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ana in olerant; I looked down upon the literature of other short-lived powers of the times, and it exhibits philosophı. countries as semi-barbarous, and the national vanity had cal as well as political acuteness. If she had,' says her raised round itself a kind of Chinese wall of pedantic criti- friend Benjamin Constant, painted individuals more frecism, which had withstood all the storms of political and quently and more in detail, her work, though it might have religious change. It suited the policy and the taste of Na-ranked lower as a literary composition, would have gained poleon to encourage this feeling of overweening vanity, for in interest. Some of her characters, especially of the earlier as France was to be, according to him, the mistress of all period of the revolution, such as Calonne, Brienne, MiraEurope, and was to dictate laws to all nations, it was proper beau, Pethion, are most graphically sketched. that ihe language and literature of France should be con Madame de Stael wrote several other works. That On sidered superior to those of all other countries. Madame the Intluence of the Passions, published in 1796, although de Stael, by extolling the literary productions of the Germans it contains many acute remarks, partakes of the unsettled and English, had run against all the predilections and as- morality of the times, being written just after the period of pirations of the French and of Napoleon; and therefore the reign of terror. In it she reflects upon the fearful Savary said, and said truly at the time, that her work was vision that had just passed, and this work ought to be read not French. In the end however her work has become as an appendage to her later work on the French revoluFrench, and her example has had a most beneficial inflation. She wrote also · Réflexions sur le Suicide ;' · Essa: ence upon French literature.

sur les Fictions; and several tales and other minor compoMadame de Stael remained for a time at Coppet, closely sitions. She contributed a few articles to the Biographie watched, even on Swiss ground, by the omnipresent French Universelle,' among which is that on. Aspasia.' Her works police. She was forbidden to stir more than ten leagues have been collected and published in 17 vols. 8vo., Paris, from her residence in any direction, and her friends were pro- 1830. As a literary person she was the most distinguished hibited from visiting her, but at last she contrived to escape woman of her age. She was open to the weaknesses of from thraldom, and went to Russia on her way to England; ambition, but she was always 'independent, honest, and for at that time a person from the Continent wishing to sincere. reach England must find his way to it through the extre STAFF, in Music. The five parallel lines and the four mities of Europe. She has given an account of her wan spaces

between the lines, on which notes and other musical derings and the petty but galling persecution to which she characters are placed, are, collectively, called the Staff. was subject, in her · Dix Années d'Exil,’ a work which, STAFF, MILITARY. In the British empire this conbating some egotism and exaggeration, may be useful to sists, under the king and the general commanding-in-chief, those who wisli to form an accurate idea of Napoleon and of those general, field, and regimental officers to whom is his principles of government.

confided the care of providing the means of rendering the During her residence at Coppet, Madame de Stael, who military force of the nation efficient, of maintaining discihad been many years a widow, became acquainted with M, pline in the army, and regulating the duties in every branch de Rocca, of an old family of Geneva, whom she married of the service. privately. He was also an author, and published a book on Besides the commander-in-chief, his military secretaries ihe French war in Spain,

and aides-de-camp, the general staff consists of the adjutant In 1814, after Napoleon's abdication, Madame de Stael and quartermaster-generals, with their respective deputies, returned to Paris, where she, Benjamin Constant, and her assistants, and deputy-assistants; the director-general of other old friends belonged to what was called the Constitu- the medical department, and the chaplain.general of the tional party, which supported the charter of Louis XVIII. forces. The staff of the Ordnance department consists of and a bonå fide representative government, in opposition to the master-general and lieutenant-general, with their dethe Bonapartists, who were conspiring for Napoleon, to the puties and assistants; the inspector of fortifications, and the old revolutionists, who still dreamt of a republic, and to director of the engineers. The head-quarters for the genethe ultra royalists, who wished to restore the absolutism of ral staff are in London, There are also, for the several the antient monarchy. . The return of Napoleon from military districts into which Great Britain is divided, inElba decided the question for the moment. Madame de specting field-officers, assistant adjutants-general, and Stael remained at Paris, and, as well as Benjamin Constant, majors of brigade, together with the officers attached to the appeared to be reconciled to Napoleon, thinking that he recruiting service. The head-quarters for Scotland are at must now accommodate himself to a constitutional system Edinburgh. For Ireland, besides the lord-lieutenant and of government. After his second fall, she returned to his aides-de-camp, the chiefs of the staff consist of a deputySwitzerland, and seemed to have weaned herself from active adjutant and a deputy-quartermaster-general, with their politics. She occupied herself with preparing her last assistants. Their head-quarters are at Dublin; and there work for the press, Considérations sur la Révolution Fran are, besides, the several officers for the military districts of çaise,' published after her death, which took place July 14, that part of the empire. Lastly, in each of the colonies 1817. She was buried in the family tomb at Coppet. Her there is a staff graduated in accordance with the general son, the Baron de Stael, who died in 1827, maile himself staff of the army, and consisting of the general commandknown in France, under the Restoration, by his philan-ing, liis aides-de-camp, military secretaries, and majors of thropy, his attachment to constitutional liberty, and by brigade, an inspecting field-officer, a deputy-adjutant, and a some works of unpretending merit; among others, his 'Lel-deputy-quartermaster-general. tres sur l'Angleterre,' published in 1825.

The adjutant-general of the army is charged with the Madame de Stael's book on the French revolution is one duty of recruiting, clothing, and arming the troops, superamong the crowd of works on that all important subject intending their discipline, granting leave of absence, and which deserves to go to posterity. The authoress, being the discharging the men when the period of their service is exdaughter of Necker, and personally acquainted in early pired. To the quartermaster-general is confided the duty youth with the principal characters of that great drama, of regulating the marches of the troops, providing tlie was well qualified to record in her after-life the reminiscences supplies of provisions, and assigning the quarters, or places of that singular period. In her work she lays bare with of encampment. out bias the springs of action of the different individuals, and All military commanders of territories or of bodies of exposes the whole internal working of the political ma- troops in Great Britain, Ireland, or in foreign stations, chinery, which people from the outside could not accurately transmit periodically to the adjutant-general of the army understand. She had been, in fact, 'behind the scenes,' | circumstantial accounts of the state of the territory and of and she was afterwards raised by experience above the vul- the troops which they command; and the reports are regugar admiration of the crude experiments of the pretended | larly submitted to the general commanding-in-chief. republicans of France. Still her work is not comprehen The staff of a regiment consists of the adjutant, quartersive; it wants unity of purpose; it is rather a commentary, | master, paymaster, chaplain, and surgeon. a book of remarks on the French revolution, than a history The duties of a military staff, as a branch of tactics, may of that great event. Her principal object, and it is on her be said to have originated in modern Europe during the part an amiable one, though somewhat egotistical, was to reign of Louis XIV., when armies of great numerical justify the political conduct of her father M. Necker, an strength were opposed to each other. The difficulty of fin:honest but certainly not a first-rate statesman, and one ing subsistence for such vast bodies of men induced the who was totally unfit for the exigencies of the times. Yet generals to form them into grand divisions, which were in other respects her work has much merit; it is written in quartered in different parts of a country. The art of war a temperate and impartial tone, it bends to none of the then began to consist in a great measure in making com

bined movements of troops, and in the choice of strong posi- , it affords of supplying prorisions or quarters for the troops tions; and the Maréchal de Luxembourg is said to have [RECONNOISSANCE.] been chiefly distinguished for his skill in conducting the The staff-officer ought also 10 know how to correct the operations of warfare on this principle. Maréchal Puysegur, illusions to which the eye is subject in examining ground, who began to serve in 1677, observes that before his time, from the different states of the air, and the number and except the rules of fortification, no theory or established nature of the objects which may intervenc between himself principles relating to the art of war had been given; and he and those whose positions are required. He ought to be appears to have been the first who, by actual observations of able to estimate the number of men whom a visible tract of a country, made bitoself acquainta with the facilities which ground can contain, and to form a judgment concerning it afforded for marching or encamping. He states that this ihe dispositions and stratagems which it may permit an duty had till then been omitted entirely or negligently per- army to put in practice. formed, the knowledge of the roads and positions being ob STAFFA. This small basaltic island, lying west of the tained only from the reports of officers who had accidentally larger trap masses of Mull, once difficult of access in open made observations, or from the accounts of the country- boats only, may now, during the summer, be visited in wellpeople; and he adds that often, when a march had com equipped steamers from Oban and Tobermorie, and on tbe menced, or an encampment had been formed, the army was same day the voyager may land on Iona. compelled to change its route or abandon the position on Staffa is entirely composed of amorphous and pillared account of impediments in the one or the unfitness of the basalt: the pillars have in many parts of the rugged coast other.

yielded to the action of the sea, and permitted the formation The first establishment of a permanent military staff (état óf caves, some of them uncommonly picturesque, which are majeur, as it was called) was made in France in 1783, about generally arched over by what seems to be amorphous trap the conclusion of the Revolutionary war between Great rock, but really is often prismatised in an irregular manner. Britain and the United States of America. The officers The island has a very irregular and unequal surfare, who held the highest rank in it were considered as assist- affording poor pasture. On this detached narrow surfare ant-quartermaster-generals, and their deputies as caplains. are boulders of granite resembling the red rock of Russ u. The first duties consisted in collecting the reports, the | Mull. orders and instructions which had formerly passed between Staffa, since it was almost discovered in 1772, by S: the generals of the French armies and the minister of war, Joseph Banks, who in his letter to Pennant notices rely togeiher with the plans of the ground on which the most accurately the mineral structure and the picturesque carerris important actions had taken place; and from these docu- and cliffs, has been visited and described by many persons of ments it was endeavoured to acquire a knowledge of the eminence. M'Culloch (Geology of the Scottish Isles) hacauses of success or defeat as far as these depended on the published very elegant drawings of Fingal's Cave and dispositions of the troops and the nature of the ground. several other points of picturesque and geological interesi, The persons who were allowed to enter the department of and two of the best prints which we have seen of Fingai's the état majeur were such as, to a knowledge of the Cave are those engraved by direction of the late Thomas general theory of military tactics, added that of topographi- Allan, Esq., and published in the article • Geology' of the cal surveying, and who were skilful in the art of repre- Encyclopædia Britannica. senting on a plan the features of ground so as to present to Skirting in a boat the coast of Staffa, the frequent cares The eye at once a view of its capabilities as a military posi and ranges of pillars, erect, or curved beneath a huge enials tion, and of the facilities which it might afford for the march lature of rock, and the regular parement formed by the of troops with their artillery and stores.

angular sections of the pillars, astonish th: spectator. About the year 1800 the Britislı government first formell The Boat-Cave, Mackinnon's or the Cormorant Cave fit a particular school for the purpose of instructing officers in is much frequented by these birds), and Fingal's Cave, tur! the art of surveying ground in connection with that part of in ordinary weather, be explored in a boat, and a landing tactics which relates to the choice of roules and of advan. may be effected on Buachaillé ( Boo-cha-la), the Herdsman's tageous positions for troops. These officers were independent Isle, which is remarkable for its arched columns of basali. of the master-general of the ordnance, and served under the Fingal's Cave may be entered on foot, on the south silt, orders of the quartermaster-general or adjutant-general; along a rugged pavement of pillar tops. Looking out fruta they were called staff-officers, and were selected from the near the extremity, the eye is delighted with i he brig!! cavalry or infantry after having done duty with a regiment prospect of lona, through the long dark vista of the case; at least four years. They were first employed in Egypt, above, the roof is formed parıly of pillar-sections, and partly where they rendered considerable service; and the school of the already mentioned amorphous trap; the sides are was afterwards united to the Royal Military College, which straight vertical prisms of basalt, washed at their base by a had been then recently instituted for the instruction of deep and often tumultuous sea. cadets who were to serve in the cavalry or the infantry of The following measures in this celebrated spot are taken the line. At that institution a limited number of officers, from Sir J. Banks's letter already referred to:under the name of the senior department, continue to be instructed in the duties of the staff, and in the sciences con

Length of Fingal's Cave, from rock without 371 6 nected with the military art. During the war in Spain, from 1808 to 1813, the staff

Length of Fingal's Cave, from pitch of the arch 2500 officers were constantly employed, previously to a march or a

Breadth of Fingal's Cave, at mouth .

537 Breadth of Fingal's Cave, at farther end

20 0 retreat, in surveying the country at least one day's journey in front of the army. After the death of the duke of York,

Height of arch at mouth

117 6 the staff corps ceased to be kept up, and for several years it

Height of arch at end

70 0 Height of an outside pillar

39 6 was reduced to a single company, which was charged with

Height of one at the north-west corner

54 0 the duty of repairing the military canal at Hythe. This

Depth of water at the mouth.

18 0 company was afterwards incorporated with the corps of sap.

Depth of water at the bottom of the cave

90 pers and miners. The duties of officers belonging to the quartermaster

Direction of the cave north-east by east (magnetic). general's staff are very different from those of the military On a careful survey of the rocky cliffs of Staffa, we see engineers; the latter are employed in the construction of that the basaltic mass may be considered in three partspermanent fortifications, batteries, and field-works; while subjacent amorphous and lava-like mass, 11, 17, or 20 fears ihe former survey ground in order to discover roads, or sites exposed, on which (especially beyond the north-west side! for military positions, for fields of battle, or quarters for the Fingal's Cave), the pillars, 30, 50, 54, 55 feet high, rest, al troops. The education of a staff-officer is such as may qua- these are covered by a seemingly amorphous but really in lify him for appreciating the military character of ground: gularly prismatic entablature, 30, 50, and 66 feel in ihick. for this purpose he learns to trace the directions of roads ness (Banks's measures). The tops of the pillars are usuais and the courses of rivers or streams; and in mountainous in a nearly regular plane declining to the south-east, and tbei countries to distinguish the principal chains from their ra- bases are also in a surface nearly parallel. The section of mifications, to examine the enirances of gorges, and to the pillars is rarely triangular or quadrangular, generali determine the heights of eminences or the depths of ravines. pentagonal or hexagonal. Some of them are 2 feet in dia He has besides, to acquire a facility in determining or esti meter, others as small as 1 fuot, 9 inches, or even 6 inches mating the resources of a district witb respect to the means They are less regularly jointed than those of the Giant's

Feet. lock

Causeway, and most frequently the joint surfaces are con-| Goring House (the town residence of Lord Arlington); cave in the lower stone. Zeolitic minerals oceur sparingly when, he says, ' Lord Stafford rose from table in some disin the basalt and in the interstices of the pillars.

order because there were roses stuck about the fruit when (Pennant's Tour in Scotland, including Banks's Letter to the desert was set on the table, he having such an antipathy Pennant, 1772; Neceer, Voyage en Ecosse, 1821 ; M‘Cul- to them as once Lady St. Leger had; and to that degree loch's Western Isles of Scotland.)

that, as Sir Kenelm Digby tells us, laying but a rose upon STAFFORD, Duke of Buckingham. [BUCKINGHAM.] her cheek when she was asleep, it raised a blister; but Sir

STAFFORD, WILLIAM HOWARD, VISCOUNT, Kenelm was a teller of strange things.' was the second surviving son of Thomas, twentieth earl of Lord Stafford is only remembered in history as the last Arundel (the collector of the Arundelian Marbles), by his and most distinguished of the numerous victims whose wife the lady Alathea Talbot, daughter of Gilbert, seventh lives were sacrificed in the tragedy of the Popish Plot. earl of Shrewsbury: he was born on the 30th of November, Oates, Titus.] In his first examination before the Com1612. He was thus uncle to Thomas, the twenty-second mons, on the 23rd of October, 1678, Oates mentioned Stafford earl of Arundel, who was restored, after the return of Charles as the person who had been appointed by tbe general of the II., to the dukedom of Norfolk, which had been forfeited by Jesuits to the office of paymaster of the army. Two days his great-great-grandfather.

after, Stafford rose in his place in the House of Lords, and Burnet, who knew Lord Stafford in his last days, says, stated that he was informed there was a warrant issued out *He was a weak but a fair-conditioned man; he was in ill from the lord chief justice of England to apprehead him, terms with his nephew's family; and had been guilty of and submitted himself to their lord ships' judgment. Burgreat vices in his youth, wbich had almost proved fatal to net says, “When Oates deposed first against him, he haphim.'

pened to be out of the way, and he kept out a day longer; While he was known as Sir William Howard, K.B., he but the day after he came in and delivered himself, which, married Mary, sister of Henry, thirteenth Baron Stafford; considering the feebleness of his temper and the heat of which Henry died, unmarried, in 1637, when his barony that time, was thought a sign of innocence. Before the descended to his distant relation Roger Stafford, a person House rose he intimated that he should surrender to the who appears to have sunk to the lowest class of the people, warrant; and after being consigned in the first instance though the great-grandson of the famous Edward Stafford, to the prison of the King's Bench, he was ultimately, on third duke of Buckingham, and also of Margaret Plan- ihe 30th, committed to the Tower, along with the other actagenet, the unfortunate countess of Salisbury, and niece cused noblemen, the earl of Powis, and the Lords Petre, of King Edward IV. Roger's sister was marrier to a Arundel, and Belasyse. joiner at Newport, in Shropshire, and they had a son who On the 5th of December, a message was brought from the lived in that town, following the trade of a cobbler. Nor had Commons by Sir Scrope How, who informed their lordships the elder branch of the family, in which the title remained that he was commanded to impeach Lord Stafford of high for several generations, been always much more honourably treason and other high crimes and misdemeanours. Three matched : Roger's uncle, Edward, the eleventh lord, indeed days after the earl of Essex laid before the house an informarried a daughter of the earl of Derby; but his son, Ed- mation which had been sworn on the 24th before two maward, the twelfth lord, chose to share his title with his gistrates of the county of Stafford by Stephen Dugdale, mother's chambermaid ; and from her, through a son, who Gent., late servant of the Lord Aston, of Tixhall,' who asdied during the life of his father, were sprung the thirteenth serted therein that in the beginning of September of the baron, Henry, already mentioned, and bis sister, who preceding year, he had been promised a large reward by became the wife of Sir William Howard.

Lord Stafford and a Jesuit of the name of Vrie or Evers, if Upon the death of his brother-in-law, Sir William Howard he would join in a conspiracy to take the king's life. The immediately assumed, or at least claimed, the title of Baron prorogation of the parliament at the end of the month, and Stafford, in right of his wife, a claim which, in any cir- its dissolution a few weeks after, prevented any further procumstances, certainly could not have been sustained at ceedings being taken until after the assembling of the new that day. But it was soon discovered, and admitted on all parliament in the beginning of March, 1679. On the 18th hands, that the true heir to the barony survived in the per- of that month the lords' committee of privileges, to whom son of Roger Stafford, although he had hitherto gone by the the question had been referred, reported their opinion that, name of Fludd or Floyd. Roger however was induced, no in all cases of appeals and writs of error, they continue and doubt for a consideration, to submit his title to the dignity, are to be proceeded on in statu quo, as they stood at the on the 5th of December, 1637, to the decision of the king, commencement of the last parliament, without beginning

upon which submission,' it is stated, his majesty declared de novo ;' and on the following day the house, after debate, his royal pleasure that the said Roger Stafford, having no agreed to this report. The commons sent up their articles part of the inheritance of the said Lord Stafford, nor any of impeachment against the five lords on the 7th of April; other lands or means whatsoever, should make a resignation and on the 16th Lord Stafford put in his answer, in which of all claims to the title of Lord Stafford, for his majesty to he protested his entire innocence of the crimes laid to his dispose of as he should see fit.' A deed of surrender was charge. Another prorogation, followed by a dissolution, accordingly enrolled on the 7th of December, 1639 ; and, took place in the end of May; and the new parliament did although such a resignation of a peerage has since been not meet for the despatch of business till October, 1680. decided to be illegal, the king now considered himself at | During all this time the accused lords had lain in the Tower; liberty to dispose of the dignity. On the 12th of September, and meanwhile the plot had been propped up by the testi1640, Sir William Howard was created baron, and his wife mony of Bedloe, Dangerfield, Turberville, Denis, and other baroness Stafford; and on the ilth of November following new witnesses. At last, on Tuesday, the 30ih of November Lord Stafford was made a viscount, that being found to be (his birth-day), Lord Stafford, selected, according to Sir the only way of giving him as high a precedency as the John Reresby, as being deemed to be weaker than the former barons. Roger is supposed to have died unmarried other lords in the Tower,' was brought to the bar of the in the course of the same year.

House of Lords, assembled as a court of justice in WestLord Stafford had been bred a strict Roman Catholie, and minster Hall, to take his trial, the lord chancellor, Lord during the civil war he adhered to the royal side. After the Finch (afterwards earl of Nottingham), presiding as lord Restoration, according to Burnet, ‘he thought the king had high steward. Reresby and Evelyn were both present, and not rewarded him for his former services as he had deserved; hare both given us an account of the scene. A singular so he often voted against the court, and made great applica- circumstance mentioned by Evelyn is, that Stafford's two tions always to the earl of Shaftesbury. He was on no good daughters, the marchioness of Winchester being one of terms with the duke [of York]; for the great consideration them, were with him in his box, as well as the lieutenant of the court had of his nephew's family made him to be the the Tower, the axe-bearer, and the guards.* He remarks most [more?) neglected.' He does not however appear to also that just forty years before, when Lord Strafford was have ever made any figure in parliament down to the time tried in the same place, the lord steward was the present when all the Roman Catholic peers, twenty-one in number prisoner's father (the late earl of Arundel). Reresby says (besides three who conformed), were excluded from the it was the deepest solemnity he ever saw. Besides Oates House by the act of the 30th of Char. II., st. 2, to which and Dugdale, who repeated their former evidence with adthe royal assent was given on the 30th of November, 1678. ditions or variations, Turberville swore that Stafford had Under date of 18th June, 1670, Evelyn records in his

• In the printed • Diary' at this place (vol.i., p. 496, 4to edit ), the prisoner • Diary' that he met Lord Stafford at a dinner party at is by mistake called Lord Strafford throughout, P. C., No. 1410.


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aiso offerea him a reward to kill the king. The trial lasted | the following year Sir George William Jerningham, Bart., seven days. Reresby says that the prisoner so far deceived was admitted to have established his claim as heir to the those who counted upon a poor defence, 'as to plead his barony (which had been granted with remainder to the heirs cause to a miracle. Burnet also, who, we have seen, had of Sir William Howard and his wife), through their grandno high opinion of Stafford's strength of mind, admits that daughter Mary, who married Francis Plowden of Plowden, he behaved himself during the whole time, and at the re- Esq , in the county of Salop, and was the maternal grandceiving his sentence, with much more constancy than was moiher of Sir William Jerningham. expected from him.' When the votes of their lordships were STAFFORD. [STAFFORDSHIRE.] taken, on Tuesday, the 7th of December, 31 voted Not STAFFORDSHIRE, a midland county of England, Guilty, and 55 Guilty. (State Trials, vii., 1293-1576.) Four bounded on the north-east by Derbyshire, on the easi fur of the Howards, his relations, namely, the earls of Carlisle, a very short distance by Leicestershire, on the south-east Berkshire, and Suffolk, and Lord Howard of Escrick, con- by Warwickshire, on the south by Worcestershire, on the demned him; the only one of his own family who voted for south-west and west by Shropshire, and on the norih-west his acquittal was Lord Arundel (sitting as Lord Mowbray), by Cheshire. The form of the county is irregular ; ils greaiest the son of the duke of Norfolk.

length is from north to south, from Ax-edge Common, at Within two days after his condemnation he sent for the junction of the three counties, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Burnet and the bishop of London, to whom he made the and Staffordshire, to the neighbourhood of Bewdley (Wormost solemn protestations of his innocence. 'I pressed him cestershire), 60 miles; the grealest breadth at right angles in several points of religion,' says Burnet, "and urged to the length, is from the junction of the Dove with the several things which he said he had never heard before. Trent, below Burton, to the neighbourhood of MarketHe said these things on another occasion would have made Drayton (Shropshire), 38 miles. The southern border of the some impression upon him; but he had now little time, county is very intricate; the counties of Warwick, Worceatherefore he would lose none in controversy: so I let that ter, Salop, and Stafford being very much complicated: a discourse fall. I talked to him of those preparations for portion of Worcestershire, including the town of Dudley, is death in which all. Christians agree; he entertained these entirely insulated by Staffordshire, and a detached portion very seriously, much above what I expected from him.' of Staffordshire is entirely surrounded by Worcestershire. However, he was desirous of saving his life, if it could be The area of the county is estimated at 1 84 square miles. done; and he told Burnet, that if that would obtain his par- The population at the time of the different enuinerations don, he could and would discover many other things that was as follows:-1801, 239,153; 1811, 295, 153; increase in were more material than anything that was yet known, and ten years, 21 per cent. : 1821, 345,895 ; increase 17 per cent.: for which the duke (of York] would never forgive bim.' | 1831, 410,512; increase 19 per cent: 1841, 510,206 ; inUpon this being reported to the House of Lords, he was crease 24-2 per cent. The last enumeration for 1831 (which immediately sent for; when • he began,' says Burnet, with we retain to facilitate comparison with counties previously a long relation of their [the Catholics'] first consultations described) gives 347 inhabitants to a square mile. In reabout the methods of bringing in their religion, which they spect of size it is the eighteenth of the English counties, all agreed could only be brought about by a toleration. He being smaller than Gloucestershire, but larger than the told them of the earl of Bristol's project; and went on to county of Durham. In amount of population (in 1831) it is tell who had undertaken to procure the toleration for them; the seventh, being next to Kent; and in density of populaand then he named the earl of Shaftesbury. When he tion the fifth, being exceeded in this respect only by the named him, he was ordered to withdraw; and the lords metropolitan counties of Middlesex and Surrey, and the would hear no more from him.' It is pretty evident from counties of Lancaster and Warwick. Stafford, ile county all this that he really had notbing of any consequence to town, is 125 miles north-west of the General Post-office, tell. He was sent back, continues Burnet, '10 the Tower; London, in a direct line; or 143 miles by the Birmingham and there he composed himself in the best way he could 10 and Grand Junction railways. suffer, which he did with a constant and undisturbed mind: Surface and Geology. — The northern is the highest he supped and slept well the night before his execution, part of the county. It consists chietly of wild moorlands, and died without any show of fear or disorder. He denied formed by long ridges extending from north-west to southall that the witnesses had sworn against bim.' He was east, :eparated from each other by deep dells or by rallers executed on Tower Hill on the morning of Wednesday the watered by the tributaries of the Trent, and gradually 29th of December. When his majesty's writ was found to si viding iowards the banks of that river. The principal remit all the rest of the sentence except the beheading, the Sunmits are-Cloud-end, Biddulph Moor, Mow Cop (1091 two republican sheritis, Bethel and Cornish, professed to feet above the level of the sea), Wicken Siones. Gun Moor, feel scruples as to whether they were warranted in acting Bunster hill (given in Shaw's History of Staffordshire at upon it; but the Commons at last stepped in and settled 1200 feet), and High Roches, all in ihe northern part of the the matter by resolving That this House is content that county toward the Cheshire border; Moredge, Caldon Low, the sheriffs of London and Middlesex do execute William, Ecton hill, Ramshaw Rocks, Wever hill (1154 feet, as marked late Viscount Stafford, by severing his head from bis body in Arrowsmith's • Map of England;' or 1500 feet acrording only. Lord Russell is stated to have 'stickled for the 10 Shaw), and Swinecote or Swinscoe hill, are also in the severer mode of executing the sentence;' and it is said that northern part, but nearer to the Derbyshire side. On ibe when Charles, three years afier, granted a similar commuta eastern side of the county, between Abbots Bromley and tion of punishment when his lordship was sent to the scaf. Burton-upon-Trent, are the high grounds of Neerwood fold, his majesty observed, “He shall find that I have the Forest; and south of the Trent, toward the centre of the privilege which he was pleased io deny in the case of Lord county, bei ween Stafford and Litchfield, are the higb Stafford.'

grounds of Cannock Chase, one part of which (Castle Ril) A bill to reverse the attainder of Lord Stafford passed the is 715 feet high. Lords in 1685, but did not obtain the assent of the Commons. On the south-eastern border, between Walsall and SutIn 1688 his widow was created by James II. counless of ton Coldfield, is Bar Beacon, an elevation of 653 feet; and Stafford for life, and her eldest son Henry, earl of Stafford, between Dudley and Hales Owen are the Rowley bilis with remainder to his brothers John and Francis, and their given by Shaw at 900 feet. These Rowley hills are ibe heirs male; but the earldom became extinct by the death of prolongation of the heights which rise to the south-east oi John Paul, the fourth earl, in 1762. In 1800 certain pro- Wolverhampton, and skirt the valley through which the ceedings were instituted on behalf of Sir William Jerning. Birmingham Canal Navigations pass. ham and the lady Anastasia Stafford Howard, daughter of The western side of the county is occupied by a tract of William, second earl of Stafford, and great-granddaughter bigh ground, which separates the waters that flow westward of the attainted lord (who died a nun at Paris in 1807, at by the Severn into the Atlantic from those which flow eastthe age of 85), as conjoint heirs, with a view of establishing ward by the Trent and the Humber into the North Sea. the existence of the barony of Stafford, on the ground that Ashley heath, on this range of high land, has an eleration of (as above stated) it had been conferred not only upon Sir 803 feet, as marked in the map to Priestley's ‘Navigable William Howard, but also upon his wife, and that therefore Rivers. The heights, where not otherwise expressed, are it descended to her heirs, notwithstanding the forfeiture of from the ‘Ordance Survey.' Those from Shaw's 'Staffordher husband. But this claim was not prosecuted. At shire' are probably much too great. length however on the 17th of June, 1824, an act of par The lowest spots in the county are probably the bank of liament was passed reversing the viscount's attainder; and the Severn at Over Arley, at the south-west extremity of the

county, and the bank of the Trent, at the junction of the A prolongation of the South Lancashire coa.-field extends Dove, on the eastern border. These are given by Shaw at into ihe northern part of the county about Flash, where are 60 feet and 100 feet respectively above the level of the tide several coal - works. The Warwickshire coal - field just of the Thames at Brentford.

touches the border near Tamworth. Nearly the whole of the county is included in the great red The coal-works of the county are very numerous and immarl or new red-sandstone district of central England. The portant; in the south they supply the iron and other hardnorthern part is indeed beyond the limit of this formation; ware manufactures of Birmingham, Dudley, Wolverhampand there are some insulated districts occupied by the coal-ton, Wednesbury, Bilston, Walsall, &c.; and furnish fuel measures or other subjacent formations, which rise through to the neighbouring counties to a considerable distance, and the red-marl. The higher grounds of Needwood Forest and in the north they supply the fuel to the Pottery district. Cannock Chase, as well as those which separate the basin of Perhaps the neighbourhood of Birmingham is the cheapest the Trent from that of the Severn, consisi of this (red-marl) district for coals in England, and the consumption is proformation. Gypsum is quarried in Needwood Forest and in digious. From their small value, they are worked in a very the adjacent part of the valley of the Dove. The pure white wasteful manner; one-third is left in the pit, as being two gypsum, or that slightly streaked with red, yields plaster of small to be worth the cost of removal, and is speedily deParis, which is much used in the potteries for moulds; stroyed by the weather; the pillars left standing probably selected blocks are turned, or otherwise converted into orna amount to another third. Ironstone is abundant in the mental articles. The commoner sorts are used for coarser Dudley coal-field. purposes, as flooring, building walls, &c. Limestone is The high moorlands of the northern part of the county quarried near Newcastle, in the pottery district. Brine consist partly of millstone grit and shale ; partly of carbonisprings abound near the Trent, particularly at Weston, near ferous or mountain limestone. The millstone grit occupies Stafford, where salt-works have been established. In the the central and western portion, cropping out from beneath neighbourhood of Litchfield the red marl is covered by al- the Pottery and Cheadle and South Lancashire coal-fields, luvial deposits of red sand or gravel.

and overspreading the intervening country. The mountain The Dudley or South Staffordshire coal-field extends limestone district comprehends the eastern moorlands, and from Cannock Chase to the Worcestershire border near extends across the upper valley of the Dove into Derbyshire. Stourbridge, about 20 miles in length from north by east There are several lead-mines and copper-mines in this disto south by west; and from King's Swinford to Soho, near trict. Birmingham, 10 miles in breadth from west to east. The Hydrography, Communications, &c.—The county belongs dimensions indeed include not only the coal-field itself, but almost entirely to the basin of the Humber. The Trent, the the Rowley hills, which are composed of transition and other most important tributary of that æstuary, rises from three rocks, by which it is intersected. These bills consist of two springs near the northern border of the county, near Knyperdifferent formations: the north-western part, between Wol: sley Hall; and runs in a southerly direction through the Potverhampton and Dudley, consists of four oblong insulated teries 12 miles, to Trentham, the seat of the Duke of Sutherhills, all of transition limestone, 'n arched or saddle-shaped land. From thence it runs 18 miles, still to the south east, strata. Against the sides of these hills the coal-heds crop out, by Stone and Rugely, being joined above the latter by the and become fatter as they recede from them. ...e millstone river Sow. From Rugely the Ťrent bends eastward 10 miles grit, carboniferous limestone, and old red-sandstone are not to the junction of the Tame and the Mease, and then turnfound in connection with this coal-field, but the coal mea- ing to the north-east runs 8 miles to Burton, where it besures rest immediately on a transition rock. The hills comes navigable; and 2 or 3 miles below Burton quits the south-east of Dudley consist of one mass of basalt and county altogether. Its whole length in the county or upon amygdaloid, round which the coal-measures do not crop out, the border (for from the junction of the Mease it is a border as round the limestone, but preserve their usual level in stream separating Derbyshire -from Staffordshire) may be approaching it. The basalt is very pure, and is locally estimated at about 50 miles. terined Rowley rag. It is quarried for mending the roads The principal tributaries of the Trent are the Lyme from and paving the streets of Birmingham. It is supposed that Newcastle-under-Lyme, the Sow, the Blyth, the Tame, the this mass of trap rock is connected with a vast dyke pene- Mease, and the Dove. The Lyme joins the Trent on the trating the carboniferous strata, and overlying (as it is found right bank, not far from its source. The Mease has only a to do) their edges. Trap rock (greenstone) is found in part of its course on the border of the county. that part of the coal-field near Walsall; it is apparently part The Sow rises about 5 or 6 miles north-west of Ecof a thick vertical greenstone dyke, with a wedge-shaped cleshall, near the western border of the county, and flows prolongation penetrating the adjacent carboniferous strata. to that town, near which it receives one or two tributary The coal of the southern part of the Dudley field is distin- brooks; it then continues its course 3 or 4 miles to the guished by the occurrence of an extensive bed called the junction of the Meese brook, which rises near the Sow, Main-coal, 30 feet thick, but this dips to the south, and crops and has a course nearly parallel to it, but of rather greater out at Bilston. In the northern part of the field seams of length, and joins it on its left or north-east bank. From coal are found four, six, and eight feet thick, which appear the junction of the Meese, the Sow flows, still south-east, 6 to be subjacent to the main coal. On the east side of the miles through the town of Stafford to the junction of the coal-field, near Walsall, the transition limestone again rises, Penk, receiving by the way the Clanford brook on the right and the carboniferous beds crop out against it. At Beau- bank. The Penk, the most considerable affluent of the desert, at the northern extremity of the field, cannel coal is Sow, rises a little to the north-west of Wolverhampton, and obtained.

tlows 20 miles northward through Penkridge into the Sow, In the northern part of the county another coal-field (the which it joins on the right bank. From the junction of the Pottery coal-field) occurs, of triangular form. It extends Penk, the Sow flows eastward 4 miles into the Trent, from Lane-end in the Potteries to Congleton in Cheshire, which it joins on the right bank. Its whole course is about where is the vertex of the triangle, 13 miles in length from 19 or 20 miles: it is not navigable. south by east to north by west. Its greatest breadth, which The Blyth rises abou four miles east of Hanley in the is in the southern part, forming the base of the triangle, is Potteries, and flows south-south-east 23 or 24 miles into the 8 or 10 miles. A short distance to the east of this is the Trent, which it joins on the left bank, 5 miles below Cheadle coal-field, so called from the town of Cheadle, Rugely. which lies near its south-western border. This small coal The Tame rises in Essington-Wood, 4 miles north-west of fieid appears to be an insulated basin, the strata dipping Walsall, and flows 15 miles south-east, passing between towards Cheadle as a centre, and resting upon milistone Walsall and Wednesbury to Aston, a suburb of Birminggrit. In the southern part, near Cheadle, the coals are ham, where it receives on the right bank the brook Rea, Thicker and of better quality than in the northern part of which tlows through Birmingham itself. From the juncthe field. From the dip and outcrop of the strata on the tion of the Rea the Tame flows eastward 8 miles, to the northeru part of the Pottery coal-field, it appears to be also junction of the united streams of the Cole from Coleshill, an insulated basin, but it is not ascertained whether on the 16 miles long, and the Blyth (about the same length) from south side the strata crop out so as to show this decisively; Solihull, which join the Tame on the right bank. The Tame or whether they are terminated by a fault, or covered by the then turns northward and flows about 19 miles, by Tamworth, red-marl and other superior beds. There are thirty-two where it receives the Anker on the right bank, into the Trent, beds of coal in this field, generally from three to ten feet which it joins on the right bank; its whole course is about 42 thick.

miles, partly in Warwickshire, but chiefly in Staffordshire,

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