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Another friend states that the grey squirrel is a common SRINAGHUR. (SERINAGHUR.) dish in Virginia. It is usually broiled, and is very palatable. STA'AVIA, a genus of plants of the natural family of
Pleromys Sabrinus, var. B. Alpinus ; Rocky Mountain Bruniaceæ, which was so named by Thunberg after Siaat, Flying-Squirrel.
one of the botanical correspondents of Linnæus. The genus Description.— Yellowish brown above: tail flat, longer consists of several small shrubs, which are indigenous at the than the body, blackish grey; flying membrane with a Cape of Good Hope, and are remarkable for their flowers straight border. Length 14 inches 3 lines; of which the being arranged in heads resembling those of some of ibe tail, including fur, measures 6 inches 3 lines.
Composite. Calyx with the lower part of its tube attached This is the Pteromys Alpinus of Richardson, Zool. Journ., to the ovary. Petals 5, stamens 5, inserted into the caly.. vol. iii., p. 519.
Capsule crowned by the calyx, divecious, cocci bivalved at ihe Dr. Richardson observes that this animal was discovered apex, and one-seeded. A few specimens are cultivated in by Mr. Drummond, on the Rocky Mountains, living in our greenhouses, and may be propagated from cuttings in dense pine-forests, and seldom venturing from its retreats, sand covered with a bell-glass. except in the night. Dr. Richardson had received speci
STABLE. [Farm.] mens of it from the head of the Elk river, and also from STABLE AND UNSTABLE; STABILITY. A syster. the south branch of the Mackenzie. It approaches, be says, is said to be stable when a slight disturbance of its actoai nearer to the Pt. volans of Siberia in the colour of its fur condition would not produce a continually increasing effect than to Pt. Sabrinus, but it has much resemblance to the but one which finaily ceases to increase, diminishes, be latter in its form. It is, he adds, entirely destitute of any comes an effect of a contrary character, and so on, in az rounded process of the flying membrane behind the fore oscillatory manner. The ordinary vibration of a pendule leg, and when its skull is compared with that of Pl. Sabri- is an instance; the oscillation takes place about a stabis nus, the frontal bone between the orbits appears narrower. position of equilibrium. We can give no instance of ar The size of its limbs and tail is also greater. These re unstable position; for by definition, such a thing is a marks were made by Dr. Richardson on a comparison of mathematical fiction. Any disturbance, however slight, the specimens of this animal and of Pl. Sabrinus, which produces upon an unstable system an effect which contihe at first received, and he was induced to think that they nually increases: no unstable equilibrium therefore can were specifically distinct; but having afterwards had an exist a moment, for no system made by human hands can opportunity of examining a more complete suite of speci- be placed with mathematical exactness in a given position. nens from Hudson's Bay, doubts were excited on the sub- The pendulum of which we have just been speaking has a ject, and although he thought it probable, from the position of equilibrium exactly opposite to that about which distance between their respect localities, that they may it can oscillate, but no nicety of adjustment will retain it in prove eventually to be distinct
, he considered it better, that position: it may appear to rest for a moment, but will when he wrote, to describe them as mere varieties. He almost instantly begin to fall. concludes by observing that, except that the size of both The following curves or lines are all such that, supposing these species is considerably greater than that of Pt. volans, them to be rigid matter, a molecule placed at A would they might be united with that species without any great rest: inconvenience.
In the first, a displacement to the right or left would produce nothing but oscillation, and the equilibrium is stable; in the second, neither displacement would be followed by any tendency to restoration, and the equilibrium is unstable; in the third, displacement would only be a removal to aniother position of rest, and the equilibrium is called indifferent. In the fourth, displacement to the right would be followed by restoration, but the velocity acquired in restoration would carry the molecule to the left, on which side there is no tendency to restoration: the equilibrium would then be permanently disturbed, and practically unstable; though it might be convenient to say that it is stable as to disturbances to the right, and unstable as to those to the left. In the fifth, the equilibrium at A is unstable, but if a push, however slight, were given to the molecule, it would obviously, by reason of the two contiguous stable positions, oscillate about A as if A were itself a stable position: and in the same manner a stable position, with an unstable ore near to it, might, for a disturbance of sufficient magnitude, present the phenomena of an unstable position.
Now, suppose that the point A, instead of being a single inolecule, is the centre of gravity of a system acted on by its own weight only; and let the curve drawn be the path of the centre of gravity, whichi, owing to the connection of the parts of the system with its supports, that centre is obliged to take. The phenomena of the single point still remain true: there is in every case a position of equilibrium when the system is placed in such a position that its centre of gravity is at A. In (1) the equilibrium is stable; in (2), unstable; in (3) indifferent; in (4), stable or unstable, ac cording to the direction of disturbance; in (5), unstabie,
with results like those of stability. It is an error to state, Pleromys Alpinus, or Piero:rejs Sabrinus, var. B. (Richardson, Fauna Bo. as is frequently done, that there is no equilibrium in such reali-Americana.)
a system except when its centre of gravity is highest er Fossil SQUIRRELS.
lowest; as is obvious from (3) and (4). The general pro
position which is true is this-that a system acted on by its Fossil squirrels (Sciurus) occur in the Eocene period of own weight is in equilibrium then, and then only, when its the tertiary series of strata (first lacustrine period). They centre of gravity is placed at that point of its path which have been found in the gypsum quarries in ihe neighbour- has its tangent parallel to the horizon, or perpendicular to hood of Paris. Their renains have also been taken from the direction of gravity. the loam which fills the cavities of the gypsum in the valley When a system is supported on three or more points, of the Elster near Köstritz in Saxony. [SOUSlik.] it is well known that there is no equilibriuni unless the
vertical passing through the centre of gravity cuts the poly- | as the calyx. This species is the Betonica officinalis of gon formed by joining these points. This must not be Linnous. It is now a species of the genus Stachys, but it confounded, as is sometimes done, with a case of distinction was formerly a species of the genus Betonica; but the chabetween stable and unstable equilibrium; for it is a case of racters which constituted the difference between the latter equilibrium or no equilibrium, according as the central ver and the former having been considered too trifling to conrical cuts or does not cut the base of the figure. Of course it stitute separate genera, the genus Betonica has been abois in the power of any one to say that stability means equili- lished by later botanists. The common betony is a native of bration and instability non-equilibration; but such is not Europe and some parts of Asia, in habiting woods, heaths, and the technical use of these words in mechanics: stability pastures. It is very plentiful in Great Britain. It was forand instability refer to equilibrium, stable equilibrium being merly much used in medicine, and is now a popular remedy that which would only be converted into oscillation by a for some complaints. When taken fresh it is said to posdisturbance, and unstable equilibrium that which would sess intoxicating properties. The leaves have a rough not be so converted.
bitter taste, and are slightly aromatic. The roots are nauNeither must the effects of friction or other resistances seous and very bitter, and when taken, act as purgatives be confounded with those of a stable or unstable disposition. and emetics. A ladder resting against horizontal ground and a vertical S. lanuia, woolly woundwort: whole plant clothed with wall is maintained by friction; were it not for friction, there dense silky wool; leaves oblong, narrowed at both ends; would not be rest in any position; and as it is, the angle which tloral leaves small, the upper ones of which are shorter than the ladder makes with the ground must not be 100 small. the whorls; whorls many-flowered; bracts linear-lanceolate, There is thus a set of positions, from the vertical one to a the same length as the calyx; calyx incurved, toothed; corolla certain inclination, depending on the amount of friction, in woolly. This plant is a native of Europe, in the neighbourall of which there is equilibrium; while in every other posi- hoorl of the Mediterranean. Dr. Sibthorp found it in Lation there is no equilibrium. Again, when a bar rests on conia, where it is called oraxos by the modern Greeks. This two inclined planes, without friction, there is a position of plant is remarkable for its woolly covering, as well as the equilibrium which is really unstable: any displacement S. Germanica (German woundwort), on which account they would throw the bar against one of the planes without any have been introduced into our gardens. Many other species restoration. The stable position of equilibrium is found by are covered with hairs so as to give them a powdery-looking inverting the position of the inclined planes, or turning woolly character, as the S. Alpina, S. Italica, &c. their angle downwards, grooving them to support the ends of S. coccinea, scarlet hedge-nettle: stem erect, clothed the bar, which are formed so as to be retained in the grooves. with soft villi; herbaceous ovato-lanceolate petiolate leaves ; The bar will now, if left to itself, begin to oscillate about its flowers six in a whorl; corolla pubescent, three times as position of equilibrium, unless it happened to be placed at long as the tube. This is the most beautiful species of the first in that position. But introduce friction, and the upper genus, having large dark scarlet flowers an inch in lengih. position of equilibrium alters its character: a small displace. It is a native of Chili and Peru. It must be cultivated as ment will not destroy the equilibrium. This is the effect of a greenhouse plant, and is readily increased by cuttings or friction, which affords certain limits within which there is parting its roots. always equilibrium. For none of these cases must the words S. palustris, marsh-woundwort, or clown's all-heal: stems stability and instability be used in such manner as to con erect, pubescent, herbaceous; leaves subsessile, oblong, fuse their popular with their technical sense.
crenated, wrinkled, bispid; whorls with 6 or more flowers ; We have already (Solar System) pointed out what is calyx with lanceolate acute teeth; corolla twice as long as meant by the stability of the solar system. When a system the calyx. It has pale purple flowers, with a variegated has a motion of a permanent character, it is stable if a lower lip of the corolla. This plant is a native of Europe, sinall disturbance only produce oscillations in that motion, Asia, and North America. It is abundant in watery or make permanent alterations of too slight a character to places, by road sides, in meadows, and corn-fields in Great allow the subsequent mutual actions of the parts to destroy Britain. It is called clowu's all-heal by Gerard. The the permanent character of the motion. Suppose a ma- young shoots and the roots also, when cooked, form an exterial body, for instance, to revolve about an axis passing cellent esculent. On the farm it is a weed that should be through the centre of gravity unacted on by any forces ex well looked after, as it exhausts the soil and increases very cept the weight of its parts. If this axis be one of the rapidly. principal axes, the rotation on it is permanent, that is, the S. sylvatica, the hedge-woundwort, is another common axis of rotation will continue unaltered, even though that | British species, differing from the last in having stalked axis be not fixed. The rotation however, though permanent, leaves which are cordato-ovate shaped. It inhabits woods, is not stable about more than two out of the three principal hedges, and shady places. This herb is very pungent, and axes. Let the first rotation be established about the axis has an unpleasani fætid smell. which has the greatest moment of rotation, or the least, and S. Corsica, Corsican woundwort : procumbent, pilose ; if a slight displacement or disturbance be given, which has leaves with petioles; flowers in 2-4-towered whoris; cothe effect of producing a little alteration of the axis of rota- rolla twice as long as the calyx, lower lip large. This is a tion, that alteration will not increase indefinitely, but will pretty little plant worthy of cultivation. It has downy, only occasion a perpetual transmission of the rotation from rosy-white, or pink flowers, which are large for the size of axis to axis, all the lines lying near to the principal axis first the plant. It is a native of corn-fields in Corsica and Sardinia. mentioned. But if that axis be chosen about which the s. lavandulæfolia, lavender-leaved woundwort: leaves of moment of inertia is neither greatest nor least, any disturb the stem oblong, lanceolate with petioles, floral leaves sesance, however slight, will continually remove the axis of sile; whorls 2-6.flowered; teeth of calyx longer than corolla. rotation farther and farther from the first axis, near which It is a native of the Caucasus, in dry stony places. It is it will not return until it has made a circuit about one of shrubby in its habit, and is well adapied for rock-work. the other two principal axes.
The whole of the species are easily cultivated in common For the mathematical part of this subject, so far as we garden soil. The herbaceous sorts may be increased by give it, see VIRTUAL VELOCITIES.
dividing their roots; the shrubby sorts, by cuttinys; anSTACHYS (from otaxós, a spike), the name of a genus nuals may be sown in spring in an open border. of plants belonging to the natural order Lamiaceæ, or Labiatæ. STACHYTARPHA (from otáxus, a spike, and rapońs, It has a 5-toothed, 10-ribbed, nearly equal, acuminate, sub- dense), the name of a genus of plants belonging to the natucampanulate calyx; a corolla with the tube as long as the ral order Verbenaceæ. It is known by its tubular 4-outhed calyx, or longer; upper liperect, or spreading, a little arched; calyx; hypocrateriform unequal 5-cleft corolla with a lower lip usually longer, spreading, and 3-lobed; the middle curved tube; 4 stamens, 2 of which are fertile. The species segment large, entire, or emarginate; four stamens; bifid are natives of South America and the West India Islands. style with stigmas at each apex; fruit an achenium. The Many of them have been described as Vervains, but they species are very numerous, above 100 being enumerated. are distinct from that genus. They are herbaceous or They are herbs or under-shrubs, with their flowers arranged shrubby, and many of them are handsome plants. in whorls. The majority of them are European plants. S. Jamaicensis, Jamaica Bastard Vervain, is an under
S. betonica, common belony: stems erect, rather pi- shrab, with scattered hairy branches; leaves nearly two lose; lower leaves on long perioles, and crenated; upper inches long, oblong-ovate, coarsely and sharply serrated, leaves sessile, toothed; uppermost ones linear, quite entire ; quite entire at the base, with the midrib beset with hairs; whorls many-flowered; bracts ovate; corolla twice as long the spike is dense, bearing flowers of a lilac colour, and
plant is a native of the West India Islands, and his there is lohiemnoman Transactions," one on the Ulva punctata, tie
other on the preparation of plants for herlaria. He died at reputation something like that which distinguished our com- Bath, in November, 1819. mon Vervain.
STACK HOU'SIA, a small order of plants belonging to STACKHOUSE, THOMAS, born 1681, died 1752, athe syncarpous group of polypetalous Exogens. They are divine of the Euzlish church, and one of the first persons herbaceous plants, with simple, entire, alternate, sometides who wrote extensive works in theology for the booksellers, minute leaves, with lateral very minute stipules. The expressly for the purpose of sale among the less educated flowers are arranged in spikes, each flower having three portions of the population. Of his birth, education, and bracts. The calyx is l-leaved, 5-cleft equal, tube intiated; early history, nothing appears to be known. The letters petals 5, arising from the top of the tube of the calyx, the M.A. appear after his name on his monument, and in the claws forming à tube which is longer than the calyx; statitle-pages of some of his books, but his name is not found mens 5, arising from the throat of the calyx; orary supein the lists of graduates of Oxford or Cambridge. We have rior 3-5-lobed, fruit dry, with albuminous seeds and erret his own authority for saying that he was in early life living embryo. This order was constituted by Brown, and its at Amsterdam, and performing clerical duties there, but we nearest relations are with Celastraceæ and Euphorbiaceæ. look in vain in Mr. Stevens's work on the English and From the first it differs in the possession of stipules, the Scottish churches in Holland for any notice of him; and cohesion of the petals, and the deep-lobed ovary from the the first that is known of him when in England is, that last, in the structure of their fruit, and in the position of he was curate at Richmond, as afterwards at Ealing and at their seeds. All the species are natives of New Holland. Finchley, in all which places he was much respected. He The only genus of the order at present is Stackhousia, continued a curate for the greater part of his life, and the which was named in bonour of John Stackhouse. utmost preferment which he obtained was the vicarage of Benham in Berkshire, which was given him in 1733, and where he died and was buried.
1291 brigante si Various anonymous tracts have been attributed to him, and there are others to which his name is affixed that are
ondergoed supposed to be by other writers, but none of them are of sufficient importance to require more than this general notice. His first publication was on a subject which continued ever after to be a favourite one with him—the hardships of the inferior clergy, especially those in and about London, This appeared in the form of A Letter to
booty a Right Reverend Prelate' in 1722. In the next year he published . Memoirs of Bishop, Atterbury,' and in 1729 appeared his Complete Body of Divinity, in a folio volume, He engaged at this period in the controversy with the Freethinkers of the time, and in a manner to gain great credit.
Com IN In 1731 he published • Reflections on the Nature and Property of Language. In 1732 he was engaged in an acrimonious dispute with a bookseller, for whom he had engaged to write a work, to be published in numbers, entitled 'A History of the Bible. A full account of this affair is given in Nichols's Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century,' vol. ii., p. 394-398. The work appeared, and forms two volumes in folio. It embraces the whole of the Sacred History from the beginning to the establishment of Christianity, with maps, prints, and useful tables. In 1747 he published in folio : A New and Practical Exposition of the Apostles' Creed.' There are other published writings of his
por 50 S 30 not here particularly named. He lived a laborious and
Slacklousia monozyna. necessitous life, and just before his death he deplored his miserable condition in all the keen expressions of despair | 4, Petals, showing their union to form a tube. 5, Stumeus arising from ealyz
1, Spike with flowers. 2. Cutting with leaves. 3. Calyx, corolla and boxeis. and bitter disappointment,' in a poem published in the year.1 6. Orary and styles. of his decease, which he entitled. Vana Doctrina Emolu STADE, the capital of the duchy of Bremen in the king menta.'
dom of Hanover, is in 55° 36' N. lat. and 9° 24' E. long. STACKHOUSE, JOHN, principally known as a botanist, It is situated in a marshy country on the banks of the river was the youngest son of William Stack house, a minister of Schwinge (which is navigable at high-water), which falls the established church, and the nephew of Thomas Stack- into the Elbe about three miles below the lown. Stade house. He pursued his studies at Oxford, and was made a was formerly strongly fortified, but the works were blown fellow of Exeter college, which he resigned in 1763, and up at the end of the eighteenth century. They hare hor went to live at Bath, where he resided all his life. He em- ever since been repaired. Among the public buildings are ployed the leisure which an independent fortune gave him three churches, in which there are some bandsome mongin the pursuit of botany, and made many valuable contribu- ments; a town-hall, a gymnasium, an orphan asylum, tions to that science. He was one of the earliest fellows of and a poorhouse. The town, withi the suburbs, contains the Linnæan Society. His attention was principally directed about 800 houses and 5500 inhabitants, who have manufacto the study of Algæ. In 1801 he published his . Nereis tures of flannel, worsted stockings, hats, and lace. There Britannica' in folio, a work containing descriptions in Latin are breweries and brandy distilleries, a cannon foundry, and English of the Fuci, Algæ, and Confervæ growing in and a ropewalk. This town' is the seat of the public offices England, and illustrated with coloured plates. "Many new for the provinces of Bremen and Verden. The foriga species of marine Algæ were described in this work, and trade is not so considerable as it appears to have formerly dissections given of some other species. Or this work a been. The transit trade is of some importance: the essecond edition appeared in quarto in 1816; the descriptions ports are fat oxen, wooden wares, and stockings. Some are entirely in Latin, and the plates uncoloured. In 1814 vessels go every year to the Greenland whale-fishery, and he published an edition of Theophrastus On Plants,' in also to the seal and herring fishery. two volumes, which was illustrated with plates, and con At the place where the Schwinge falls into the Elbe there tained a catalogue of the plants of Theophrastus, with a copi- is a fort with a garrison, called the Schwinger Schanze, off ous glossary and many valuable notes. In 1811 he pub- which a royal cutter of four or eight guns is constantly stalished . Illustrationes Theophrasti,' in which the plants of tioned, for the purpose of collecting the duties levied by the that author are arranged according to the Linnæan system, Hanoverian government on all vessels passing up or down and the modern synonyms are given. He also published an | the Elbe. The original duties, which were regulated by a essay on the Balsam and Myrrh trees, with remarks on the treaty in 1691, were light, but have been greatly increased notices of them by modern travellers and antient writers, and the Hanoverian government acknowledges that they especially Theophrastus, He contributed two papers to the I now produce about 33,0001., though it is stated by some that
they yield as much as 45,0001. a-year. For this sum neither When we come however to writors as late as the third a light house nor other establishments advantageous to navi- century of the Christian æra, we do find stadia of different gation are maintained. By the treaty of Vienna the naviga. lengths. Of these the chief are those of 7 and 77 to the tion of all rivers from the sea to the highest navigable point Roman mile. (Wurm, De Pond., &c., $ 58.) is declared to be free of all imposts, except for the support The following table, from the Appendix to Hussey's of buoys, lights, or towing-paths; and the collection of the Antient Weights and Money, represents the supposed Stade duty is in direct contravention of this treaty. Nego varieties of the Greek stadium :ciations between England and Hanover are actually pending on the subject. The duties are rigorously collected, and Stade assigned to Aristotle's measure
ment of the earth's surface
1 2.26992 An erroneous insertion of cotton-twist" for cottons, which Mean geographical stade, computed by made a difference of only seven shillings in the duty, sub Major Rennell
168 16 pojected a ship on one occasion to 2151. fine and expenses. Olympic stade
202 C9 The average duty on each British ship which ascends to Stade of 7 to the Roman mile
215 2 2:4 Hamburgh is about 181.
Stade of 7 to the Roman mile.
231 0 5:124 STADIUM (ο στάδιος and το στάδιον), the principal 2. The race-course for foot-races at Olympia was called Greek measure of lengih, was equal to 600 Greek or 625 stadium, as above mentioned, and the same name was i Roman seet, that is, to 606 feet' 9 inches English. The applied to all other such courses.
Roman mile contained 8 stadia. The Roman writers often The stadium consisted of a tlat area, surrounded by raised measure by stadia, chietly in geographical and astronomical seats, and was made either in a spot which had by nature measurements. (Herod., ii. 149; Plin., Hist. Nat., ii. 23 he required shape, or in the side of a liill, or on a plain. or 21; Columell., Re. Rust., v. 1; Strabo, vii., p. 497.)
In the last two cases the stadium was constructed by formThe standard length of this measure was the distance ing a mound of earth of the proper shape, and covering it between the pillars at the two ends of the foot-race course
with stone or marble for the seats. The second of these at Olympia, which was itself called stadium, from its length, three forms was the most common. Of the third we have and ihis standard prevailed throughout Greece. Some a fine example in the Panathenaic Stadium at Athens. writers have attempted to show that there were other stadia (Athens.) The area of the stadium was oblong, termiin use in Greece besides the Olympic. The only passages nating at one end in a semicircle. At the other end it was in which anything of the kind seems to be stated are one
bounded by a wall, at the iwo extremities of which were in Censorinus (De Die Natali, c. 13), which, as far as it the entrances, one on each side of the stadium. Here was can be understood, evidently contains some mistake ; and the starting-place (ápegis, ypapun, ücr\nE, or Balbis), marked another which is quoted by Aulus Gellius (i. 1) from Plu- by a square pillar in the middle of the breadth of the area. tarch, but which speaks of the race-courses called stndia, Another such pillar was placed at the other end of the not of the stadium as a measure.
course, at the distance of stadium from the former, and The principal argument for a variety of stadia is that of at or near the centre of the semicircular end of the area. Major Rennell (Geog. of Herod., s. 2); namely, that when This pillar marked the termination of the simple foot-race antient authors have stated the distances between known (OLYMPIC GAMES). but in the Diaulus the runners turned places, and a comparison is made between their statements round it and went back to the starting place; in the Duli. and the actual distances, the distances stated by them are chus they turned round both pillars several times, according invariably found to be too great, never too small. Hence to the number of stadia of which the course consisted. The the conclusion is drawn that they used an itinerary stade end of the course was called τέρμα, βατήρ, τέλος, καμπτήρ shorter than the Olympic. If so, it is strange that the very and yoga. Halfway between these pillars stood a third. writers who have left us these statements of distances have On the pillar at the starting-place was inscribed the word not said a word about the itinerary stade which they are á pioreve (excel); on the middle one, ottúde (hasten); on supposed to have used, while several of them often speak of the one at the goal, sáuyov (turn). The semicircular the Olympic stade as containing 600 Greek feet. But there end of the area (opevdový) was thus not used in the footis a very simple explanation of the difficulty, which is given Here probably the other gymnastic contests took by Ukert, in bis Geographie der Griechen und Römer (i.; place; for though the stadium was originally intended only ii., p. 56, &c.). The common Greek method of reckoning for the foot-race, yet as the other contests came to be added distances, both by sea and land, was by computation, not by to the games, they also took place in the stadium, except measurement. A journey or voyage took a certain number the horse-races, for which a separate course was set apart, of days, and this number was reduced 10 stadia, by allow- shaped like the stadium, but larger: this was called itTÓ. ing a certain number of stadia to each day's journey. The opojos. number of stadia so allowed was computed on the suppo
Among the seats which surrounded the area, a conspisition that circumstances were favourable to the trareller's cuous place, opposite to the goal, was set apart for the three progress ; and therefore every impediment, such as wind, Hellanodicae, who decided ihe contests, and who entered iide, currents, windings of the coast, a heavily laden or
the stadium by a secret passage. Opposite to them, on ihe hadly sailing ship, or any deviation from the shortest track other side of the stadium, was an altar, on which the priestby sea, and the corresponding bindrances by land, would esses of Demeter Chamyne sat to view the games. The all tend to increase the number of days which the journey area was ornamented wiih several altars and statues.
of not aldistance was computed to contain. These circumstances, ways, in connection with the gymnasium. together with the fact that the Greek writers are by no
Under the Romans many of the Grecian stadia were momeans agreed as to the number of stadia contained in
dified so as to resemble the amphitheatre. day's journey, and other sources of inaccuracy which we
There still exist considerable ruins of stadia : among the know to have existed, furnish a satisfactory explanation of most remarkable of which are those at Delphi, Aihens, the discrepancies which we find in their statements of dis- Messene, Ephesus, and Laodicea. tances, both when compared with one another, and when
(Pausanias, ii. 27, 6; vi. 20, 5, 6; 18. 23, 1; Müller's compared with the actual fact, without there being any Archäologie der Kunst, sec. 290; Krause, Die Gymnastik occasion to resort to the supposition of a stade different und Agonistik der Hellenen, i., p. 131, &c.) from the Olympic. Colonel Leake, who has recently
STADTHOLDER (Statthalter in German, Stadhouder in investigated this subject (On the Stade as a Linear Measure, Dutch) means lieutenant or governor. The appellative Statt
Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, halter is used in the cantons of German Switzerland to vol. ix., 1839), has also come io the conclusion that the denote the civil officer who is next to the landamman or stade, as a linear measure, had but one standard, namely, chief magistrate. In the federal republic of the Seren the length of the foot-race, or interval between the aperápia United Provinces of the Netherlands, the stadhouder was and sauttñp in all the stadia of Greece, and which is very himself the first magistrate or president of the Union. When clearly defined as having contained 600 Greek feet.'
several of the towns of Holland revolted against the tyranny The calculations of Romé de l'Isle and Gosselin respect. of the Duke of Alba, the lieutenant of King Philip of Spain, ing the various stadia which they suppose to have been they chose for their governor William, prince of Orange, used in Greece depend entirely upon the improbable as- swearing allegiance to him as the king's stadhouder, thus sumption that the Greek astronomers were acquainted with implying that they had revolted against the Duke of Alba the true length of a great circle of the earth.
and not against King Philip. But it was not until after the
death of William, in 1584, that the three united provinces | hibition ; and she and her friends exerted themselves, of Holland, Zealand, and Utrecht agreed to have one stad. though in vain, to have the order recalled. Bonaparte is houder in common, and appointed to that office Maurice of said to have replied, that he left the whole world open 10 Nassau, son of the deceased William. (Puffendorf.) From Madame de Stael, except Paris, which be reserved to him that time the stadhoudership continued in 1. house of self. (Thibaudeau ; Las Cases.) For Madame de Stael Nassau till the death of William III. in 1702, when the however the salons of Paris were her own element; she felt male line of William I. becoming extinct, the office remained the want of applause, and of literary and fashionable celevacant, and was considered as tacitly abolished. But in brity; for she had as much ambition as Bonaparte bimself, :747, after a struggle between the republican and the though of a different and more innocuous kind. She went Orange parties, the latter, having triumpheu, proclaimed first to Switzerland, and then travelled through Italy, William IV., of a collateral branch of the Nassau family, where she gathered materials for her 'Corinne,' which is a hereditary stadhouder of the Seven United Provinces. His poetical description of Italy in the siiape of a novel. The son William V. was expelled by the French in 1795, and work was much admired: it is eloquent and impassioned; resigned the stadhoudership by treaty with France in 1802, and the authoress has sketched with great truth macy since which the office has not been revived, the republic of peculiarities of the Italian character and habits, which had the Netherlands having been transformed into a kingdom. been overlooked, or misrepresented or caricatured by other [Nassau, House of; NETHERLANDS.)
travellers. Madame de Stael had already published a novel STAEL, ANNE GERMAINE DE, born at Paris in in 1803, entitled Delphine,' which, though powerfully writ1768, was the only child of Necker, the wealthy Genevese ten, is a work of very questionable morality, and she felt banker, and afterwards minister of finance to Louis XVI. herself obliged to write an apology for it in her · Réflexions Her mother, a Swiss lady, was a woman of considerable sur le But moral de Delphine.' • Corinne displays a purer acquirements, and her house was resorted to by the men of morality, and produces a much more elevating impression on learning or of wit who lived in Paris. Madame Necker began the mind. As a work of fiction however it is decidedly weak: very early to subject her daughter to a systematic and la- the plot is defective in arrangement, and deficient in dra. borious course of study, until the physicians prescribed relax- matič power. The authoress has endeavoured to ember ation as absolutely necessary for her daughter's health. Ma- | in some of her characters the national characters of the demoiselle Necker, being now left to follow her own taste, respective countries; she has succeeded in some, and has applied herself to literary composition, for which she had a certainly failed in others. But as a descriptive work, a natural facility. Her first essays were some tales and plays, work of glowing and impassioned eloquence, on some of the which were soon forgotten. In 1788 she published a work of most interesting topics with which man is concerned, reiihigher pretensions, Lettres sur les Ouvrages et le Caractère gion, poetry, the beauties of nature, history, and love, as a de J. J. Rousseau,' which began to attract public attention. poetical picture of a most poetical country, 'Corinne' has About this time she was married, through her mother's the highest merits, and ihey are of a permanent cba. management, to the Baron of Stael Holstein, the Swedish racter. ambassador at Paris, a nobleman of high character and After having published her book upon Italy, Madame de attainments, but disproportionately older than herself. Stael, still debarred from Paris salons and Paris society, This marriage however gave her rank and independence; proceeded to visit and study a very different country-Gerand when the French Revolution broke out, and her parents many, and after her return she composed her work 'De had retired 10 Switzerland, the baron's diplomatic charac l'Allemagne,' in which she described the feelings, the litera. ter was a protection to his household, and Madaise ae Stael ture, and the habits of the German people. This work was renained at Paris through the first storms of that period. printed at Paris in 1810. The authoress was not allowed to Her warm imagination was at first captivated by the bright go to Paris herself, but she was residing either at her sta prospects of a revolution which promised the reform of at Coppet on the banks of the lake of Genera, or in sense abuses, but her generous nature soon shrunk from the sight provincial town of France forty leagues from the capital. of the more frightful abuses which took the place of the The MS. was submitted to the censors, according to the old ones. She wrote several articles on the factious conduct existing laws, and after several passages had been expunged, of the various parties, and upon their total disregard of the the publication was authorised; 10,000 copies were struck true meaning of liberty. Madame de Stael felt for the off, when suddenly the whole stock was seized at the puboppressed, who were at that time the nobles, the priests, lisher's, by gendarmes sent by Savary, Napoleon's minister of and the royal family. She interested herself especially for police, and suppressed by his order. Madame de Siael, sba the royal family; and she even ventured to publish a de was staying at Blois, received at the same time order to quit fence of the Queen Marie Antoinette, then upon her trial, France immediately. She retired to Coppet in Switzerland, • Rétlexions sur le Procès de la Reine,' August, 1793. But whence she remonstrated with Savary against this arbitrary the triumph of the terrorists drove her at last out of Paris, proceeding, which was illegal even according to the nes to seek refuge in other countries. After the fall of the law of Napoleon, as the minister might have seized a work terrorists Madame de Stael returned to Paris, where she which he considered dangerous, even after the censors had became the leader of a distinguished circle of literary men permitted its being printed, but he had no right to destroy and politicians. Being anxious for the preservation of it, being bound to refer the matter to the council of state. someihing like order and individual security, she gave (Thibaudeau, Empire, c. 69.) Madame de Stael onderthe support of ber influence to the existing government stood or imagined that one reason for this severity was her of the executive directory. But that government, with having omitted to mention the name of the emperor Napeout morality, sincerity, or dignity, was dying a natural | leon and his invincible armies, which, Savary said, had be death, when Bonaparte, after his return from Egypt, ex come so familiar with Germany. Madame de Stael wrote tinguished it by a bold maneuvre, and established a military from Coppet to Savary, saying that she did not see how tbe dictatorship in its place. Madame de Stael appears to have emperor and his armies could be introduced with propriety disliked and mistrusled Bonaparte from the first, and her in a work purely literary. Savary's answer is characteristic salon became the opposition club.of the time. She is said of the man and the times; and it was prefixed by Madame to have encouraged Benjamin Constant and other mem- de Stael to a new edition of her work in 1813. You must bers of the tribunate in their opposition to the projects of not seek for a cause of the order which I have signified ta law presented by the executive, and to have publicly ap. you in the silence which you have kept respecting the emplauded them for their independent speeches. When the peror in your last work, for there was no place in it worthy concordat with the pope was under negotiation, Madame of him. Your exile is a natural consequence of your conde Stael loudly expressed her disapprobation, professing to stant behaviour for years past. I have thought that ide see in it a new device of Bonaparte's growing tyranny. air of France was not suitable to you, for we are not yei About the same time, being on a visit to her friends in reduced so low as to seek for models among the nations Switzerland, she was supposed to have encouraged her which you admire. Your last work is not French; and I father to publish his last work, Dernières Vues de Poli- have stopped its publication. I regret ihe loss which the tique et de Finance,' in which he descanted against the bookseller will suffer in consequence, but I could not alle government of a single mạn. The work was forbidden in it to appear.' Independently of Madame de Stael's political France. . At last Bonaparte, first consul, sent Madame de opposition to Napoleon's arbitrary government, there was a Stael an order to quit Paris, and not to come within forty decided antipathy between her turn of mind and literary leagues of it. Strange as it may seem, Madame de Stael, | taste and that of France in her time. French literature wealthy and independent, was sorely grieved at this pro. ' ever since the time of Louis XIV. had become exclusive