent of days on the stubble.' (Don's Miller.) Rain damages the 20 per cent in white, and about 28 per cent. in black muscrop very much. Black mustard exhausts the soil rapidly. tard-seed. To obtain it the seeds are crushed in a mill or It is cultivated to a great extent in the county of Durham. between rollers, and the skins should be subjected to presWhen once grown it is difficult to extirpate on account of sure as well as the farina or flour. The cake may then be the great vitality of the seeds, which, if buried at almost sifted and reduced to a fine powder, as it retains all the any depth and for any length of time, will germinate when pungent properties. In France the oil is generally left in brought to the surface. In preparing the flour of mustard the seeds, which renders them very difficult to powder, and in this country, the black husk of the seed is separated by makes it expensive. It is also less potent than English delicate sifting. This process, which is not gone through mustard in equivalent quantity. The marc or cake is on the Continent, makes the British mustard of so much sometimes used as manure, but this is a waste. The oil is lighter and more agreeable colour. The mustard on the valuable for burning, especially as it does not freeze, except Continent however is stronger, as the greater proportion of at a temperature below zero. It also forms, with an alkali, the volatile oil on which the strength of the mustard depends a firm good soap. It has been supposed to be anthelmintic resides in the testa, or husk of the seed, which in this coun as well as purgative, but its medicinal properties are insig. try is thrown away.

nificant. S. alba, white mustard : siliques hispid, spreading, rather Flour of mustard, mixed with water, forms the wellnarrower than the ensiform beak: leaves lyrate, smoothish; known condiment so much used with all the more indistem smooth. It is a native of Britain and most countries gestible articles of food, the solution of which it seems to in the south of Europe. It is frequently cultivated, and when favour by rousing the powers of the stomach. A tableyoung is eaten as a salad. Its seeds are white, and by ex- spoonful of mustard in a tumbler of water forms a really and pression yield a bland insipid oil perfectly free from acri- useful emetic in many cases of poisoning, especially when mony, but leaving behind a cake more pungent than the narcotic poisons have been taken. Added to foot-baths, seeds themselves. In the culture of this plant for salad the mustard has a revulsive action, which is often serviceable seed should be sown once a week or fortnight, in dry warm in the commencement of colds, and when gout has seized situations, in February and March, and in shady borders in the stomach or brain ; also when cutaneous diseases hare the heat of summer. They are best sown in shallow flat drills, suddenly receded. from three to six inches apart. The seeds should be put in Sinapisms are generally directed to be made with vinegar, thick and regular, and covered with not more than a quar- but water of the temperature of about 100° Fahr. is preter of an inch of mould. In winter or early spring it may ferable, and less expensive. French mustard for the table be grown under

a hand-glass, or in hotbeds and stoves. is often prepared with vinegar. Some years ago, the seeds SINAPIS. Two species of this genus are used in this of white mustard, taken whole, in the dose of a tablecountry to yield the mustard of commerce, S. alba and S. spoonful, were recommended as a cure for many complaints. nigra, or white mustard and black mustard. Both are This was only an old practice revived, and not free from annuals, the latter extensively cultivated in Yorkshire and danger, as the seeds have been known to lodge in the inDurbam. Of the former the seeds are large, smooth, not testines and cause death. See Cullen's ·Materia Medica,' veined or reticulated, and when bruised and mixed with vol. ii., p. 170. Respecting the mustard-plant of Scripture, water, do not evolve a pungent odour. The integument or see •Trans. of Linnean Society of London,' vol. xvii., p. 449. skin is also thin, and the quantity of fixed oil obtained SINCAPORE. [SINGAPORE.] from it is less than from that of the black mustard. White SINCLAIR, SIR JOHN, Bart., third son of G. Sinmustard is of a light colour externally (but one variety is clair, Esq., heritable sheriff of Caithness, was born at Thurso blackisb), and when reduced to powder, is of a light yellow castle, in the county of Caithness, in the year 1754. colour.

He embraced the profession of the law, and was called to The seeds of black mustard are about the size of the the English bar in 1782, having been admitted a member head of a common pin, ovato-globose, of a reddish-brown, of the faculty of advocates in Scotland in the year 1775. beautifully veined, internally yellow, oily, and yielding a In 1780 he was chosen member for his native county, yellowish-green powder. The chemical constitution of the and sat in the house during several successive parliaments, two is essentially different, as it is only the black mustard sometimes for Caithness, sometimes for other places. He which evolves, when bruised and mixed with water, the was created a baronet in 1786, and in 1810 was honoured pungent principle which irritates the eyes, nostrils, and with a seat at the board of privy council. He was likewise skin. The white mustard possesses a non-volatile principle, a member of several learned societies, and became extenwhich is developed by the addition of water. It is the sively known by his writings, which, for more than fifty young plants from this species which are eaten with cress years, issued rapidly from the press. His death took place as a salad.

at Edinburgh, on December 21, 1835, in the 82nd year of The chemical constitution of black mustard seems to be his age. of the most complex kind. According to Dr. Pereira, it Sir J. Sinclair did much for the improvement of his contains myronate of potash, myrosyne, fixed oil, a pearly country. He established a very useful society in Scotland

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