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names of Pennocrucium and Penkridge appear to embody she was obliged to acknowledge the imposition, and that she the same element Penk, which is the name of the stream had occasionally taken food. The case was however remark. near which both Penkridge and Siretton stand. The able for the small quantity of nourishment which was taken village consists of two principal streets along the Wolver- by her. hampton and Cannock roads, leading down the bridge over There are several villages in Staffordsbire, especially in the Penk, before reaching which they unite: the lower part the iron-district, whose manufacturing importance entitl:S of the village is subject to frequent inundations. The church them to special notice. is mostly of perpendicular character; but some parts are of Sedgley is in the northern division of Seisdon hundred, older date, especially the east window, which is of decorated on the road from Wolverhampton to Dudley, about 3 miles English character, and has fine tracery. The whole parish, from each: the parish is included in the parliamentary bowith the townships of Hatherton and Kinvaston in Wolver- rough of Wolverhampton; it had in 1831 a population of hampton parish, comprehends an area of 18,020 acres, and 20,577. (WOLVERHAMPTON.] extends into the western division of the hundred. The West Bromwich is in the southern division of Offlow hunpopulation in 1831 was 2991. The market, wbich was on dred, between Birmingham and Wednesbury, but nearer Tuesday, is now given up. There are three yearly fairs : the latter. The church contains some good antient work. one of them a large cattle-fair, and another a large horse. There are meeting-houses for Wesleyans and Independents. fair. There is a national day and Sunday school, and The parish bas an area of 5380 acres, with a population, un several private day-schools.

1831, of 15,327, of whom 1318 men were employed in the Tutbury is in the northern division of Offlow hundred, manufacture of iron for the forye or workshop, and above about 22 miles east of Stafford through Uttoxeter, on the 1000 in coal-pits, or in other works connected with these bank of the Dove, which separates Staffordshire from great branches of industry. Sandwell park, one of the seats Derbyshire. There is said to have been a fortress here in of the earl of Dartmouth, is near West Bromwich ; it octhe Saxon times: at any rate, one was occupied by Henry cupies the site of a small Benedictine priory. There were, de Ferieres or Ferrars, to whom the Conqueror had granted in 1833, two national schools, an endowed day-school, a large possessions in Staffordshire. The castle is men- Catholic school partly supported by subscription, and several tioned in ‘Domesday;' and Tutbury, there cailed Toteberie, private schools. is described as a borough with a market. This Henry Kingswinford, or more correctly King's Swinford (Swinfounded a Benedictine or Cluniac monastery (authorities ford Regis) is in the northern division of Seisdon hundred, differ as to which it was), the possessions of which were about 3 miles or 3} miles from Stourbridge (Worcestershire), largely augmented by his successors, and were valued at on the road to Wolverhampton. It belonged to the crown the dissolution at 2441. 168. 8d. gross, or 1991. 148. 10d. clear at the time of the Domesday Survey, hence its designation yearly value. Robert de Ferrars, earl of Derby, one of the of King's Swinford. The old church has some antient pordescendants of Henry, having joined the earl of Leicester tions deserving of notice; and there has been a new church and the other insurgent barons in the war against Henry built at Wordsley in the parish, about a mile and a half from III., lost his castle of Tutbury, which was taken by Prince the village. There is an Independent chapel at Brierley Edward; and, in consequence of his subsequent second hill. There are some remains of a Roman camp in the rebellion, forfeited to the king, by whom it was bestowed parish; and Holbeach House, where the leaders in the on his son Edmund Crouchback. It was subsequently in- Gunpowder plot were taken, is also in the parish. The area herited by John of Gaunt, who rebuilt a great part of it, of the parish is 7130 acres: the population in 1831 was and lived here in great splendour. It was afterwards united 15,156; of whom 500 men were employed in the manufacwith the duchy of Lancaster to the crown, and was one of ture of iron goods in great variety; 400 in coal and iro the places of confinement of Mary Queen of Scots. In mines; and 1200 in labour of other kinds not agricultural. the great civil war it was held by the Royalists, and was There were, in 1833, two subscription day and Sunday not taken till the spring of 1646, soon after which it was in schools, beside a number of private day-schools and several great part demolished. The honour of Tutbury compre- Sunday-schools. hended several lordships, manors, towns, villages, and ham- Tipton is in the southern division of Offlow hundred, lets.

about a mile and a half north-north-east of Dudley, in the The village of Tutbury is on the slope of the hill that heart of the iron and coal district. Its importance is quite overhangs the valley of the Dove. The ruins of the castle of modern date, having advanced with those branches of inare on the brow of the hill, and are sufficient to show its dustry to which its situation is adapted. There are numerous former magnitude: some parts are of perpendicular and coal and iron works, which gave employment, in 1831, to others of earlier date. The church is the nave of a much 2200 men. The goods manufactured are similar to those larger building; the north arches are walled up, and the made at Wednesbury. The population of the parish at that south wall of the south aisle is mostly of later date, with per- period was 14,951: the area of the parish is 3020 acres. pendicular windows; the present east end is the arch of the Several branches of the Birmingham canal navigations pass centre tower walled up, and part of the transept pier remains; through the parish. The old church having become dilapithe piers and arches are Norman, a simple and bold example. dated, a new church, a neat and commodious brick buildThe west door, and the arch of a window over it, are very ing, was some time since erected in its place, and the old fine: the door is much enriched with beakhead, zigzag, and one allowed to become a ruin; and within the last three or other Norman enrichments, and part of the arch is worked four years, an additional church has been completed. The in gypsum, the ornaments very delicately cut, and retain- Wesleyan Methodists and the Independents have each a ing much of their original sharpness. The font is a good chapel. There were in the parish, in 1833, six national one, of perpendicular character, but mutilated. The church schools, three for boys and three for girls, attended by nearly is a valuable Norman specimen.' (Rickman.) There is a 900 children in the week, and by 200 in addition on Sunlow tower, chietly of Norman character, at the south-west day. These schools were partly supported by endowment angle. There are places of worship for Independents and and subscription. There were several Sunday-schools, in for different branches of the Methodists. The parish has which nearly 2200 children in addition were taught. Tipton an area of 4110 acres, with a population, in 1831, of 1553. is also called Tibbington. Some cotton-spinning is carried on. The market, formerly Rowley-Regis is in the northern division of Seisdon hunon Tuesday, has been given up. There is an endowed dren, about three miles south-east of Dudley. The church school. Tutbury was remarkable for an antient and bar- contains some good antient work; and there is a place of barous custom called .bull-running, which consisted of worship for Baptists. The area of the parish is 3670 acres ; chasing a bull with a soaped tail, turned out antiently by the population in 1831 was 7438, of whom 130 men were the prior of Tutbury, and subsequently by the grantee of employed in coal-pits, and above 1000 men in iron-works the priory lands. The custom has been abolished for several and the connected branches of industry; the manufactures years. A somewhat similar custom has long existed at are similar to those of Wednesbury. There are two dayStamford in Lincolnshire. [STAMFORD.] Tulbury was, schools with small endowments, beside private and Sunday early in the present century, the scene of a remarkable in schools. posture: a woman of the name of Ann Moore professed to Darlaston is in the southern division of Offlow hundred, live with taking any nourishment. She was watched, but a mile and a half north-west of Wednesbury. It has coalwithout being detecied, and her profession of entire absti- pits and iron-mines, and manufactures of hardware. There nence gained credit for six years. At length a stricter watch are a parish church, a brick building of the sixteenth cen. was kept, and at the end of nine days (April or May, 1813) I tury, and Independent and Wesleyan meeting-houses. A P. C., No. 1411.

Vol. XXII.--3 H



pranch of the Birmingham canal navigations passes near the county was formed into two divisions, and two members the village. The parish has an area of 770 acres. The allotted to each. The northern division contains the whole population in 1831 was 6647, of whom 673 men were em- hundreds of Pyrehill and Totmonslow, and the northern ployed in manufactures, chiefly or wholly of iron and hard division of the hundred of Offlow: the place of election is wares, and 357 men in coal-pits and quarries. There are Stafford; and the polling-stations are Stafford, Leek, Nev. two national schools, which are partly supported by sub-castle-under-Lyme, Cheadle, and Abbots' Bromley. The scription. There is a township of Darlaston in the parish southern division comprehends the southern division of of Stone, which is sometimes confounded with this.

Offlow hundred, and the whole hundreds of Cuttleston and Handsworth is in the southern division of Offlow hun- Seisdon; the place of election is Lichfield, and the poltinge dred, about two miles north-west of Birmingham. The stations are Lichfield, Walsall, Wolverhampton, Penkridge, church has been mostly rebuilt; only the tower and a small and King's Swinford. Wolverhampton, Stoke-upon-Trent, part of the wall of the antient edifice remain. In the church and Walsall were made parliamentary boroughs; the are monuments to Messrs. Boulton and Watt, the well. first and second to return iwo members each, the last to known manufacturers of Soho. Soho park and works are return one member. The whole number of representatives in this parish. The area of the parish is 7720 acres. The po- sent from the district was thus increased from ten is pulation in 1831 was 4944, of whom 112 men were engaged seventeen. in manufactures. The Roman Catholic College of St. Mary The constituency at the two periods, 1835-6 and 1839-30, Oscott is in the parish; and there are a charity-school and was as follows:a national-school, besides several private schools. Harborne

1835 36. lies in the same division of the same hundred, and about

Staffordshire, North the same distance as Handsworth south-west of Birming


8,469 ham. The church is a modern building, but some of the


914 876 antient buttresses and the tower of the older structure re.


1,003 1,031 main: the tower is of late perpendicular date. The parish,


1,271 1,265 including the chapelry of Smethwick, has an area of 4000


1,445 1,623 acres: the population, in 1831, was 4227, of whom above


531 501 330 men were employed in manufactures.


679 837 Amblecoat, in ihe parish of Old Swinford (the greater


2,643 part of which parish is in Worcestershire), close to Stour- History, Antiquities, fic. -- In the earliest period of bridge; Clent, in a detached portion of the county, south of authentic history Staffordshire appears to have formed part Stourbridge; Kinfare, west of the same town, Wombourne, of the territories of the Cornavii, or Carnabii. Under the and Tettenhall, all near the south-western border of the Romans it was comprehended in the province of Flavia county, and in the bundred of Seisdon, participate more or Cæsariensis. The antient roads, Watling Street, Ryknield less in the iron and hardware manufacture, which gave em- Street, and the Via Devana (Deva or Chester road) crossed ployment in them, in 1831, to 500 men.

this county, Norton-in-the-Moors, in the neighbourhood of Burslem, Watling Street entered it at Fazeley, near Tamworth. participates in the coal works and earthenware manufac. and ran west-north-west a little to the south of Cannock tures of the Pottery district. The parish has an area of and Penkridge into Shropshire. The turnpike-road from 3940 acres : the population, in 1831, was 2407, of whom 40 London to Shrewsbury falls in with Wailing-Screet on Canwere engaged in manufacture, and probably 200 in coal-pits. nock Chase, and coincides with it tbrough the remainder At Checkley, or rather at the hamlet of Tean in Checkley of its course in this county. The Roman towns of Etocetum parish, two miles and a half south-east of Cheadle, on the and Pennocrucium were on this line of Watling street:: road to Uitoxeter, is a considerable tape-manufactory: the the first was at Wall, about two miles south-south-west: population of the parish, in 1831, was 2247, of whom 106 of Lichfield ; the second probably near Stretton, in Penkmen were employed in manufacture, and 42 in stone-quarries. ridge parish, and two or three miles south-west of PenkSome cotton-spinning is carried on at Yoxall, near Burton- ridge village. At Wall, according to Shaw's account (Hist. on-Trent.

of Staffordshire), are some remains of walls enclosing two Divisions for Ecclesiastical, Legal, and Parliamentary acres of land, called the Castle Croft. Great quantities of purposes.-The county of Stafford is in the diocese of Lich- foundation stones, pavements of Roman bricks, and otber field, and constitutes the archdeaconry of Stafford. It is antiquities, have been dug up here. Wall is at the inter divided into four rural deaneries, as follows:

section of Ryknield and Watling streets. Pennocrueium Chapels

are inclined to fix on the river Penk, near SuretRec. Viear. Perp. Cha Do.

ton ; this position accords tolerably well with the distances Deaneries.

ages. Cura- pel- na classi- 'Total. in the Antonine Itinerary from Uriconium (Wroxeter, Lapley aud Trei

Salop) and Exocetum, and does not require the corrections S.W.

which are necessary if Pennocrucium is fixed (as some Leeke and Alton,

N.E. or Alveton.

have proposed) at Penkridge. Newcastle

Ryknield-Street entered the county across the Dore N.W.

near Burton, and ran south-west by Burton and Alrewas to Tamworth Tutbury. 13

Etocetum or Wall, where it crossed Watling-Street; and

turning more towards the south, raur by Sutton-Park and 47 47 113

Perry-barr common into Warwickshire and WorcesterThe number of benefices is somewhat less than appears shire. The Ad Trivona m (On-Trent) of Richard of Cireirfrom the above statement (which we borrow from Cox's cester, may be fixed between Branston and Burton-upon• Clergy List,' 1841), owing to some unions having been Trent. formed. The residence of the bishop of Lichfield is at The Via Derana entered the county across the Trent Eccleshall.

near Ad Trivonam, and appears to have passed by Uttoxeter, Staffordshire is in the Oxford circuit: the assizes and and through the Pottery district into Cheshire. Chesterton, quarter-sessions are held at Stafford, where is the county two miles north-west of Newcastle, was probably a Roman gaol and house of correction. It is said to be capable of station; but we doubt whether it was the Mediolanum of holding 325 prisoners in separate cells, and 546 when more Antoninus and Richard, as some have supposed. The name than one sleeps in a cell. (Inspectors' of Prisons Third Re- of Uttoxeter (compare Wroxeter and Exeter) would incline port.) This prison is conducted with care and judgment, us to suppose that it had been the site of a Roman station, and neatner and good order reign almost throughout. but the form in which the name appears in . Domesday There are treadwheels for grinding corn, supplying the (Wotachshede) is not favourable to the supposition. prison with water, and cleansing the prison drains; and A Roman road appears to have led from Watling Street beside this hard labour, several trades are carried on. at Etocetum north-west through Chesterton, where it (Ibid.) There is a county lunatic asylum at Stafford. crossed the Via Devana into Cheshire. Another road,

The number of representatives returned to parliament by running westward from Little Chester, near Derby, crossed the county and places within it was before the Reform Act the Dove, and ran towards Cheadle: it probably joined the ten:-viz. two knights of the shire, and two members each Via Devana. for the city of Lichfield and the boroughs of Newcastle- There are traces of camps or other military works supunder-Lyme, Stafford, and Tamworth. By the Reform Act | posed to be Roman at Ashwood, near King's Swinford; it




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Moreton, between Stafford and Aqualate Mere; at Oldbury, Trent (A.D. 1403). between two Staffordshire Knights and between Birmingham and Dudley; at Aldridge, between their retainers, who had embraced opposite sides. Sir Sutton Coldfield and Walsall; and in Arley wood, near William Handsacre, the insurgent commander, was deOver Arley on the Severn. Roman antiquities have been feated and slain, and the victor fell shortly after in the fight discovered in various places, especially a large quantity of at Shrewsbury. silver coins at Rowley Regis. There are traces of a bank, In the War of the Roses, the Yorkist earl of Salisbury, ditch, and pallisade, running for a considerable distance marching from the north towards London (A.D. 1459) with northward from Etocetum or Wall.

5000 men, was intercepted at Biore Heath, on the western There are some antient camps, of which it is doubtful if side of the county, between Drayton (Salop) and Ecclesthey are British, or belong to the Saxon or Danish periods. hall, by 10,000 Lancastrians under Lord Audley. The good One of these, called Castle Old-ford or Old-fort, near Sto- generalship of Salisbury secured thie victory : Lord Audley hall, about four miles south of Lichfield, is very conspicu- was killed, with all his chief officers and a fourth part of his ous. There are others in Beaudesert Park, near Rugely; army. A stone pedestal, surinounted by an antient wouden on Abbots Castle hill, on the Shropshire border, between cross, marks the field of battle. Richard III. was with his Wolverhampton and Bridgnorth; and at Bart Beacon, near army at Tamworth just before the battle of Bosworth Field Walsall. There are tumuli in various parts of the county, (A.D. 1485). some of which are thought to be Roman.

The principal monuments of the middle ages are eccleOn the conquest of South Britain by the Saxons, the siastical. Lichfield Cathedral is the most important. Croxcounty was included in the kingdom of Mercia, or of the den Abbey, ween Cheadle and Uttoxeter, a fine ruin Middle Angles.

in a narrow valley watered by a small rivulet. The west When Oswio, of Northumbria, who had slain Penda and end of the church, the south wall and transept, part of the subdued Mercia (A.D. 655), granted part of that kingdom to cloister, the walls of the chapter-house, and some parts of Peada, son of Penda, the county was divided, Oswio retain the offices, may be traced. The general character of the ing the part north of Trent, and resigning the rest to Peada. architecture is early English. Under these princes the Christian religion was established Mary, queen of Scots, was imprisoned for some time, under in Mercia, and a bishop appointed. On the death of Peada the care of the earl of Shrewsbury, at Tutbury Castle; also at (A.D. 656), Oswio resumed the whole; but when the Chartley, from whence she was removed by Abbots Bromley Mercians rebelled, and chose Wulfhere for their king, they and Burton to Fotheringhay in Northamptonshire. Holseem to have recovered Staffordshire. Wulfhere restored beach House, where most of the Powder-Plot conspirators paganism, but being subsequently converted to Christianity, were taken or killed, is in Staffordshire, between Wolverthe bishopric of Mercia was re-established, and fixed at hampton and Stourbridge. Lichfield. The antient camp at Berry-bank, near Stone, is In the great civil war the county generally embraced the traditionally said to have been the residence of Wulf here. side of the parliament, though several families sided with In the year 716, Osred, king of the Northumbrians, was slain the Royalist party. Some Royalists, under the earl of in battle, at Mere (Hen. Hunt., lib. iv.), which some suppose Chesterfield, garrisoned Lichfield Cathedral and Close; but to be Maer, between Newcastle-under-Lyme and Drayton, it was taken by the Parliamentarians, though with the loss Other accounts [NORTHUMBERLAND, vol. xvi., p. 318] lead of their general, Lord Brook (March, 1643). This post was to the supposition that he died in battle against the Piots. retaken about a month after by Prince Rupert, who also

There are the traces of an antient camp or fort, called took Burton : in the interval the Parliamentarians under the Burgh or Braff, near Maer. It is to be observed that Sir William Brereton and Sir John Gell had a severe but although Staffordshire was wholly included in the Mercian indecisive battle with the Royalists, at Hopton Heath, near kingdom, in the wide application of that term, the part north Stafford. The Parliamentarians occupied the towns of of the Trent was comprehended in what was sometimes Stafford and Wolverhampton, and subsequently look Ectermed Southumbria (Matt. Westmonast.): the southern part cleshall Castle, and took and demolished Stafford Castle: appears to have been included in the territory of the Middle they also besieged Tutbury Castle, but without success. Angles. The Mercian kings appear often to have resided Their horse had the advantage in a skirmish near Leek, at Tamworth.

which was one of their posts; and in the latter part of 1643 In the division of the island between the Saxons and they gained the victory in two skirmishes with Colonel Danes, in the time of Alfred, Staffordshire was partly Hastings, the Royalist commander, itt this county. In 1645 included in the Danelagh or Danish territory, Watling the king with his army marched through Staffordshire Street being the boundary; but the whole was recovered before the battle of Naseby, and was in it again after the by Alfred's successors.

battle. He appears to have had at this time two garrisons In the wars of Edward the Elder, son of Alfred, with in the county, Lichfield Close, and Tutbury. Dudley castle, the Danes (A.D. 910), a battle was fought at Tettenhall in the insulated portion of Worcestershire, was also held by Regis; near Wolverhampton, in which the Danes were his adlierents; but in the course of this or the following year beaten; and in the following year they sustained another these all surrendered. After the battle of Worcester (A.D. great defeat at Wednesfield : two years after (A.D. 913) 1651), Charles II. was at Boscobel House in this county. Ethelfleda, Lady of Mercia,' sister of Edward, built forts In the rebellion of 1745 the Pretender's army was at Leek, at Tamworth and Stafford; and next year one at Eades while that of the duke of Cumberland occupied Stone. byrig, which some suppose to be Wednesbury. Ethelfleda (Shaw's History of Staffordshire; Rickman's Gothic Ardied at Tamworth (A.D. 920), at which town Edward chitecture ; Parliamentary Papers ; Ordnance Survey ; &-c.) assumed the direct government of Mercia. The Saxon

STATISTICS. chronicle, in recording this event, calls Tamworth a burghi Population and Occupations. The population is chielly or borough. In the divisions of the kingdom between employed in trade and manufactures, little more than oneEdmund 1. and Anlaf (A.D. 940-943), the county was di- fifth being engaged in agriculture. Staffordshire was the vided between the Saxons and Danes, the part north of seventh in the list of manufacturing counties in 1831, and Watling-Street being assigned to the latter. In the war ranked the thirty-sixth among the agricultural counties. of Ethelred II. with ihe Danes (A.D. 1016), his son Edmund At that period there were 3781 males aged 20 and upwards, marched through the county, ravaging it as he went. occupiers of land, employing labourers; 3649 occupiers of Under Edward ihe Confessor there was an earl of Stafford- land not employing labourers; 16,812 labourers employed shire. At what time the county was formed is not known; in agriculture ; 26,755 persons employed in manufactures ; possibly when this part of Mercia came under the power of 24,766 employed in retail trades and handicrafts; 3569 ihe West-Saxon kings. There are several camps which are capitalists, bankers, and members of the professions ; 22,690 supposed to be of Saxon or Danish origin.

non-agricultural labourers; 1959 other males twenty years In the reign of Henry I. Staffordshire was ravaged by of age; 1959 male domestic servants; 12,739 female serRobert de Belesme, who supported the claim of Robert of vanis. The places in which manufacturing employment is Normandie to the crown. In the troubles of the reigns of chiefly carried on are given in the following extract from John and Henry III., there is no record of any remarkable the Census of 1831: _The southern part of the county of event connected with it; but in those of Edward II. the Stafford is eminent for its manufacturing industry in proearls of Lancaster and Hereford, then in insurrection, were ducing iron and hardware (of wbich iron is the material); defeated by the king at Burton-upon-Trent. In the insur- the north-west part of the county produces earthenware rection of the Percys against Henry IV. a sharp encounter from the potteries in such quantity and excellence, as to Look place near Mavesyn Ridware, on the banks of the haré acquired the distinctive appellation of Staffordshire Ware. Both these manufactures are, comparatively speak-, Worcester, is spread over the vicinity of Newcastle undering, of modern date; and in crossing the southern part of Line. Employed in this manufacture, Burslem contains the county from Birmingham through Wolverhampton, the 900 men and their families; Skelton a larger number; activity displayed in the coal-field between Wednesbury Longton and Lane-end nearly 1000; Parkhall 700; Hanand Bilston, in the conversion of iron-ore, is concentrated ley, 360; Fenton-Calvert, 300; Sneyd, 125: these places, beyond example. Eastward of this, at West Bromwich including a few adjacent villages which partake of the above 1000 men are employed in the further preparation of earthenware manufacture, contain about 4400 men and iron for the forge and the workshop; 2200 men are em- their families so employed. In the town of Stafford 800 ployed at Tipton, 1200 at Walsall and the foreign of Wal- men are enıployed in shoe-making, and these, in so far as salí, 740 at Willen hall, 157 at Wednesfield, 444 at Wed the article produced is not consumed in the town and nesbury, and 200 at Rowley-Regis, in making guns and neighbourhood, may properly be deemed manufacturers other fire-arms, gas-tubes, chains, spades and shovels, locks Burton-upon-Trent and its suburb (Burton-Extra), Yoxall, and keys, hinges, bridle-bits, stirrup-irons, buckles, screws, and Tutbury, partake in a small degree of the cotton-spin files, edge-tools of all kinds, and in producing machinery; ning trade as well as that of hardware. and at Smithwick and Handworth about 150 men are so The population of Staffordshire, at the decennial periods employed. Wolverhampton, which besides its comprehensive when the census was taken, was as under ;business as the chief town of a manufacturing district, centains nearly 2000 men, who, in addition to the articles

per ceat

1801 118,698 120,455 239,153 above mentioned, are employed in making domestic fire

1811 148,073 147,080 295,153

2304 arms, tinned and japanned iron-ware. Sedgley contains

1821 171,668 169,372 341,040 17.1 500, and Kingswinford 200 manufacturers of the same

1831 206,921 203,591 410,512 18-6 kind; at Tettenhall more than 60, and at Brewood about

1841 258,729 251,477 510,206 242 130 men are employed in the less refined manufacture of stock-locks. Darlaston contains nearly 500 men occupied While the population of England has increased 79.9 per in hardware workmanship; and in most of the places thus cent. during the above forty years, that of Staffordshire has enumerated, as well as in many populous villages, the more increased 113.3 per cent. The details of the census of 1841 domestic manufacture of iron nails furnishes employment are not yet fully published; but the number of houses was: to 2500 men and part of their families. The other important -97,676 inhabited ; 5455 uninhabited; and 899 building. manufacture of Staffordshire, unrivalled in amount, but not The population, &c. of each hundred and borough, as surpassing in beauty and excellence the china-ware of I taken in 1831, was as follows:





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County Expenses, Crime, fc.-Sums expended for the children chargeable on the poors’-rate in 1835-6, 2255, or relief of the poor :-1748-49-50 (annual average), 98121.; 1 in 182 ;-in England 1 to 215. Lunatics and idiots 1776, 32,0881.; 1783-84-85 (average), 40,9641. The sums chargeable on the same fund in 1836, 261, or 1 in 1573;expended at the four dates of

in England 1 in 1033. Proportion per cent. of persons £. d.

married under 21 years of age in 1840, 13-4;-in England 1801 were 83,411, being 6 11 for each inhabitant. and Wales, 9.6 for the two sexes. 1811 124,765 8

The annual value of real property in the county assessed 1821 133,702 7. 10

to the property-tax in 1815, was 1,150,2841. The sum raised 1831 .. 132,887 6 5

for poor-rate, county-rate, and other local purposes, for the And in each of the following years ending 25th March, year ending 25th March, 1833, was 175,5911., levied upon

ihe under-mentioned descriptions of property : the expenditure was as under :

On land

£100,439 1835. 1837.


48,804 £104,245 £92,176 £83,817 £81,183 £82,971 £92,835

Mills, factories, &c.

11,739 The expenditure in the last of the above years would ave- Manorial profits, navigation, &c

.. 14,607 rage about 38. 8 d. for each inhabitant, which is much lower than for the whole of England and Wales. The expendi

Total £175,591 ture for the year ending 25th March, 1834, was 120,5121. The amount expended wasThe saving effected between that year and 1840 amounted

£124,870 to 42,9341., or 29 per cent. ; namely, under the head of In suits of law, removal of paupers, &c. 8,400 relief and maintenance, 27,6771., or 23 per cent. ; in suits

For other purposes

44,312 of law, &c., 50211.. or 73 per cent.; and in miscellaneous expenses, 10,236l., or 49 per cent. The number of poor

Total money expended £177,583 law unions is 16, comprising a population of 404,141, ac- The county expenditure in 1834, exclusive of that for the cording to the census of 1831: there are 22 parishes with a relief of the poor, was 15,9381. disbursed as follows:population of 6371, which are not in any union. The Bridges, building, repairs, &c. £1,442 number of paupers relieved during the quarter ending Gaols, houses of correction, and mainLady-day, 1.840, was 19,047 (3777 in-door, and 15,270 out.

taining prisoners door), being 5 per cent. of the population, the proportion Skire-hail and courts of justice, buildfor England being 8.6 per cent. The illegitimate births in

ing, repairs, &c.

240 1830 were 736, or 1 in 17; in England i in 20. Bastard Lunatic asylums







the other 6 the sentence was commuted. Of 666 offenders Clerk of the peace

1,054 convicted, including the 8 above-mentioned cases, 20 were Conveyance of prisoners before trial 918

transported for life; 1 for above 15 years; 32 for periods Conveyance of transports


varying from 10 to 15 years ; 44 from 7 to 10 years; 70 for Vagrants, apprehending and conveying 806 7 years, making in all 167 offenders transported; 6 were Constables, high and special

213 imprisoned for above 2 years; 9 for a term exceeding twelve Coroner


months; 61 for above 6 months; and 395 for 6 months and Miscellaneous

1,423 under; and 26 were whipped, fined, or discharged on sure

ties. The acquittals were 257 in number; in 10 cases Total £15,938 there was no prosecution; in 71 no bill was found; and 176 The county-rate levied at different periods during the persons were found not guilty on trial. Of the total numlast half-century, and the principal disbursements, so far ber committed 783 were males and 140 females : 216 as they can be made out, are shown in the following males and 169 females could read, or read and write

males and 55 females could neither read nor write; 443 table :1801.

1831. 1838.

inperfectly; 98 males and 8 females could read and £ £ £ £ £ write well; 7 males and i female were persons who had Income

13,218 19,568 28,004 24,06218,367 received superior instruction; and the state of inExpenditure :

struction of 19 males and 7 females was not ascertained. Bridges

4,297 7,471 1,989 8,765 638 On an average of several years the proportion of uninGaols

102 129 1,459 704 190 structed criminals in this county was 84:9 per cent. ; of Prisoners'

those instructed 15.1 per cent.;-ihe average of the former maintenance 2,534 2,372 4,638 7,230 1,005 for England and Wales being 89-3 per cent. Prosecutions 618 854

2,382 6,220


Savings' Bunks. There are 18 of these institutions in Constables and

the county; and the number of depositors and amount of vagrants

526 1,368 2,344

deposits on the 20th of November in each of the following

years, was as under :: Iq 1839 the length of streets and highways in the county,


1838. and the expenditure thereon, were is under :

No. of depositors 8,058

10,296 11,512 '11,911 Miles.

Am, of doposits £250,617 £313,073 £311,723 £345,457 £355,870 £369,151 Streets and roads repaired under local acts 30 Turnpike roads

The various sums placed in the savings' banks in 1830, 601

1834, and 1839, were distributed as follows: All other highways


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1836. 10,212

1840. 12,509

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50 :00 150 200 200

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Amount of rates levied


sitors. Deposits. sitors. Deposits. sitors. Deposits.

Not exceeding 320 £22,127

3,762 £27,106 4,376 £32,391 6,450 £47,084 Expended in repairs of highways

2,183 65,532 2,504 79,699 3,313 101,225 Law and other expenses


926 66,013 1,005 69,696 1,371 95, 121

320 39,301 360 43,713 479 57,825 Total expenditure


129 21,980 130 34,555 245 41,287 The number of turnpike trusts in the county in 1839 was

67 15,881 46 11,778

53 13,323 47; income from tolls, 54,6481.; from, parish compositions,

7,387 234, 848 8,477 267,832 11,911 355,870 in lieu of statute duty, 2121.; and the total income (including 2781. borrowed) was 58,128l.; the total expenditure for

The deposits of 235 friendly societies, not reckoned above,

amounted in 1840 to 48,4981.; and 10,2001. were invested the same year being 59,7521. The assets, including arrears of income, amounted to 16,2931.; the debts to 217,2641. In by 176 charitable institutions.

The state of the election franchise in 1839-40 is shown in 1836 the debt was equal to 4.43 years of the annual income; -the proportion for England being 4:56 years ; the propor

the following table:

N. dir, S. div. Total. tion of unpaid interest to the total debt was 20 per cent., Freeholders of every class 7,181 6,416 13,597 the average for England being 12 per cent.

Copyholders and customary tenants 382 449 831 In 1839 the church rates levied amounted to 8,5031.; and Leaseholders for life or for a with 47721. derived from other sources, were applied to de


122 197 319 fray expenses connected with the established church: in 508. tenants at will.

2,227 1,171 3,398 1832 the sum derived from other sources' included 4751. Trustees and mortgagees


69 from estates and rent charges. The sum expended for the

Qualified by offices


21 purposes of the establishment amounted to 12,6141. in 1839, Joint and duplicate qualifications

170 254 out of which sum 66951. were for repairs of churches. Crime.-Number of persons charged with criminal of

10,020 8,469 18,489 fences in the four septennial periods ending 1819, 1826, 1833, and 1840:

Education.--Summary of the Returns made to Parlia1813-19.

1827-33.". 1834-40. ment in 1833:Total of each septen

Schools. Scholars Total. nial period 1,907 2,295 4,415 5,330 Infant schools

65 Anual average

272 327 630 790 | Numbe“ of children at such schools; The numbers committed, convicted, and acquitted in each

ages from 2 to 7 years :-

744 year from 1834 to 1839 were as under :


882 1934. 1835. 1936. 1837. 1839. 1839,

Sex not specified

746 Committeil 649 715 636 909 768 930 923

2,372 Convicted 412 452 395 601 539 589

Daily schools

847 Acquitted 237 263


308 229 341 257 Number of children at such schools; In 1834 the proportion of persons committed, to the total ages from 4 to 14 years :population of the county, was I in 633; and in 1840, allow


15,820 ing for the increase of population, l'in about 541.


12,199 Or 923 criminal offenders tried at the assizes and sessions

Sex not specified

5,319 in Staffordshire in 1840, there were 68 charged with offences

33,338 against the person ; 80 with offences against property com


912 mitted with violence; 715 (including 572 cases of simple Total of children under daily inlarceny) with offences against property committed without struction

35,710 violence; 13 with malicious offences against property; 10 Sunday schools

388 for forgery and uttering base coin; and 37 for various mis- Number of children at such schools; demeanors, including 29 for riot and breach of the peace. ages from 4 to 15 years :Above seventy per cent. of the offences were those against


23 691 property committed without violence; and above sixty-one


22,492 por cent. were cases of simple larceny, Sentence of death

Sex not specified

7,061 was recorded in 8 cases; in 2 execution took place, and in



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