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The Dove rises near the northern extremity of the county, \ passes near the towns of Penkridge and Stafford; and inand flows south-south-east by or near Longnor, Ashbourn iersects the line of the Birmingham canal and the Birming. (Derbyshire), and Uitoxeter, into the Trent below Burton, ham and Liverpool Junction canal, which both terminate in dividing through nearly its whole course the counties of it about a mile from each other. The trade on this canal is Derby and Stafford: its length is nearly 45 miles. It is not very great: the iron and other hardwares of Birmingham, navigable. The upper part of its course is through the Dudley, Wolverhampton, and the neighbourhood, and the beautiful scenery of Dovedale on the border of the Peak. coals of the adjacent coal-field, are conveyed by it to the reIt receives some tributaries, of which the Manifold and the moter parts of the county of Stafford, and to the counties of Churnet belong to Staffordshire. The Manifold, about 9 Worcester, Gloucester, and others adjacent to the Severn. terraneous course of 4 miles rises again near Ilam, a mences in the above canal at Stewponey, and extends to mile or two before its junction with the Dove; its tributary, the town of Stourport. This canal is short. The Dudley the Hamps, sinks in like manner, and the junction of the canal (first act A.D. 1776) commences in the Birmingham two streams takes place underground. The length of the and Worcester canal (which, though not in this county, is Churnet is about 25 miles ; it rises on Biddulph Moor, 5 connected with the Birmingham canal noticed above), and miles north-west of Leck, and soon after expands into a sheet proceeds to Dudley. A part only of the line is in Staffordof water or lake, from the lower end of which it continues shire. A cut unites it with the Stourbridge canal, and conits course by Leek, Cheddleton, Oakamoor, Alveton (or sequently with the Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal. Alton), and Rocester, a little way below which it joins the The first part of the Coventry canal (first act A.D. 1768), Dove.

viz. from its commencement in the Trent and Mersey canal The western border of the county belongs to the basin at Fradley Heath to Fazeley near Tamworth, 11 miles in of the Severn, which flows for about two miles across the length, belongs to this county. At Fazeley it unites with south-western corner of the county, near Over Arley. About the Birmingham and Fazeley canal (first act A.D. 1783), 14 miles of the course of the Stour (which rises near which forms a part of the Birmingham Canal Navigations, Hales Owen (Salop), and joins the Severn at Stourport) are and of which only a small part is in Staffordshire. on or within the southern border of the county, to which its The Wyrley and Essington canal (first act 1792) consisted tributary, the Smestow, which rises near Wolverhampton, at first of a short line running south-south-east from Wyr: wholly belongs. The Mees, which joins the Tern, an im- ley Bank to Birch Hill near Walsall; with a cut westward portant affluent of the Severn, rises in Staffordshire. It to the Birming liam canal near Wolverhampton. Subsepasses through Aqualate Mere (Aqua lata, i.e. broad- quently (by act of 1794) another cut was made eastward to water), a small lake about a mile long, and nearly half a the Coventry canal between Fradley Heath and Fazeley: mile wide, near Newport, in Salop.

and these two cuts may now be regarded as constituting The rivers abound with fish, such as pike, trout, grayling, the principal line. There are one or two branches, the chub, perch, &c. Salmon are caught in the Severn, and longest is to the lime-works at Hay Head near Walsall; and occasionally in the Trent; and there are a few instances on the extremities of the original main line are now virtually record of sturgeon being taken in the latter river.

branches. The canals of this county are numerous. The most im- The Newport branch of the Birmingham and Liverpool portant is the Trent and Mersey, or, as it is sometimes Junction canal belongs partly to the west side of the called, the Grand Trunk canal. This canal, commencing county: it extends from the main line at Norbury near in the Trent at the junction of the Derwent in Derbyshire, Eccleshall, by the town of Newport (Salop), to the Shrews enters the county near the junction of the Trent and Dove, bury canal near Wellington (Salop). Its length is 10 miles, and follows the valley of the Trent through the heart of the of which about 4 miles are in this county. county, to Stoke in the Potteries, from whence it continues In the northern part of the county is the Caldon canal its course north-west to the Mersey, at Runcorn Gap. (acts obtained A.D. 1776-1802), which is a branch of the About 50 miles of its course, including the Harecastle Trent and Mersey canal, extending from the main line at tunnel, 2880 yards long, on the summit-level between Hanley in the Potteries north-eastward to the neighbourBurslem and Church Lawton in Cheshire, belong to hood of Leek, to which town there is a cut; and from Staffordshire. It passes near Burton-upon-Trent, where thence south-eastward to Uitoxeter, in the valley of the there is a cut to the river Trent, Rugeley, Stone, and Stoke, Dore. Hanley, and Burslem in the Potteries.

The Newcastle-under-Lyme (or Lyne) canal is a short The Birmingham canal and the Birmingham and Liver- canal from the Trent and Mersey canal at Stoke-upon-Trent pool Junction canal may be regarded as forming another 10 Newcastle-under-Lyme. The Gresley canal (private important line, entering the county near Birmingham, and property) is another short canal, and extends from the passing through the iron and coal district, by Dudley and Apedale coal-works to Newcastle-under-Lyme. The NewWolverhampton, and then running north-west into Shrop- castle-under-Lyme Junction canal unites these two. The shire. The length of this line may be estimated at about act for the Gresley canal was obtained A.D. 1775, for the 32 miles. The first part of it, from Birmingham to the Newcastle canal A.D. 1795, and the Junction canal A.D. Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal, in the neighbour- 1798. hood of Wolverhampton, is included in the Birmingham There are several railways in the county. Some of those Canal Navigations (first act obtained A.D. 1766), and is re. of earliest formation are connected with the canals above markable for the great number of short cuts or branches described, to which they convey coal or other minerals. The to the coal-pits or iron-works of the district; there are longer Grand Junction railway (from Birmingham to the Manbranches to Wednesbury, almost useless from a part of it chester and Liverpool railway at Newton) passes through having fallen in, and to Wolverhampton. The first act for the county from the neighbourhood of Birmingham, by or the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction canal, which com near the towns of Walsall, Bilston, Wolverhampton, Penkmences in the Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal, was ridge, and Stafford, and through the Potteries into Cheshire. obtained A.D. 1826; and the canal was in course of execu- About 50 miles of its length are in Staffordshire. This tion at the publication (A.D. 1831) of Priestley's · Historical railway was constructed and is managed under acts obtained Account of Navigable Rivers and Canals.'

A.D. 1829 to 1840, and was opened throughout in July, 1837. These two main lines of canal navigation may be consi The Birmingham and Derby Junction railway crosses the dered as belonging to the county at large : the following east side of the county from the neighbourhood of Tamappertain to the coal and iron districts of South Stafford- worth to the neighbourhood of Burton. The acts for this shire,

were obtained A.D. 1836 to 1840, and the line was in great part The Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal was executed opened A.D. 1839. It is carried by a viaduct nearly a quarter under an act obtained A.D. 1766. It commences in the of a mile long over the rivers Tame and Trent near their Severn at Stourport, and, after passing by a tunnel under junction. the town of Kidderminster, it enters Staffordshire near the The Birmingham and Manchester railway (acts obtained village of Whittington, follows the valleys of the Stour and 1837 and 1839) commences at Manchester, and was to bave the Smestow, passes near Wolverhampton, in the neigh-passed by a new line through the Potteries, but this part bourhood of which is its suinmit-level, and then follows the has been abandoned; and it is to unite with the Grand valleys of the Penk and the Sow, until it joins the Trent Junction line at Crew in Cheshire, so that as a distinct line and Mersey canals, near the junction of the Sow and the it has no connection with Staffordshire. Trent. Its length in this county is nearly 40 miles. It! The principal coach-road in the county is the parliament

tary road from London to Holyhead, which enters Stafford - | They can be so adjusted that they require no ploughman to shire at Soho, near Birmingham, and runs through Wednes. hold them, excepting when they are to be turned into a fresh bury, Bilston, and Wolverhampton, a few miles beyond furrow. Double ploughs, making two furrows at once, are which it enters Shropshire. The Chester and Holyhead likewise used where the soil is very light and loose. Other road enters the county at Tamworth, and runs by Lichfield, modern implements, such as scarifiers, drills, and horseRugely, Wolseley Bridge, Stafford, Eccleshall, and Knigh- hoes, are introduced on the farger farms, especially those in ton, into Shropshire. The London and Liverpool road, the hands of proprietors and cultivated by experienced branching from this at Wolseley Bridge, runs through Stone bailiffs. and Newcastle-under-Lyme into Cheshire. The road from The mode of cropping the land, which till of late partook London by Derby to Manchester crosses the northern part of the old system of getting as many crops of corn as it was of the county through Leek. The road from Birmingham thought the land would yield, and then recruiting its exto Derby, part of the line which connects the south-western hausted powers by fallows or pasturing for several years, has with the northern counties, passes through Lichfield and now in a great measure been changed for the more rational Burton-upon-Trent. All these, before the formation of rail- plan of giving strength first, and keeping it up by judicious ways, were mail-coach roads. Other roads are too numerous management, so as to have always abundant crops and a clean for notice.

surface. Where turnips and green crops can be raised, On the whole, there is perhaps not one of the midland which is now the case with almost every soil which is well counties better provided with the means of communication drained, they form the basis of the system. The use of than Staffordshire; and this is the more remarkable, as, with lime and marl, which becomes every year more common in the exception of the Trent, and that only for a very few this county, improves the texture; and crushed bone and miles, it has not a single navigable river. All the means of other substances, which are of easy carriage and have a communication, with this tritling exception, are works of powerful effect on vegetation, produce good crops of turart, and have been for the most part called forth by the nips, and greatly economize the manure from the farmmineral wealth of the county and its two great branches of yards. manufacturing industry, the iron-manufaciure of the south The natural meadows along the banks of the rivers are and the potteries of the north.

rich and productive, being continually renovated by the deAgriculture.-The air of this county is sharp in compositions of fine mud in foods; but ihey have also the inparison with those which are situated to the south of it, and convenience of being sometimes flooded at a time when the at the same time the county is more subject to continued grass is fit for the scythe or already cut, in which cases much rains, which make the crops later and the harvest more pre loss is sustained. The Dove, which brings down from the carious. The quantity of rain which falls in the neigh- hills many particles of calcareous matter, which it deposits bourhood of London during the year is equal to twenty or where the banks are low and that, is noted, as we observed twenty-one inches on an average, but in Staffordshire the before, for its rich meadows, which has given rise to a say. average is about thirty-six inches. From this it is apparent ing, 'rich as Dove;' and, 'In April Dove's flood is worth a that the heavy soils, and those which are situated on imper- king's good.' The finest natural grasses are found on its vious subsoils, require very complete draining before they banks. When the waters of the Dove are diluted by other can be made productive, whatever may be the natural fer- streams, the fertilizing effect of its floods diminishes. tility of the surface. The western parts of England are in There is not much land in this county devoted to the gramgeneral more rainy than the eastern; and in this respecting of cattle, or to extensive dairies, but many fine beasts Staffordshire must be reckoned with the former. One are fatted in stalls on turnips, hay, and oil-cake, chietly for cause of this are the high lands which traverse the country, the sake of the manure. The breed most esteemed is that and arrest the vapours which blow from the Atlantic. The of the short-horns, and few others are to be met with on the middle and southern portions of the county are compa- principal farms. In an ox the propensity to fatten is the ratively flat, and have only gently undulating hills. This great desideratum, in a cow the richness and abundance of portion also contains the most fertile lands, and is in the milk, and likewise the continuance of it in the cow lill best state of cultivation.

within a short time of calving. To unite these qualities in The county is estimated to include a surface of 780,800 one animal, or in any breed, has been generally found a acres, of which in round numbers about 150,000 are in roads, hopeless task; and the prudent dairyman seeks in his cows wastes, and woods. The remainder, or about 630,800, are the points wbich denote good milkers, and not those that productive as arable land or pasture, in which last must be indicate a tendency to fatien. It is generally allowed that included all the parks around the habitations of noblemen when the object is to rear an ox to fatien, the breed should and gentlemen of fortune, of whom there are a considerable differ from that which produces the best milch cow; no cow number in the county. The proportion of the arable land to having yet been found to excel in both qualities of fattenthe pasture is nearly as five to one. Of the first, two-ifths con- ing readily and giving much rich milk. Experience teaches sist of clays and heavy loams; two-fifths of gravelly and the dairyman what cows are most profitable on his pastures, sandy loams, and one-fifth of light gravel and sand, chiefly and his principal care is to rear heifers from his best cows good turnip land, but not so productive of wheat. An excel- by a bull noted for producing good milkers. There are lent vein of marl lies near Stafford Castle and Eccleshall. The some excellent cows which it would be difficult to class with Trent traverses a great portion of the county, and receives any particular breed; some have the horns long, some the tributary streams of the Dove, which is noted for its short, and some are without horns; but they all have deep fertile banks; it also receives the waters of numerous other chests, wide hips and flanks, large udders, and prominent streams which have been already mentioned. The Severn milk-veins; a fine tail with a good brush of hair as the end, touches the southern part of the county, and receives the is a point usually looked for in a good cow. waters of the Stour and Smestall. There are rich meadows The original Staffordshire sheep has been either superon the banks of all these streams.

seded by more useful breeds, or has been changed and imThere are estates in Staffordshire of all sizes, from that proved by crossing. Every breed is to be met with which is of the rich man with a rental of 10,0001. per annum and in any repute; and good farmers will vie with southern more, to the small yeoman who lives by the cultivation of a competitors in their Leicesters and South-downs. The numspot of ground which has been the property of his fore- ber of sheep kept on the land under the present system is fathers for many generations. The hired farms are likewise vastly greater than it was under the old, and while more of all sizes. Leases of farms for fourteen and twenty- corn is raised, more beef and mutton are also produced for one years are common.

the market. In the Agricultural Report of the county, published in The farm-horses in Staffordshire are active and strong, 1796, it is stated that the large farmers use broad-wheeled and in general well kept. The labourers are industrious, waggons, in which six horses, harnessed two and two, draw and where their employers take some pains to encourage a load of three or four tons. The improved roads now.a- good conduct, they are sober and honest. Whenever the days enable the farmer to draw by means of single-horse farmer seems indifferent to the moral conduct of those who carts upwards of six tons, or double the old load, with the work for him, he can only expect to suffer in his interest same number of horses.

from his own want of attention to this duty. The ploughs commonly used in Staffordshire are those The Staffordshire hog of the old breed is coarser than the which have two unequal wheels attached to the beam, and Berkshire or Essex, but much pains have been taken to inwhich are also known by the name of Rutland ploughs. I troduce better pigs, and with considerable success. The

Chinese and Neapolitan breeds have, as elsewhere, been of | [Bilston; BURSLEM; Burton; Lichfield; NEWCASTLE great use in producing an animal that will fat readily, with UNDER-LYME; STOKE; TAMWORTH; Walsall; WOLVERsmall bone and compact form.

HAMPTON.] The principal fairs in Staffordshire are

The town of Dudley, which was made a parliamentary Abbots Bromley, Mar. 6, May 22, Sept. 4; Barton, May borough by the Reform Act, is in an insulated part of Wor3, Nov. 28; Betley, April 30, July 31, Oct. 29 ; Bilston, cestershire, in the midst of the Staffordshire iron-district, Whit-Mon. Mon. bef. Mich.; Brewood, May 9, Sept. 19; to which virtually it belongs. [Dudley.) Burslem, Sat, bef. Shrove Tues., Easter or Whit Sun., Sat. Abbots Bromley, Betley, Brewood, Cannock, Penkridge, on or after June 24, Sat. bef. Ember week, Dec. 26; Bur- and Tutbury, were formerly market-towns. ton-upon-Trent, Feb. 2, Apr. 5, H. Thurs. Oct. 29, first Stafford is in the hundred of Pyrehill (southern division), Tues. in Sept. (cheese); Cannock, May 8, Aug. 24, Oct. 18; on the north bank of the Sow. We are not aware that Cellar-head (near Leeke), May 6, Nov. 7; Cheadle, Jan. 7, there is any historical notice of this place before the year Mar. 25, H. Thurs., July 4, Aug. 21, Oct. 18; Eccleshall, 913, when Ethelfleda, ‘lady of Mercia,' built a fort here to Th. bef. Mid-Lent, H. Thurs., Alg. 16, first Frid. in Nov. ; keep the Danes of the neighbourhood in check. (Sarun Fazeley, 2nd Mon. in Jan., Feb., Apr., Sept. Dec., third Chronicle.) The early history of the town is obscure. In Mon. in July, Aug., Nov., last Mon. in May and June, Mar. Domesday'it is mentioned under the names of Statford 21, first Mon. after Old Mich.; Gnossall, May 7, Sept. 23; and Stadford, and is called a borough. There was a Hanley, Feb. 9, Mar. 30, May 18; cattle-market second castle near it in the middle ages. In the civil war of Tuesılay in every month; Hayward Heath, November Charles I. the Royalists, after the capture of Lichfield Close 18; Holy Cross, Apr. 10, Sept. 11; Ipstones, Mar. 25, Nor by the Parliamentarians, retired to Stafford; and an inde9; Kinfare, sec. Tues. in May' and Dec.; Lane-end and cisive battle was fought at Hopton Heath, two or three Longton, Feb. 14, May 29, July 22, Nov. 1; Leek, W. bef. miles from the town, March 19, 1643, in which the earl of Feb. 13, W. in Easter-week, May 18, W. in Whits.-week, Northampton, the Royalist commander, was killed. The July 3, 28, W. after Oct. 10, Nov. 13, W. aft. Christmas- town, which was walled, was subsequently taken by the day, sec. Mon. in Mar. and Sept., third Mon. in Nov.; Lich- Parliamentarians under Sir Wm. Brereton: the castle was field, Ash Wed., May 12, Frid. in the week aft. St. Sim. also taken, but at a later period. The walls have been and St. Jude; Frid. after Twelfth-Day; Longnor, Feb. 12, so entirely demolished, that no trace of them remains. The Apr. 2, May 4, 17, 21, Aug. 5, Oct. 8, Nov. 12; Newcastle, castle, which is a mile and a half south-west of the town, in Feb. 11, Apr. 1, May 20,"July 8, Sept. 16, Nov. 4; New Castle Church parish, has been rebuilt quite of late years, castle-under-Line, Jan. 13, Feb. 10, Mar. 2, Mar. 30, Apr. or is now rebuilding. The principal line of building in the 20, May 18, June 8, July 13, Aug. 10, Sept. 14, Oct. 12. town is formed of two streets, called Gate Street and Gaol. Nov. 2, Dec. 7; Pattingham, Apr. 30; Penkridge, Apr.30, gate Street, in which are two openings, Market Square and Sept. 3, Oct. 10; Rugeley, third Thurs. in Apr., Oct. 21, Gaol Square. The line is prolonged northward through sec. Tues. in Dec., June 2, and 3, 4, 5, 6 (horse-fair); San- what appears to have been a suburb, by Near and Far don, April 4, Nov. 14; Shenstone, last Mon. in Feb.; Staf- Foregaie Streets; and southward by the suburb of Foreford, Tués. bef. Shrove Tues., May 14, Sat. bef. St. Peter's bridge, separated from the town by the Sow. The town is day, June 29, July 10, Sept. 16, 17, 18, Dec. 4; Stone, well supplied with water, and the streets are paved and Tues. aft. Mid-Lent, Shrove Tues, Whit-Tues., Aug. 5,26, lighted under the provision of a local act, except some, which Tamworth, last Mon. in Jan., first Mon. in Mar., Apr. 5, are exempt from the operation of the act, and are kept in May 4, July 26, first Mon. in Lent, Oct. 24, Dec. 15; Tut- repair by the corporation. The houses are in general well bury, Feb. 14, Aug. 15, Dec. 1; Uttoxeter, St. Magdelene's built, mostly of brick, roofed with slate. Over the Sow is day, May 6, July 31, Sept. 1, 19, Nov. 11, 27; Walsall, a neat bridge. There is another bridge, called Broad Eye Feb. 24, Tues. bef. Mich.; Wednesbury, May 6, Aug. 3; | Bridge, west of the town. The county-hall is a spacious Woolverhampton, July 10; Yoxhall, Feb. 12, Oct. 18. building of stone, occupying one side of the Market Square.

Divisions, Touns, 8c.- Staffordshire is divided into five The county gaol and house of correction and the county innundreds, as follows:

firmary are on the north side of the town; and the county Hundred.

Population. lunatic asylum is on the north-west side: the last is a

spacious building, well adapted to the purposes of the estaCuttlestone or < Eastern Central 65,400

17,096 blishment, which is admirably conducted. There are two Cuddleston | Western W. 40,100 9,822 churches. St. Mary's, formerly collegiate, is a large and Ofelow or s Northern

E. 78,260 27,399 fine cross-church, with an octagon tower at the intersection Otllow Southern S.E. 95,640 92,121

of the nave and transept: it consists of a nare and two Pyrehill or Northern N.W. 116,520 93,251 aisles, a chancel with side aisles, and a transept, which is Pirehill Southern Central 89,350 27,012 | 100 feet long and 25 feet broad. Most of the piers and

Northern S. 42,050 Scisdon

86,530 arches of the church are of early English date, or belong to Southern S.W. 39,330 10,761

an early period of the decorated English style: there are Northern N. 93,920 22,853 Totmonslow

some good windows of the decorated period, but the east Southern N.E. 75,690 23,667 window and some others are of perpendicular character.

The upper part of the tower is of late date. The church

736,290 410,512 of St. Chad' is smaller, and has a chancel of Norman archiWe have included the city of Lichfield in the northern tecture, with an east window of modern date, a modern division of Offlow hundred, the borough of Stafford in the nare, and a tower, between the nave and chancel, of perpensouthern division of Pyrehill, and the borough of New- dicular character. Owing to the friable nature of the stone, castle-under-Lyme in the northern division of the same the ornamental work of this tower is going to decay. There hundred. The density of the population in the Potteries is a Roman Catholic chapel in the suburb of Forebridge. (Pyrehill hundred, northern division), and still more in the and there are meeting houses for Methodists of different iron and coal districts of the south (Olflow hundred, southern connections, Independents, aud Quakers. division; and Seisdon hundred, northern division), is ob The borough comprehends the parishes of St. Mary and St. vious at a glance. The population in these three divisions Chad (which are united for secular purposes), and has an is very nearly 700 to a square mile; in the iron district, area of 2510 acres: the population, in 1831, was 6956. The taken alone, it exceeds that; while in the agricultural dis- suburb of Forebridge is in the parish of Castlechurch, in tricts it is only about 185 to a square mile.

the eastern division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, whieb Staffordshire contains the county town and borough of parish had, in 1831, a population of 1374; but what portion Stafford; the city of Lichfield; the old boroughs of New- is to be assigned to Forebridge we have no means of ascercastle-under-Lyme, and Tam worth ; and the new parliamen- taining. The principal manufacture of the town is that of tary boroughs of Stoke, Walsall, and Wolverhampton; and shoes, which, in 1831, employed 800 men: the shoes are the market-towns of Bilston, Burslem (included in the chiefly for the London market or for exportation. A conborough of Stoke), Burton-upon-Trent, Cheadle, Eccles. siderable quantity of leather is tanned in or round the town. ball, Hanley, and Lane End, included in the new bo- The market is on Saturday; and there are fire yearly fair, rough of Stoke, Leek, Longnor, Rugely, Stone, Tun-chiefly for horses and cattle. The Staffordshire anni Wor stall (included in the borough of Stoke), Uttoxeter, and cestershire Canal and the Grand Junction Railway pass Wednesbury, Some of these are described elsewhere. I near the town.

Division.

Position,

Area.
Acres.

1831.

The assizes and quarter-sessions for the county are held | town is on a gently rising ground, on the south bank of the in the town; also the court of election for the members for river Sow, and consists of well and regularly built houses. the northern division of the county, for which it is also a The church is a large antient building. There is an Indepolling station.

pendent meeting-house. The area of the parish is 20,930 Stafford has sent members to parliament since 23 Ed- acres, divided into twenty townships, and one chapelry ward I. By the Boundary Act the suburb of Forebridge (Chorlton): the population in 1831 was 4471: the town diviwas added to the previously existing borough for parlia- sion contains 1850 acres, with a population in 1831 of 1285. mentary purposes. The number of voters in 1835-6 was The market is on Friday; and there are four yearly fairs for 1271, viz. 421 ten-pound householders, and 850 freemen: sheep, cattle, and horses. The living is a vicarage, of the in 1839-40 it was 1265, viz. 390 ten-pound householders, clear yearly value of 1701., with a glebe- house, in the archand 875 freemen. The corporation was dissolved by the deaconry of Stafford and diocese of Lichfield.

There were result of some legal proceedings, a D. 1826; but a new char- in 1833, in the whole parish, eight day or boarding and day ter was speedily obtained, which is now (except where schools, with from 207 to 227 children of both sexes ; bealtered by the Municipal Reform Act) the governing charter. sides a day and Sunday national school, with 221 children By the Municipal Reform Act the extended parliamentary daily, and 297 on Sunday, and two Sunday-schools, with boundary was adopted for municipal purposes, and the bo- 72 children. rough was divided into two wards : it has six aldermen and Hanley and Lane-End are noticed elsewhere. STOK..] eighteen conncillors, and a commission of the peace. The Leek is in the northern division of Tormonslow hunborough quarter-sessions and court of record have fallen dred, 23 miles north-north-east from Stafford. The town into disuse, and there is no borough gaol : offenders are is pleasantly situated on an eminence the streets are well sent to the county for trial. Petty-sessions are however paved, and lighted with gas. The church, which stands on held.

an eminence, is an old building, and has a tower with eight The living of St. Mary's is a rectory, of the clear yearly pinnacles. It contains, amid many alterations and additions value of 221l., with a glebe-house: that of St. Chad is a some antient work worthy of notice. There are places of perpetual curacy, of the clear yearly value of 851.

worship for Quakers, Independents, and Wesleyan MeThere were in the borough, exclusive of the suburb of thodists. The area of the parish, which extends into the Forebridge, in 1833, five dame-schools, with about 80 chil- southern division of the hundred, is 34,370 acres; the dren of both sexes; a well-endowed free grammar-school, population, in 1831, was 10,780; the township of Leek and with 16 boys; a national school, with 100 boys and 90 girls, Lowe (in which the town stands) contained 6374 inhaand six other day-schools, with 133 boys and 58 girls ; four bitants. The chief manufacture of the town is of silk, espeboarding and day-schools, with 106 boys and 39 girls; and cially ribands; 559 men were, in 1831, employed in manuthree Sunday-schools, with 711 children.

factures, besides women and children. The Caldon Canal Cheadle is in the hundred of Totmonsłow (southern divi- passes near the town, with which it communicates by a sion), 14 miles north-north-east of Stafford. It is called Cedla short cut. The market is on Wednesday, and there are in “Domesday.' The town is just within the moorland seven yearly fairs, chiefly for cattle. The living is a vicardistrict of North Staffordshire, and is situated in the midst age, of the clear yearly value of 2181., with a glebe-house ; of hills, whose former barrenness has been covered by and the vicar presents to three of the four perpetual curarecent plantations of timber-trees. Several roads converge cies of the chapels in the parish. There were, iu 1833, in the at the town, which is irregularly laid out, and consists of township seventeen day or boarding and day schools (one indifferently built houses. It is supplied with water from of them having a school-house and a tritling endowment), the Tean brook, which flows near it, and ultimately joins with 244 boys and 171 girls; and five Sunday-schools, with the Churnet. Close to the town, on the west and north-west, 761 boys and 796 girls. There was antiently a Cistertian are hills which command a tolerably extensive prospect; abbey, called Dieulacres, a short distance north of the and one of which, Monkhouse, affords a favourite walk. town, the yearly revenues of which at the dissolution were The church has suffered much from mutilation and altera 2431. 38. 6d. gross, or 2271. 58. clear. There are some retion: the east end has been a good specimen of decorated mains of the buildings. Lord Chancellor Parker, first earl English architecture; but the arch of the fine east window of Macclesfield, was a native of Leek. has been altered, and the tracery mutilated : there are some Longnor is in the northern division of the hundred of good windows of decorated character. There are places of Totmonslow, 33 miles north-north-east of Stafford, through worship for Roman Catholics, Wesleyan Methodists, Me Leek. The town is on the north-east bank of the river thodists of the New connection, and Independents. The Manifold near its source, and is very small. It has a neat area of the parish is 5730 acres : the population in 1831 was chapel, a stone edifice, with a lofty pinnacled tower, and a 4119, of which one-fourth or one-fifih was agricultural. place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists. The chapelry of Brass wire and tape are manufactured, and nearly 100 men Longnor is a subdivision of the parish of Allstonefield, and were in 1831 employed in coal-mines in the parish. The has an area of 850 acres; the population, in 1831, was 429. market is on Friday, and there are four yearly fairs. The There is a market on Tuesday, and there are eight yearly Caldon canal passes along the valley of the Churnet two fairs. The perpetual curacy of the chapel is in the gift of or three miles east of the town, and a railroad has been the vicar of Allstonefield; its clear yearly value is 1021. made from the collieries in the immediate neighbourhood The chapelry contained, in 1833, two dame-schools, with 40 of the town to the canal. The living is a rectory in the children; one day-school, having a small endowment, with archdeaconry of Stafford, in the diocese of Lichfield and 30 children, chiefly boys; and one Sunday-school, with Coventry, of the clear yearly value of 438l., with a glebe- about 100 children. house: the rector presents to the perpetual curacy of Oak Rugely is in the eastern division of Cuttlestone hundred, amoor chapel, which is a dependency of Cheadle. There nine miles east-south-east from Stafford on the road to were in the parish in 1835, one infant-school, partly sup- Lichfield. The town, which is near the north-eastern ported by subscription, with 44 boys and 56 girls ; a day- border of Cannock Chase, is irregularly laid out, but is reschool, with a small endowment, with 40 boys and 20 girls; markably clean and of respectable appearance; some of the eleven other day-schools, with 189 boys and 171 girls; and streets of later formation are lined with houses of a superior five Sunday-schools, with 351 boys and 365 girls, besides character. The church has been rebuilt of late years, but 53 adults.

the tower and chancel of the old church still remain : the Eccleshall is in the northern division of Pyrehill hundred, chancel is used for a school-room. There is an Indepen7 miles north-west of Stafford. The manor belonged an- dent meeting-house; and at Brereton, about a mile southtiently to the bishop of Lichfield, and is called Ecleshelle in east of the town, is a Wesleyan chapel. The parish has an • Domesday,' where the owner is termed Episcopus de Ces- area of 7120 acres, with a population, in 1831, of 3165. tre, Bishop of Chester, the see having been just before There are some iron-works in the town, and at Brereton, in removed from Lichfield to Chester, where however it re- the parish, are some coal-pits. The market is on Tuesday, mained only a short time. The bishops had a mansion and there are three yearly fairs, one a large horse-fair, and here, which in the reign of John was by the king's licence another a large horse, cattle, and sheep fair. The Grand made an embattled castle. It was garrisoned by the Roy- Trunk canal passes the town; and the Trent, which howalists in the civil wars of Charles I., and stood a 'siege be- ever is not here navigable, flows about a quarter of a mile to fore it was taken by the Parliamentarians: it was subse- the north-east of it. There is a railroad from the Brereion quently repaired, and is still the bishop's residence. The coal-pits to the canal. The living is a vicarage, in the pecu

liar jurisdiction of the dean and chapter of Lichfield, of the the south side at the eastern end of the nave, and a western clear yearly value of 2131., with a glebe-house. There were tower. The east end of the chancel is a semi-octagon, and in the parish, in 1833, two dame-schools, with 40 children; a is, with most other parts of the church, of perpendicular well-endowed grammar-school with 48 boys; another school, character. The western tower is square, with four pinnawith a small endowment, with 60 boys; a national school, cles, and a lofty octagonal spire: it has a peal of eighi bells. and a charity school with 24 boys and 125 girls ; six other There are some antient wooden seats, and a curious moveday-schools, with 30 boys, 15 girls, and 64 children of sex able wooden reading-desk in the church. There are places not distinguished ; two boarding and day schools, with 52 of worship for Independents, and for Wesleyan and Prigirls and 17 boys; and two Sunday-schools, with 210 mitive Methodists. The area of the parish is 2190 acres : the children.

population in 1831 was 8437. The town is in the heart of Stone is in the southern division of Pyrehill hundred, the coal and iron district; and a considerable manufacture seven miles north by west of Stafford. There was a very is carried on of fire-arms, gas-pipes, chains, spades, and antient monastery at this place, founded, it was said, by shovels, locks and keys, hinges, bridle-bits, stirrup-irons, Wulfhere, king of Mercia, or his queen Ermenilda, in buckles, horse-shoes, coach-ironmongery, screws, files, edgehonour of his two sons, whom, before his own conversion, he tools, and machinery: On a rivulet near the town are some had murdered for embracing Christianity. Wulfhere is said corn-mills, and in ihe neighbourhood numerous coal-pits. to have placed secular canons here; but these being dis- There are several branches of the Birmingham canal navipersed, some nuns occupied the place, who were removed in gations near the town. The market is on Friday, and there ihe time of Henry I. to make room for some regular canons are two yearly fairs. The living is a vicarage, of the clear of St. Austin from Kenilworth Priory, to which this house yearly value of 3011. There were in the parish, in 1833, was for a time a cell, but afterwards became independent. three infant or dame schools, with 49 boys and 37 girls; The yearly revenue at the dissolution was 1297. 28. 11d. seven day-schools, with 207 boys and 86 girls (one of these gross, or 1191. 148. 111d. clear. The town is on a rising with 110 children, was supported by private subscription); ground on the left or north-eastern bank of the Trent, over and four Sunday-schools, with 628 boys and 609 girls. which, on the Stafford road, there is a bridge; the principal Abbots Bromley is in the southern division of Pirehill street is along the road from London to Liverpool, and is hundred, 127 miles east of Stafford, on the road from paved. The church is a modern building at the south-east Uttoxeter to Lichfield. It consists chietly of one long strag. end of the town, and near it are some remains of the antient gling street of tolerably neat houses, mostly built of bric. monastery. There are places of worship for Independents The church has been much modernized, but relains some and Wesleyan Methodists. The parish, including the antient portions of decorated English or perpendicular chachapelry of Normicott, has an area of 20,030 acres; the racter, and a Norman doorway. The tower is surmounted population, in 1831, was 7808. The principal branch of by a lofty spire. There is an antient building formerly industry is shoemaking, and there are some breweries and used as a market-house; but the market has been discosmills. The Grand Trunk canal passes near the town. The tinued for several years. The area of the parish is 8360 market is on Tuesday, and there are five great markets or acres; the population in 1831 was 1621, more than half fairs in the year. The living is a perpetual curacy of the agricultural. The shoe-manufacture, which was formerly clear yearly value of 2141., with a glebe- house: there are carried on, has declined, but there is some malting carthree chapels in the parish. There were, in 1833, twenty ried on. There are a free-school and an almshouse in the day or boarding and day schools, with 425 boys, 301 girls, village. and 44 children of sex not stated; one of them was a Betley is in the northern division of Pyrehill hundred, national school, with 120 boys and 90 girls, and several of about 23 miles north-north-west of Stafford, through Stone the others were assisted by endowment or contribution. and Newcastle. It is a neatly built place, in a cheerful There were also three Sunday-schools, with 355 boys and situation. The market has been given up for several years, 306 girls.

and the population of the whole parish (the area of which Tunstall is described elsewhere. [STOKE-UPON-TRENT.] is 1480 acres) was, in 1831, only 870. There are consider

Uttoxeter is in the southern division of Totmonslow hun- able market-gardens round the village, from which Newdred, 13 miles north-east from Stafford. The etymo- castle is supplied with vegetables. There are two national logy of the name (which is popularly shortened in pronun- schools, one of them with a small endowment. ciation into Uxeter) is uncertain; it is written Wotochshede Brewood is the eastern division of Cuttlestone hundred, in' Domesday,' Uttoxeter stands on a rising ground near the 104 miles south-by-west of Stafford. The parish has aa river Dove, which here separates Staffordshire from Derby- area of 11,950 acres ; the population in 1831 was 3799. At shire, and is crossed by a handsome stone bridge. The town that time 278 men were employed on the Birmingham and is irregularly laid out; the three principal streets meet in Liverpool canal, which passes close to the village, and 191 the market-place; the houses are generally well built. The men in the manufacture of stock-locks. The village is neatly church has been rebuilt of late years, but the lofty tower built, near the west or left bank of the river Penk. The and spire of the former edifice remain : there are places of market, which was on Friday, has been discontinued; but worship for Wesleyans, Baptists, Independents, and Quakers. there is one yearly fair for cattle. The church has a fine The parish has an area of 8920 acres, and had, in 1831, a po- spire, and some other parts of the building are in a good pulation of 4864. There are a number of iron-forges round style. There are Independent and Wesleyan meeting. ihe town, and the neighbourhood contains much fine grazing houses. There is a grammar-school with a good endos. land. The market is on Wednesday, and is well attended : ment. There was formerly a Benedictine nunnery here, there are several yearly fairs. The Caldon Canal ends at the clear yearly revenue of which at the dissolution was Ulloxeter. The living is a vicarage, of the clear yearly value 111. 1s. 6d. of 136l., with a glebe-house. There were in the parish, in Cannock is in the eastern division of Cuttlestone hup1833, a day and Sunday national school, with 80 boys dred, about 9 miles south-south-east of Stafford. Tbe and 56 girls in the week, and about 50 children in addition parish has an area of 11,970 acres, with a population ia 1831 on Sundays; fourleen other day-schools, one them having of 3116; about 87 men were employed in coal-mines, and 71 a small endowment, with 163 boys and 191 girls; and two in manufactures chiefly of edge-tools. Cannock is a small Sunday schools, with 143 boys and 137 girls.

place, and the market has been for many years given up Wednesbury (commonly pronounced Wedgebury) is in it gives name to the adjacent extensive waste, °Cannock the southern division of Oillow hundred, 19 miles south- Chase, formerly covered with oaks. Besides the parish. south-east from Stafford, in the centre of the lour great church there are places of worship for the Independenis and towns, Birmingham and Wolverhampton, Walsall and Wesleyan Methodists. There are several schools in the Dudley. The name is supposed to incorporate that of the parish: cne a day-school with a small endowment; another Saxon god Woden : the same element appears in Wednes; a large national school, with a school-house a little out of field in this neighbourhood. Ethelfleda, Lady of Mercia,' the village on the Penkridge road. sister of Edward the Elder, built a castle here, A.D. 914. Penkridge is in the eastern division of Cuttlestone hanThe town is called in ‘Domesday' Wednesberie. It stands dred, 6 miles south of Stafford. Some antiquaries, among on the slope of a hill, and is irregularly laid out. The whom are Camden, have identified this town with the Penchurch occupies the summit of the hill, where Ethelfeda's nocrucium of the Antonine Itinerary; others fix the site casile formerly stood: it is a tolerably spacious building, of Pennocrucium at or near Stretton, a township of consisting of a nave with siile aisles, a chancel, a chapel on | Penkridge parish, near the line of Watling-Street. The

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