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in 1791 for improving wool, and his exertions led to the for- | who, after a reign of a few months, was compelled to fly. mation of the Board of Agriculture in 1793, of which he was Sevajee Madhoo, the posthumous son of Narrain Row, was the first president. Among the most important of his nu: appointed Paishwa, and Ballajee Pundit, better known as merous works may be mentioned his 'Statistical Account Nana Furnavese, was elected dewan, or minister. The of Scotland ;' History of the Revenue of Great Britain ;' British, on the condition of his ceding to them certain terand • Account of the Northern Districts of Scotland.' The ritories, came to the assistance of Ragoba, which occasioned first of these is an extraordinary work, and displays an a war between them and the Mahrattas. This war, twice almost incredible amount of labour and research.

interrupted by treaties which were not completed, conSINDE. HINDUSTAN.)

tinued till 1782, when the treaty of Salbhye was concluded, SINDIA, FAMILY OF. The origin of this celebrated by which Madhajee Sindia was confirmed in all his possesfamily of Mahratta chiefs and princes is comparatively mo- sions, the places taken from him by the British were redern. The family were sudras, of the peaceful tribe of stored, and he was recognised by them as an independent koombee, or cultivators. The first who distinguished him- prince. self as a soldier was

Madhajee Sindia had now time and opportunity to proseRANOSEE SINDIA, who was originally a potail, or head cute his plans of aggrandisement. In 1785 he again apman of a village. The Paishwa Bajerow, who succeeded peared at Delhi, and by the murder of two of the imperial his father Biswanath Row in 1720, appointed Ranojee to ministers once more got the emperor into his power ; he the humble office of bearer of his slippers. A circumstance also conquered Agra and Alyghur, and obtained possession which seemed to show his fidelity and attachment to his of nearly the whole of the Doab About this time he enmaster is said to have led to his promotion. Bajerow one gayed in his service a Frenchman, De Boigne, who became day found him asleep on his back, with the slippers firmly of the most essential service to him ; for by his assistance he clasped to his breast, and was so much pleased as to ap- formed an army consisting of troops regularly disciplined, point him immediately to a station in his body-guard. Ra- he fought pitched battles, besieged fortresses previously nojee Sindia was active and enterprising, and he was rapidly deemed impregnable, gradually subjected raja after raja to promoted. In 1743 he had risen to the highest rank of contribution, and added district after districi to his possesMahratta chiefs; for when Bajerow came into Malwa in sions, till he became master of nearly all the territory souththat year, Ranojee signed a bond which was required by the west from the banks of the Ganges to the Nerbudda. The emperor of Delhi, Mahomed Shah, as a surety for the good battle of Meerta, gained by De Boigne in 1790 over the colconduct of his master the Paishwa. Before Ranojee died he lected forces of Joudpoor, had made Sindia master of that had obtained the hereditary government of one-half of the principality, as well as of the weaker state of Odeypoor ; to extensive province of Malwa. By his wife, who belonged to these conquests was added soon after that of Jypoor, which his own tribe, he had three sons, Jeypah, Duttagee, and was followed in 1792 by the defeat of the troops of JunkaJuttabah; and by a Rajpoot woman he had two sons, Tu- jee Holkar, when four corps of regular infantry belonging kajee and Madhajee, of whom

to Holkar's army, which were commanded by a French MADHAJEE SINDIA became the head of the family. The officer, were almost utterly destroyed Sindia himself had date of his birth is uncertain; it was probably about 1743; returned to Poona in 1791, where he died in 1794. he was present at the battle of Paniput in 1761, when the Madhajee Sindia's life was one of incessant activity ; bie Mahrattas were defeated by Ahmed Shah Abdallah and his was engaged in a series of contests in which he displayed Afghans, in union with the Rajpoot and Mohammedan great talent and untiring energy, and by which his power princes of northern Hindustan. In this disastrous battle and possessions were gradually extended, consolidated, and one-half of the Mahratta army, which amounted to 200,000 confirmed. His labits throughout the whole of his career men, are said to have been slain. Madhajee Sindia was were those of a plain soldier ; he was never seduced by pursued by an Afghan horseman for many miles, who at luxury, and he despised the trappings of state. Though length overtook him, and left him for dead in a ditch, after occasionally guilty of violence and oppression, his life was having wounded him with his battle-axe in the knee in for the most part unstained by cruelty; his disposition such a manner as to render him lame for life. The Sindia was mild, and he was desirous of improving the countries family, as well as the other Mahratta chiefs, were for a time which he conquered. Towards the British and those states deprived of all their possessions in Malwa and Hindustan which were unconnected with the Mahratta government proper; but this was not of long continuance. The Paishwa he conducted himself as an independent prince, but in matBajerow died in 1761, and was succeeded by his son Mad- ters relating to the Paishwa he paid the most scrupulous hoo Row, under whom, on the death of Mullar Row Holkar attention to all the forms of humility, of which he made a in 1764, Madhajee Sindia became the most powerful of the curious display when Sevajee Madhoo Row, at the terminaMahratta chiefs. Besides being the principal leader of the tion of his minority in 1791, entered upon the duties of his household-horse of the Paishwa, he had a large army of his office, and Sindia came to Poona to pay his respects to him. own; and the return of Ahmed Shah to Cabul, and the Sir John Malcolm thus relates it: “The actual sovereign of contests among the Mohammedan princes under the weak Hindustan from the Sutleje to Agra, the conqueror of the emperor Shah Alim II., in a few years afforded opportunity princes of Rajpootana, the commander of an army composed to him and his brother Tukajee Sindia to recover their of sixteen battalions of regular infantry, 500 pieces of canformer hereditary government and possessions in Malwa non, and 100,000 horse, the possessor of iwo thirds of and northern Hindustan.

Malwa, and some of the finest provinces in the Deckan, In 1770, on the invitation of Nujeeb ud Dowlah, wlio was when he went to pay his respects to a youth who then held the minister of Shah Alim, Madhajee Sindia, Bassajee Row, the office of Paishwa, dismounted froin his elephant at the and Tukajee Holkar entered Hindustan proper with their gates of Poona; placed himself in the great hall of audience armies, for the purpose of expelling the Sikhs, who had in- below all the mankarries, or hereditary nobles of the state, vaded the emperor's territories. This was soon accom. and when the Paishwa came into the room, and desired him plished; and on the death of Nujeeb ud Dowlah in 1771, to be seated with others, he objected on the ground of beMadhajee Sindia obtained possession of Delhi, whither he ing unworthy of the honour, and, untying a bundle that he invited Shah Alim to return from Allahabad, where he had carried under his arm, produced a pair of slippers, which been living under the protection of the British since 1755. he placed before Madhoo Row, saying, “This is my occupaIn December the same year the emperor was crowned with tion; it was that of my father. Madhajee, at the moment great pomp in his capital. He was not however the less in be said this, took the old slippers the Paishwa had in use, subjection. Madhajee compelled him to sign a commission which he wrapped up carefully, and continued to hold them by which he appointed the Paishwa vicegerent of the em- under his arm; after which, though with apparent reluctpire ; and the Paishwa, by a like commission, appointed ance, he allowed himself to be prevailed upon to sit down. Madhajee his deputy.

It has been supposed that by this affected humility be In 1772, and again in 1773, with his two colleagues aimed at obtaining the situation of dewan to the Paishwa; Bassajee and Holkar, Sindia invaded and ravaged Rohil- if such_however was his object, he was frustrated in it, for cund, and was preparing to cross the Ganges, when the Nana Furnavese still retained it. murder of the young Paishwa Narrain Row, ihe usurpation Madhajee Sindia had no sons. His brother Tukajee had of the office by his uncle Ragoba, and the appearance of the three, of whom the youngest, Anund Row, became the British and the nabob of Oude, who had been invited to favourite of his uncle, who adopted Dowlut Row Sindia, the assist the Rohillas, caused him to return to Poona. A con- son of Anund Row, as his heir.. federation of Mahratta chiefs was got up against Ragoba, DowLUT Row Sindia, at the death of his grand-uncle.




was only thirteen years of age. He was opposed by the fundamental terms, which, though originally derived from widows of Madhajee, who set up another prince in oppo simple trigonometry, are now among the most useful founsition to him, and he was not established in his power till dations of mathematical expression. For what we have to after several battles had been fought. He married, soon after say on their history, we refer to the article just cited. his accession, the daughter of Sirjee Row Gatkia, an artful According to the antient system of trigonometry, the sine and wicked man, who became his minister, to whom is doubt and cosine are only names given to the abscissa and ordinate less to be ascribed much of the rapacity and cruelty which of a point, not with reference to the position of that point in marked the early part of Dowlut Row's reign. The seizure space, but to the radius vector of that point and its angle. and imprisonment of Nana Furnavese, the murder of several Thus, measuring angles from the line on, and in the diBrahmins, the plundering of Poona and the weighbouring rection of the arrow, the angle NOP has an infinite number places under pretence of paying the expenses of his mar- of sines and cosines. With reference to the radius OP, riage; and the aiding of Casee Row Holkar in the murder of his brother Mulhar Row, are among his early atrocities; in addition to which it should be mentioned, that when Sirjee Row Gatkia defeated Jeswunt Row Holkar in 1801, he plundered the city of Indore, set fire to the best houses, and murdered many of the inhabitants; in 1802 however Holkar defeated Sindia, and re-established himself in Malwa. But the interference of the British at length put a stop to this career of spoliation and bloodshed. The Paishwa Bajerow, having been defeated by Jeswant Row Holkar in 1802, Hlod to Bassein, and placed himself under the protection of the British, by a PN is the sine and ON the cosine of 2 NOP; but with treaty, the chief conditions of which were, that he should cede reference to the radius OQ, QR is the sine and OR the to them the island of Salsette, and they should restore bimcosine. The fundamental relation to the office of Paishwa. After many fruitless negociations

(sine 0) + (cosine oy' = (radius) with Sindia and the Raja of Berar, the British résident left the is obvious enough. court of Sindia, August 3, 1803, and war was commenced The student always began trigonometry with this multion the 8th by an attack on the fortress of Ahmednugghur by plicity of definitions, and with the idea of some particular Major-General Wellesley, which he soon look, and followed radius being necessary to the complete definition of the sine up on the 25th of September, 1803, by the battle of Assaye, and cosine But as he proceeded, he was always taught to when he gained a complete victory over the confederated suppose the radius a unit; that is, always to adopt that line forces of Sindia and the Raja of Berar, which were under the as a radius which was agreed upon to be represented by 1. command of the French general Péron, and greatly more Hence he gradually learned to forget his first defnition ; numerous than his own. In Hindustan Proper, General and, passing from geometry to arithmetic, to use the followLake, on the 29th of August, 1803, defeated Sindia's forces ing: PO being unity, the sine of NOP is PN, which is in the Doab, took the strong fort of Alyghur, and afterwards therefore in arithmetic the fraction which PN is of PO; the cities of Delhi and Agra. In the short period of five and the cosine is the fraction which ON is.of PO. If QO months was included a series of the most brilliant and deci- had been used as a unit, the result would have been the sive victories; the battles of Delhi and Laswaree, of Assaye same ; for by similar triangles, RQ is the same fraction of and Arghaum, the reduction of the strong forts of Ahmed-QO which Ń is of PO. nugghur, Alyghur, Agra, Gwalior, Asserghur, and Cuttack, In the most modern trigonometry, and for cogent reasons, besides a number of inferior conquests. The two Mabråtta the student is never for a moment allowed to imagine that chiefs were compelled to sue for peace separately. Síndia's the sine and cosine are in any manner representatives of brigades, which had been trained under De Boigne and lines. In a practical point of view, the final definition of Péron, and which amounted to at least 40,000 well-dis. the old trigonometry coincides exactly with that of the new; ciplined infantry, were destroyed; 500 guns, cast in the but the latter has this advantage, that all subsequent geofoundries which Madhajee had established, were taken; and metrical formulæ are seen to be homogeneous in a much by the treaty of December, 1803, he was compelled to cede more distinct manner. The definition is this: The sine of to the British the Upper Doab, Delhi, Agra, Saharunpoor, NOP is not NP, nor any number to represent NP; it is Meerut, Alyghur, Etawah, Cuttack, Balasore, the fort and the fraction whích N P is of P О, considered as an abstract territory of Baroach, &c., amounting altogether to more number. Thus if ON, NP, PO, be in the proportion of than 50,000 square miles. By a treaty of defensive alliance, 3, 4, and 5, PN is of OP: this is the sine of NOP, not February 27, 1804, he engaged to receive a British auxiliary of any line, nor any line considered as of a unit; but force in those dominions which he was suffered to retain, simply 1, four-fifths of an abstract unit. Similarly the cosine which were still large, and which were considerably in- is the fraction which ON is of OP. In just the same creased, after the subjugation of Holkar, by the territory of manner the abstract number , or 3.14159.... is not styled Gohud and the strong fort of Gwalior, which were given (as it used to be) the circumference of a circle whose diup to him by the treaty of Muttra, November 23, 1805, one of ameter is a unit, but the proportion of the circumference to the conditions of which treaty was, that his father-in-law Sir the diameter, the number of times which any circumference jce Row Gatkia should be for ever excluded from his councils. contains its diameter. We cannot too strongly recommend

Dowlut Row Sindia, though he retained for a consider the universal adoption of this change of style, a slight able time no friendly feeling towards his British alllies, by matter with reference to mere calculation of results, but whom he had been so severely humbled, never again ven one of considerable importance to a correct understanding tured into a direct contest with them; and after he was freed of the meaning of formulæ. from the influence of his father-in-law, he became by de The line O P being considered as positive (SIGN), the grees better disposed towards them; so that in the war of signs of PN and No determine those of the sine and 1818, by which the Mahratta power was entirely destroyed, cosine; and the manner in which the values of these funche prudently kept aloof, though the Paishwa urgently called tions are determined when the angle is nothing, or one, two, upon him for his assistance. The consequence was that be or three right angles, is easy enough. The following short retained his territories, and continued on friendly terms table embraces all the results of sign :with the British till his death, which took place March 21,

O I II III IV 1827. He left an army of about 14,000 infantry, 10,000

Sine 0+1+0-1-0 cavalry, and 250 pieces of ordnauce, with territories worth

Cosine 1 +0-1-0 + 1. about 1,250,0001. per annum.

Read this as follows:-When the angle =0, thé sine =0; JANKO Row SINDIA, the present Raja of Gwalior, was from thence to a right angle the sine is positive: at the right elected by the widow of Dowlut Row, Baiza Bai. She was ex- angle the sine is +1; from thence to two right angles the pelled from his territories in 1833 by Janko Row, who is sine is positive, &c. now (1841) about 19 years of age.

The fundamental theorems of the sine and cosine, from (Malcolm's Political History of India ; Malcolm’s Central which all their properties may be derived, are, India; Mill's British India ; Biographie Universelle ; Art

sin (a+b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b de vérifier les Dates.)

sin (a - b) = sin a cos 6 SINE and COSINE. We separate from the article Trr

cos(a+b)= cos a cos b sin a sin 6 GONOMETRY the mere description and properties of these

cos (a =-3) = cos a cos 6 + sin a Bin O..

cos a sin 6

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all which theorems are in fact contained in any one of them, we take ordinary algebra only {as in NEGATIVE, &c. QUANas soon as that one is shown to be universally true. It fre- rities, p. 134, col. 2), in which the impossible quantity is quently happens however that the student is allowed to unexplained, we have the most common mode of proceedassume the universal truth of these theorems upon too ing. "The explanations afterwards given would make this slight a foundation of previous proof: drawing a figure for theory the most simple imaginable, to a student who had instance in which both angles are less than a right angle. learned algebra from the beginning in the manner pointed We givé, as an instance, the proof of the first formula when out. To take the middle course, let us assume the rules of both angles are greater than two right angles. Let XOP algebra (OPERATION] independently of the meanings of the =a, PÒQ=b, both angles being measured in the direction symbols. Let sin x and cos x be defued as 'such funcof révolution indicated by the arrow. The sum is four right tions of x that sin (x+y) gives sin x. cos y+cos x. sin y, and angles +XOQ, which has the same sine and cosine as cos (x+y)=cos 2. cos y-sin x. sin y? Observe that we do

not in thus defining say there are such functions; we only say, if there be such, let them have these names. Then, as in Negative, &c. cited above, we see that if px= cos x+v-1.sin x, ihe relation $(x+y)=Pxx øy follows; whence (BINOMIAL THEOREM] pa can be nothing but Kx, where K is independent of #. Let x=1, whence $(1)=K, or we have

eos x+W-1.sin x=(cos 1+N-1.sin 1) ... (1)

and similarly it is shown that XOQ. From any point Q in o draw perpendiculars on

cos x-N-1.sin x=(cos 1-N-1.sin 1): (2). ox and OP, and complete the figure as shown. Then

From these we get, by multiplication, sin (a+b) is positive, and is the fraction wbiebsco M num' if it be possible, let cose atsin 1 = 1, then cose * *sine e is

cos actisin x=(coss i+sin 1)*: (3) , expressed in ņum- ) we take one bers. But

pair of forms satisfying this condition.

Hence, making QM QS NRQS ON

QS QN , NR NO 000otosON QO


cos ?+-1.sin 1=e, we liaye cos 1-V-1.şin 15e

and the two equations give
By similar triangles = PO QO + PO QQ:

e te
sin x=


2.Now, remembering the magnitudes of a and b, and the rule of signs established, we have

which will be found to satisfy all the conditions used in PT OT


defining them, namely,
cos a:

sin 6

e te NO cos b =


1 2N-1 QO

+ e te and substitution immediately gives the first formula. We

+ shall not nere *dwell on the minor consequences of these

2N-1 2N-1

2N-1 formulæ, but shall refer to the collection in TRIGONOMETRY. The connection of the sine and angle depends in great part


=1 upon the following theorem :-if x may be made as small

2N-1 as we please, sin : x may be made as near to unity as we To determine what algebraical formula e must he, take tno please. Observe that this theorem, supposes the angle x to universal formula be measured by the theoretical unit [ANGLE], or the angle

x? I 'lo be the angle of which the arc and radius are equal.

e =l+log e.x+(log e) +(log e)! + The proof depends upon the assumption that in the adjoining

2.3 obvious figure the arc AB is less than its containing contour whence we easily get from (4) AC+CB. If the radius O B be r, we see that x must be

loge (log e)s x3 (log e)s 25 arc AB:r, or AB=rx. Also BM=r şin x, BC= sin x=

• 2+


-T AM=r-rcos , by definition. Now the arc A B is greater

N-1 2.3

7-T 1 + (log e) + (log e)


+..... Now e, as far as our definitions have yet extended, is

wholly undetermined, every value of e being applicable. than BM, and less than BM+MA, or rx lies between Let us add to our conditions that sin æ: x shall approach rsin x and r sin x+r-r cost, or å lies between sin x and proaches to loge: V-1; therefore log e=w-1, or

to unity as x is diminished without limit: but sin x : x apsin x+i- cos x;

Nor between sin & and sin x +


The preceding is purely symbolical; we merely ask how 1+cos a

are previous symbols, used under 'certain laws, to be put

together so as to represent certain new symbols which are whence lies between 1 and 1+

1+cos &

to have certain properties. Let us now take the real geoHence, & diminishing without limit, the difference be- tem of algebra, in which N-1 is explained [NEGATIVE,

metrical meaning of sin x and cos x, and the complete systween 1 and 2 : sin & diminishes without limit, and therefore &c. QUANTITIES). In that system, if a line equal to the that between 1 and sin*:xwhich was to be proved. unit-line be inclined to it at an angle s, it is obviously From hence it follows that i-cos x and 7x* approach to a represented by cos x+v-1.sin x, and any power of it, ratio of equality, as may be readily proved from the equation whole or fractional, can be obtained by changing s into me,

2 / sin x 2
1-COS X5

ços mu+N-1. sin mx=(cos x+W-1.sin x)" in which the second and third factors have unity for their is an immediate consequence of definition; and making limit. Hence then, when x is very small, x and 1-4x*

x=1, the equation are very near representatives of the sine. cosine; and cos m+w-1.sin m=(cos' of N-1.sini the goodness of the representation may be increased to any extent by diminishing it.

follows at once. To prove that e and cos 1+ N-1 The complete theory of the sine and cosine, from and sin l'aré identical, in the most logical manner, requires a after the two theorems just established, depends upon the previous definition of an exponential quantity, in a sense introduction of the square root of the negative quantity. If I go general, that exponents of the form a+b - I shall be

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included: without this, the new algebra just referred to is known. The last-mentioned stráit extends along the southnot free from the results of INTERPRETATION.

ern coast of the island of Singapore, and the most navigable However we may proceed, the series above given for the part lies within the British possessions. It is the high road sine and cosine of x become

between the eastern and western portions of maritime Asia. r 25

The surface of the island is gently undulating, here and sin x=x -+

7+ there rising into low rounded hills of inconsiderable elevation. 2.3

The higher ground rises in general not more than a hunx 26

dred feet above the sea; the highest hill, called Bukit Tima, cos r=1

t... 2 2.3.4

which is north-west of the town, but nearer the northern and these series are always convergent. Their present form than the southern shores of the island, does not attain depends entirely on the unit chosen ; if however by x we surrounded by mangrove-trees. In a few isolated places low

The shores of the island are mostly low, and mean x°, x', or X", we must write

rocks approach the sea, chiefly along the Salat Tabrao. In ab x5

several places however the coast is indented by salt creeks, sin x=ax


which sometimes penetrate into the land three and even five

or six miles. When the island was first occupied by the Bria? r? a* xt cos r=1

tish it was entirely, and is still for the greater part, covered 2.3.4

with a forest composed of different kinds of trees, five or where[ANGLE, p. 23]a is .01745,32925...., .00029,08882, ...., six of which are well adapted for every object of house00000,48481,.. according as a means a number of degrees, building. The soil of the interior is composed of sand and of minutes, or of seconds.

of clay iron-stone, mixed up with a large portion of vegetable The preceding is enough on the fundamental meanings matter, which gives it a very black appearance. There is a of these terms, and on their connection with algebra. Some general tendency to the formation of swamps. Rivulets are applications will be seen in TRIGONOMETRY.

numerous, but they are of inconsiderable size. Their SINE and COSINE, CURVES OF. By the curve of waters are almost always of a black colour, disagreeable sines is meant that which has the equation y=sin t, and taste, and peculiar odour, properties which they appear to by the curve of cosines, that which has the equation y= derive from the peculiar nature of the superficial soil over cos x: it being understood that x stands for as many angu- which they pass, which in many parts resembles peat-moss. lar units as there are linear units in the abscissa. The The water however drawn from wells which are sunk lower undulatory forms of these curves are easily established, and than the sandy base is less sensibly marked by these disif the ordinate of a curve consist of several of them, as in agreeable qualities. y=a sin x+6 cos x+c sin 2x, the several parts of the com The climate of Singapore is hot, but equable, the seasons pound ordinate may be put together in the same manner as varying very little. The atmosphere throughout the year that in which the simple undulations are compounded in is serene. The smooth expanse of the sea is scarcely ruilled Acoustics, p. 92. Except as expressing the most simple by a wind. The destructive typhons of the China Sea, and form of undulating curves, these equations are of no particu. the scarely less furious tempests which occur on the coasts lar use in geometry.

of Hindustan, are not known. The tempests of the China SINE-CURE.' Sine-cures are ecclesiastical benefices Sea however sometimes occasion a considerable swell in the without cure of souls, and are of three sorts :- 1. Where the sea, and a similar but less remarkable effect is produced by benefice is a donative (BENEFICE, P. 220), and is com- a tempest in the Bay of Bengal. It is only in this way, and mitted to the incumbent by the patron expressly without as it were by propagation, that the sea is affected by remote cure of souls, the cure either not existing or being entrusted tempests, and their effects are particularly remarkable in to a vicar; this is the strictest sine-cure. 2. Certain cathe- the irregularity of the tides, which at times run in one dral offices, viz. the canonries and prebends, and, according direction for several days successively, and with great rato some auihorities, the deanery. 3. Where a parish is desti- pidity. In the numerous narrow channels wbich divide the tute, by some accident, of parishioners; this last kind has smaller islands, their rapidity is sometimes so great that it been called depopulations, rather than sine-cures.

resembles water issuing through a sluice. The regular and Rectors of a parish in which vicars were likewise esta- periodical intluence of the monsoons is slightly felt, the blished with cure of souls have often by degrees exempted winds partaking more of the nature of land and sea breezes. themselves from their ecclesiastical functions, and so have To these circumstances must be attributed the great uniobtained sine-cures; but this is rather by abuse than legiti- formity of the temperature, the absence of a proper conmately.

tinual and periodical rainy season, and the more frequent Sine-cures are exempt from the statute of pluralities. fall of showers. Few days elapse without the occurrence (Burn's Ecclesiastical Law.)

of rain. According to an average of four years, the numSINEW. [TENDON.]

ber of rainy days was 185, and that of dry only 180. The SINGAPORE is a British settlement in the East Indies, greatest quantity of rain falls in December and January, situated at the most southern extremity of the Malay Penin- and the smallest in April and May. These frequent rains sula. It consists of the island of Singapore, and about fifty keep the island in a siate of perpetual verdure. islets dispersed in the sea south and east of the principal The thermometer ranges during the year between 72° island, or in what is called the Straits of Singapore. The and 88°. The mean annual temperature is 80-7° of Fahterritories of this settlement embrace a circumference of renheit. In the four months succeeding February it rises to about a hundred miles, including the seas and straits within 82°50°, and in the four months succeeding October it sinks 10 ten miles of the coast of the island of Singapore, and they 79o. The daily range of the thermometer never exceeds lie between 1° 8' and 1° 32' N. lat., and between 103° 30'ten degrees. Crawfurd states that the climate of Singaand 104° 10' E. long.

pore is remarkably healthy, which he attributes to the free The island of Singapore occupies about half the space be- ventilation that prevails, and to the almost entire absence tween the two capes with which the Malay Peninsula ter- of chilling land-winds, but Newbold thinks that it is not so minates on the south, Capes Buru and Ramúnia (commonly healthy as Malacca, and he ascribes this to the less regular called Romania). It has an elliptical form, and is about 25 alternations of the land and sea breezes. miles in its greatest length from east to west, and 15 in its Singapore is not rich in agricultural productions. No greatest width. It contains an estimated area of about 275 part of it was cultivated when the British took possession of square miles, and is about one-third larger than the Isle of the place, and at first the soil was considered ill adapted for Wight. It is divided from the continent of Asia by a long agricultural purposes. But it now appears that considerand narrow strait called Salat Tabrao, or the old strait of able tracts near the town have been cleared by the Chinese, Singapore. This strait is nearly forty miles long, and varies and that this industrious people have succeeded in cultiin widih between two miles and a quarter of a mile. At its vating different kinds of fruits and vegetables, rice, cufo western extremity, near the island of Marambong, it has fee, sugar, cotton, and especially pepper and the betelonly a depth of 2 fathoms, but farther east it is nowhere vine (Piper siriboa). Only the summits of the higher less than five fathoms deep. This strait was formerly navi- grounds are barren, but on their slopes and in the depresgated by vessels bound for the China Seas; but the advan- sions between them the soil frequently has a considerable tages which the Straits of Singapore offer for a speedy degree of fertility. Tropical fruits succeed very well, such and safe navigation are so great, that the Salat Tabrao has as the mangusteen, pine-apple, cocoa-nut, orange, and unt been used since the Straits of Singapore have become mango. The mango is found wild in the forests. The tro

1836 Males. Femalea 427


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pical vegetables, as the egg-plant, different kinds of pulse,

Nations constituting the

1834. Population.

Males. Females the yam, ihe batata, different varieties of cucumber, and

Natives of Hindustan


155 some others, grow very well, but the climate is too hot for


400 269 580 must European vegetables. The produce of the paddy: Bugis and Balinese


1,346 1,018 1,032 930 fields, as well as of the orchards, is far from being sufficient



17 24 for home consumption, and accordingly large quantities of


2 rice are imported from Sumatra and Java, and fruits from


2 Malacca. The animals of Europe have been introduced, but most of

19,432 6,897 22,755 7,229 them are few in number, as pasture-grounds are scarce. The Chinese however keep a great number of hogs. None These censuses do not include the military, their follow. of the large quadrupeds of the continent of Asia, such as ers, nor the convicts, as Singapore is a place of banishment elephants, rhinoceroses, tigers, and leopards, are met with on from Calcutta and other parts of Hindustan. The number the island, but there are several kinds of monkeys, bats, and of these classes of inhabitants may be estimated at about squirrels; also the Ictides, the porcupine, the sloth (Brady- 1200. The Europeans and Chinese constitute the wealthier pus didactylus), the pangolin, the wild hog, and two species classes. The Europeans are for the most part merchants, of deer, the Moschus pygmaeus, which is smaller than an shopkeepers, and agents for mercantile houses in Europe. English hare, and the Iudian roe (Cervus munjac). Some- Most of the artisans, labourers, agriculturists, and shoptimes the dugong (Halicora dugong) is taken in the straits. keepers are Chinese. The Malays are chiefly occupied in It is ten or twelve feet long, and the flesh is considered for fishing, collecting sea-weed, and cutting timber, and many flavour and delicacy not inferior to beef: the skin is as of them are employed as boatmen and sailors. The Bugis strong as that of the hippopotamus. Birds are numerous, are almost invariably engaged in commerce, and the natives especially different kinds of passeres, climbers, and waders, of India as petty shopkeepers, boatmen, and servants. The particularly the first, which are remarkable for their no- Chulials and Klings are daily labourers, artisans, and petty velty and beauty. Tortoises are common. The coral reefs traders. The Caffres are the descendants of slaves, who and shoals in the vicinity of Singapore furnish that delicate have been brought by the Arabs from the Arabian and fern-like sea-weed called aggar-aggar (Fucus Saccharinus) Abyssinian coasts. The most useful are the Chinese setin abundance, and it forms an article of considerable export tlers. A common Chinese labourer gets from four to six to China, where it is used in thin glues and varnishes. It Spanish dollars a month, a Kling from three to four and a is made into a very fine jelly by Europeans and the native half, and a Malay from two and a half to four and a half. Portuguese. The average annual produce is 6000 peculs, or A Chinese carpenter will earn about fifteen dollars a 7980 cwt., and it is sold at three dollars the pecul.

month, a Kling eight, and a Malay only five. The immiIn 1819, when the British took possession of the islands, gration of the Chinese is much favoured by circumstances. the population amounted to about 150 individuals, mostly Among the dense population of China there are many paufishermen and pirates, who lived in a few miserable huts; pers, who are a burden to the state, and the government about thirty of these were Chinese, the remainder Malays. connives at the poorer classes quitting the country, though The first census was taken in 1824, and then the population it is contrary to their antient laws. The poor Chinese amounted to 10,683 individuals. Since that period it has leaves his country without a penny, and agrees with the constantly been increasing, and at the census of 1836 it was captain of the junk to pay from eight to twelve dollars for found to amount to 29,984 individuals. More than half of the passage. On landing he enters into one of the secret the population were settled in the town of Singapore, societies, which are always formed by the Chinese, and the which contained 16,148 individuals, of whom there were society pays the passage-money and engages his services. 12,748 males and 3400 females. West of the town only In tree months he has generally paid liis debt, and then a few settlements occur along the southern shores of the he begins to make his fortune. The Chinese emigrants at island, and on some of the small islands near the coast. Singapore and Penang are mostly from Canton, Macao, or These settlements constitute the district of Singapore town, Fokien. Many of those of Fokien become merchants, and and contained in 1836 only 4184 individuals, viz. 2338 Chi- show a strong propensity to speculate largely The Canton nese, of whom forty-one only were females, and 1755 emigrants are ihe best miners and artisans. Malays, of whom 759 were females; and the remainder, It is very probable that the population of the settlement with a frisling exception, Klings and Bugis. The country now (1841) amounts to more than 36,000 individuals, which east of the town, which is named the District of Kampong gives more than 130 individuals to a square mile, which is Glam, contains a greater number of settlements, and they a considerable population even in a country that has been extend to the shores of the Salat Tabrao, and the islands of settled for centuries, and is certainly a very surprising Tekong and Pulo Ubin, which lie within the strait. In population in a country which twenty years ago was a this district there were 9652 individuals, viz. 4288 Malays, desert. of whom 2050 were females; 3178 Chinese, of whom 72 The town of Singapore stands on the southern shores of only were females ; 1515 Bugis, of whom 672 were females; the island, in 1° 17' 22" N. lat. and 103° 51' 45" E. long., and the remainder 671 were made up of Javanese, Balinese, on a level and low plain of inconsiderable width, fronting and a few Bengalees and Klings. The islands of Tekong the harbour. It extends about two miles along the shore, and Ubin contained 1901 inhabitants.

but only a thousand yards inland, where it is enclosed by The populatior. is composed of nearly all the nations of hills from 100 to 150 feet high. The commercial portion of Southern Asia and the Indian Archipelago, among whom the town occupies the most western extremity, and is sea small number of individuals of European origin liave set- parated from the other parts by a salt creek, called the Sintled, as appears from the following table, which also shows gapore river, which is navigable for small craft. A good the increase of the population in two years, and the dispro- wooden bridge connects it with the eastern part, which conportion between males and females:

tains the dwellings of the Europeans, the public offices, and Population of the Island of Singapore in 1834 and 1836.

the military cantonments. Contiguous to this portion of

the town is the government-house, which is built on a hill. Nations constituting the Population.

Females. The most eastern part is occupied by the sultan of Johore, Europeans, nearly all

the Malays, and Bugis. The whole of the warehouses, and Britons

100 38


36 all the dwelling-houses in the principal streets in their Indo-Britons


65 52 vicinity, are built of brick and lime, and roofed with red tiles. Native Christians,

The more distant dwelling-houses are built of wood, but mostly Portuguese 186 140 224 201 roofed with tiles. It is only on the distant outskirts of the Armenians

32 12


8 town that there are huts with thatched roofs. The Malays Jews 6

and Bugis live in huts. The population (16,148 individuals) Arabs


consisted, in 1836, of 8233 Chinese, 3617 Malays, 2157 ChuMalays

5,173 4,279 5,122 4,510 liahs and Klings, and the remainder was made up by JavaChinese

9,944 823 12,870 879 nese, Bengalees, Bugis, native Christians, and Europeans. Natives of the Coast

Ships lie in the roads of Singapore at the distance of from of Coromandel, Chu

one to two miles from the town, according to their draught. liahs, and Klings

With the assistance of lighters, cargoes are discharged and (Telingas)

1,659 69 2,246 102 taken in with scarcely any interruption throughout the year. P. C., No. 1364.


Males, Females,

1836. Males.







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