« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
By endowment. By subscription.
Suhacrin. and pay.
1 47 339
80 3,191 4,463
16 61 33
The number of children in Staffordshire in 1833, between particulars are entered in a book kept by the registrar for the ages of 2 and 15, may be taken at about 100,000. Seven the purpose, and they are receivable as evidence at law. Sunday-schools, attended by 301 children, are returned The word omnibus as applied to a carriage is borrowed from places where there are no other schools; but in every from the French. They were at first confined to London, other case the children have also the opportunity of attend and ran to and from the extreme points of the city and ils ing daily schools, but to what extent they do so cannot be suburbs, through the principal leading thoroughfares, charg. ascertained. Seventy-nine schools, attended by 7081 chil. ing for each passenger, whether he travelled the whole or any dren, are both daily and Sunday schools, and duplicate re- portion of the distance, the sum of one shilling, which was turns are known to be thus far created. It is probable that soon reduced to sixpence, at which price it now remains less than one half of the children between the ages of 2 and through the metropolis. The convenience of the size and form 15 were under instruction in the county in 1833. Fifty of these vehicles, heavy as they are in draught, and weighing boarding-schools are included in the number of daily schools 15 or 20 cwt., caused their early adoption in the provincial given above.
towns, and they are now common throughout the country, The proportion of persons who attested their marriages and come under the general denomination of stage-carby marks instead of writing their names, was, in 1839-40, riages. In the principal lines of the metropolitan carriages
, 43 per cent. for men and 61 per cent. for women, the mean as ihe road from Paddington or from Westminster to the proportion being 52 per cent., while for England and Wales Bank, and frequently farther, the average number of trips it is 42.
each vehicle takes per day is five; and the amount of fares
received by each in the course of the day is considered to Maintenance of Schools.
be about 21. The driver and the conductor receive about one guinea a week each. The duty is calculated in the proportion of so much per mile according to the umber of passengers the carriage may be licensed to carry, but as the
great majority are capable of holding 14 or 16, on which
367 124 Daily Schools
number the duty is about 24d. a mile, the daily duty payable 615 17.9551
6705 Sunday Schools
to government is very considerable. The number of miles
which they journey in London, as the frequency of their trips Total... 140 7345 387 50,736 663 18,800 11,906
is only limited by the will of the proprietors, some of whom
possess 50 or 60 carriages, is ascertained by persons stationed The Schools established by Dissenters, included in the in various parts of the metropolis in the great thorough: above statement, are
fares, to check their running and mark the number of each
carriage as it passes. (2 and 3 Wm. IV., C. 120; 3 and 4 Infant-schools
2, containing 18C Wm. IV., c. 48; 1 and 2 Vic., c. 79.) Daily-schools
STAGE-COACH. (COACH.] Sunday-schools .
23,959 STAGGERS. [HORSE.] The schools established since 1818 are
STA'GMARIA, a genus of the natural family of plants Infant and other daily schools 423, containing 20,145 called Terebinthaceæ from many of them producing a turSunday-schools
pentine-like exudation. It was named by Mr. W. Jack. Lending libraries are attached to 59 schools.
assistant-surgeon in the East India Company's service, and STAG. [DEÈR]
author of Malayan Miscellanies,' from the Greek word STAGE-CARRIAGE, is defined by the act of 2 and 3 stagmus (oráyua), ‘a dropping fluid. The tree S. rerniWm. IV., c. 120, as a carriage of any construction for convey. ciflua, which is the Arbor vernicis of Rumpbius, and the ing passengers for hire to or from any place in Great Britain, Kayo Rangas of the Malays, is full of acrid resinous juice
, which shall travel at the rate of not less than three miles and is a native of the Eastern Islands, but not very abundant in the hour and be impelled by animal power, provided each in Sumatra, though occasionally found in the neighbourhoud passenger pay a distinct fare for his place therein. Railway of rivers. carriages and vehicles moved by steam are excluded from, &c. The calyx is tubular, with the limb irregularly ruptured, In 1799 the act of Parliament was passed (19 Geo. IlI., c. 519 | deciduous. Petals 5, longer than the calyx, obtuse, spread. which first imposed a duty on hired carriages of any descrip- ing, subreflexed. Stamens 5, alternating with, but inserted tion. This duty has at times been variously regulated, and is above, ibe petals into the stipe-like torus. Filaments filinow by the above act (amended by 3 and 4 Wm. IV., c. 48) form, equal to the petals in length. Authers oblong. Orary settled. By these acts any person above 21 years of age can stipitate, 3-lobed, lobes one-seeded, 1-2 of which are usually keep or employ a stage-carriage, on obtaining a licence so to abortive. Styles 1-3, terminating the lobes of the orary. do from two or more commissioners of stamps, to be renewed Stigmas obtuse. Berry, kidney-shaped, furrowed, one yearly, and the amount of duty payable on every such licence seeded, with a warty rind. Embryo exalbuminous, erect, is computed upon the number of miles such carriage is cotyledons united; radicle incurved. The genus is nearly authorized by the licence to travel in the day, week, or month, allied to Rhus, but besides the difference indicated in the as the case may be. This duty may be compounded for. above character, it has simple leaves, which are without Every stage-carriage is to have a numbered plate affixed to stipules. it, a licence is necessary for every pair of plates, and the The wood of the tree is of a fine dark colour towards the number of passengers each carriage is allowed to carry is centre. The bark exudes a resin which is extremely acrid, stated in the licence. These regulations are applicable to causing excoriation and blisters when applied to the skin; all such carriages throughout the country, and include the in this, as well as in becoming black when exposed to the ait
, more recently introduced conveyance termed an omnibus, a it resembles the Melanorrhæa, Cashew-nut iree, poison oaš, word in no way recognised by the legislature. The conduct and many others of the Terebinthacew. According 10 Rum. of the stage-carriages which are employed in London and phius, this tree yields the celebrated Japan lacquer or rarnish, within ten miles of the General Post-Office, is further regu- and he considers it the same with that of Siam and Tonquin. lated by the 1 and 2 Vic., c. 79, in which they are directed Loureiro however represents the latter to be the produce of to be called 'metropolitan stage-carriages,' and by which, an Augeia. Mr. Jack says the varnish of Siam and Cochin. besides the rules applicable by the other acts to these con china is probably the best, but that of Celebes and of Jara, veyances as stage-carriages, other enactments are made as which is the produce of this tree, is also employed for the to the stamp-office plates, &c. It also empowers the secre- same purposes, and cannot be much inferior, as it bears an tary of state to appoint a registrar of metropolitan stage.car- equally high price. Rumphius says the exhalations of this riages, whose office is to issue the licence which the com tree are considered noxious, and the people of Macassar, and inissioners of stamps are authorised to grant to drivers and of other parts of Celebes in particular, entertain such dread conductors of these carriages, to whom this act more particu- of it, that they dare not remain long under it, much less iarly relates. These licences the registrar may grant to any repose under its shade. As however it furnishes the celeperson above 16 years of age who can produce certificates brated varnish, the Chinese and Tonkinese boldly repair of his ability to drive, and of good character. The licence to the tree, but employ caution in collecting the resin. This is renewable yearly, and with it is given an abstract of the they do by inserting into the trunks two pieces of bambor, laws and penaliies to which the receiver is amenable, and sharpened at their points, in such a manner as to penetrate a numbered ticket, the latter of which it is his duty to the bark in a somewhat oblique direction. These remain keep about his person and not to transfer or lend. These I all night, and are extracted before sunrise the next morning the trees yielding no juice during the day. This fluid resin morbid matter being too abundant or the tonic powers too bears a high price, being sold in Tonkin and Camboja for weak for its expulsion. 30, 50, or 60 dollars, the pecul of about 133 pounds, but in Stabl's therapeutics corresponded closely with his theory many of the provinces of China for 200 or 300 dollars. of disease. His principles of treatment were to aid the be
The varnish is prepared for use by boiling it with an neficial efforts of the anima and to remove the obstacles to equal weight of the oil of Tang-yhu, which is a Chinese its action. His remedies were few and simple, consisting tree allied to the Mimusops Elengi, from whose fruit an oil chiefly of bleeding for the relief of plethora, and of mild is prepared. The proportions arë yaried according to the evacuant medicines. purposes for which the varnish is required. Sometimes dry Medical science owes much of its progress to the energy pigments are added for the sake of red or other colours. The and acuteness with which Stahl aided in overturning the Japanese are the most skilful in preparing and ornament notion which, before his time, was generally prevalent in ing all kinds of work with this varnish, and their black the schools, that the simple laws of chemistry or of melacquered works are conveyed to all parts of the world. chanics were all on which the phenomena of the living (Jack's Malayan Miscellany, No. 3, reprinted by Sir W. body depended, and in drawing attention to the body as an Hooker.)
organism governed by peculiar laws, and having all its STAHL, GEORGE ERNEST, one of the most cele- healthy processes adapted to one final purpose, namely, the brated physicians of the last century, was born at Anspach preservation of the whole by the different actions of its parts. in 1660. He studied medicine at Jena, took his degree of He rushed indeed into an extreme opposite to that of his doctor there in 1683, and at once began to deliver lectures. immediate predecessors; for he treated with all the bitter In 1687 the duke of Weimar made him his physician; and sarcasm and morose contempt of his naturally stern temper in 1694, at the instance of Hoffman, he was appointed to a every endeavour to apply any other science, even anatomy, professorship of medicine, anatomy, and chemistry in the in the study of medicine; and he mystified the principle university of Halle, then recently established. He taught which he supposed to rule the organism : but still he gave there for twenty-two years, and upon being appointed phy, the turn towards truth, by following which his successors sician to the kirig of Prussia, went to Berlin, where he died were gradually brought to a more just appreciation of the in 1734.
complexity of the forces which are in operation in the livThe system of medicine which Stahl taught, and on ing body, and of the share which each of them has in each which were founded the principles and practice of his nu- of its processes. His hypothesis of an animu has been merous school, may be regarded as produced from a combi- ridiculed; yet, with another name, it is that which is nátion of the physiology of Van Helmont, which he learnt adopted in nearly all the physiology of the present day: the at Jena from G. W. Wedel, with the doctrines of Descartes vital principle and the nuture of the majority of modern respecting the agency of immaterial principles upon inert medical writers differ in little more than name from the matter. In his life (HELMONT, VAN) it has been shown what anima, the archæus, and the puois of Hippocrates: the Van Helmont taught on the nature and operations of an common hypothesis involved in all is that of an immaterial Archæus, as a principle resident in the living body and principle resident in the living body, and governing with governing all its actions. Stahl supposed a like influence reason all the processes in it for the final purpose of preto be exercised by what he called the anima, an immaterial serving life. Though the hypothesis be false, the medical principle which (as far as can be uscertained in the obscu- sciences have made great progress through being pursued in rity in which his style of writing has involved his meaning) the spirit which it suggests; and to this progress no man's he seems to have regarded as identical with the soul, and labours have contributed more than those of Stabl. as capable of acting both with consciousness, in the opera- Though Stahl despised chemistry in its attempted applitions of the mind, and unconsciously, in the government of cation to medicine, we owe to him an important step in the the processes in the living body. He held that this anima advancement of that science. Taking up the crude opinions first forms for itself the body; and then, abhorring the de. of Becker, as he did those of Van Helmont, he became struction of that which it has formed, directs all the pro- the inventor of the theory of Phlogiston, which for many cesses of the organization so as to evade death. For this year's had such influence in chemistry, and in the working purpose, it guides them to resist putrefaction, and to exped out of which, though it was based in error, so many imthrough the appropriate organs the effete particles and portant truths were ascertained. [BECKER; PHLOGISTON.) morbid substances accidentally introduced; it directs the Haller, in his Bibliotheca Medicinæ Practicæ,' tom. iii., repair of all injuries, and, in ordinary nutrition, maintains p. 577, gives a list, collated by J. C. Gætz, of 250 medical the due form and composition of the tissues. For this last works written or superintended and edited by Stahl. That process (as an example of its agency in all the rest) le sup- in which his medical doctrines are most completely taught poses the anima to have knowledge (independently of the is entitled • Theoria Medica vera Physiologiam et Patholo. consciousness of the animal in which it works) of the giam tanquam Doctrinæ Medicæ partes contemplativas e necessary composition of every part of the body and of the Naturæ et Artiş veris Fundamentis intaminata Ratione et materials to be given to each, and to have power to guide inconcussa Experientia sistens.' It was published by him aright all the acts necessary to the required end. These in 1707 and 1708. All the peculiarities of his system howacts, he considered, are effected by what he named tonic ever are discernible in his inaugural thesis • De Sanguificavital movements, that is, movements of alternate tension tione,' Jenæ, 1684. His chemical works were comparatively and relaxation, dependent on a property of tone resident in few: he first proposed the phlogistic theory in 1697, in his all the soft tissues of the body, and by which, under the Zymotechnia Fundamentalis. The best brief account of influence of the anima, each part directs the movements of his doctrines is in Haller, and in Sprengel, Histoire de la the fluid in its vessels or its parenchyma.
Medicine, tom. v. Disturbances of the government of the anima and of this STAINES. [MIDDLESEX.) property of tone constituted the chief elements in Stahl's STAIR, LORD. (DALRYMPLE.] pathology and the signs of disease were regarded by him STAIRCASE. This is an indispensable part of the as indications of the efforts of the anima to remove the interior of buildings which consist of more than a groundsource of the malady and to preserve the body, either by Hoor, and stairs of some sort must have always been means of extraordinary tonic movements, or sometimes by employed wherever there were upper rooms, or even to the most violent spasms and convulsions. He held that obtain access to the terraced roofs which are used in the one of the commonést sources of disease was plethora, either East. But we are altogether ignorant of the character of local or general; and for this, the hemorrhages from dif- antient staircases. Vitruvius—who touches upon so many ferent organs at different periods of life were regarded as matters that are very remotely connected with his subject the remedies employed by the anima. Especially, he ap--gives no information about staircases; neither has much plied these notions to the vena porta, in which, from the light been thrown upon the subject by the discoveries at slowness of the circulation in it, plethora was thought pecu. Pompeii
. Scarcely any indications even of upper floors to liarly apt to occur ; and to this condition le mainly attri- the houses have there been found, and what few traces of buted hypochondria, melancholy, gout, calculus, and he staircases, or rather of stairs, remain, show them to have morrhoids ; so that it came to be an aphorism of his school, been exceedingly incommodious, fitted only for obtaining
Vena porta, porta malorum.' Fevers in general he con- access to an upper loft, or to the roof, and not at all adapted sidered to be the results of the anima endeavouring by the for constant communication between dwelling apartments local tonic actions to expel sume morbid matter; and their on different floors. It may therefore very safely be taken fatality, like that of most other diseases, he ascribed to the I for granted-at least until some direct evidence to the con
trary shall be found that the houses of the antients were i to the landing of the floor to be reached being given, it is in this, as well as in many other respects, greatly inferior to easy to calculate either how many risers of a certain nunour own, and had nothing whatever corresponding to the ber of inches will be required; or what must be the dimenmodern staircase. Nearly the same may be said with re- sions of the risers and treads, in order to ascend within the spect to the antient domestic architecture of our space allowed. Supposing the first-mentioned height to be country, where, even in residences of the highest class, the 14 feet, and the risers six inches, two risers will be equivastaircases were generally very confined-placed within tur- lent to one foot of ascent, and consequently twenty-eight rets, and exceedingly steep and narrow-narrow not only risers will be required, or twenty-seven treads, the upper as regards the actual width of passage up and down, but the landing being the tread to the last riser. In such case, diameter or space occupied by the whole, there being no bardly less than an area of 20 by 8 feet, on the lerel of the well, or central (pening, but the steps winding around a upper floor, would be sufficient for the staircase, unless solid newel so that in ascending or descending a person is there were winders instead of quarter-spaces, or of a single continually revolving, --without any foot paces' for resting half-space between the two flights. The number of risers upon, and cannot see whether he will encounter anyone else. required is ascertained by reducing the given altitude of Turnpike was a term formerly applied to staircases of this ascent to inches, and dividing it by ihe height of the risers : kind; also Vise, from their spiral or screw-like shape, thus, taking the altitude as before (14 feet), and the ristrs whence the more modern appellation of Corkscrew stairs, at 5 inches, there must either be 33 risers a trifle more corresponding with the Italian Scala alla Lumaca, or Scula than 5 inches each, or 34 a trifle less. alla Chiocciola, with the French Escalier à Limaçon, and Palladio, and others following him, have laid it dos the German Wendeltreppe.
that the staircase ought to be seen immediately on entering It was not till about the time of Elizabeth that staircases a building; but it is impossible to establish any posiine began to be planned more commodiously in this country, rule for what must depend upon particular circumstances, and made a decorative feature in the interior of a mansion. and this is by no means the best as a general rule. In a But though they were greatly improved, the flights being public building or place where strangers go in and oat made wider, and the steps parallel to each other, with in- without inquiry, it may be desirable that the staircase should termediate landings or resting-places between the several present itself at once; but certainly this is not the case it flights, and although considerable decoration was bestowed private mansions. On the contrary, it is in every respeti upon them, the walls being pannelled, and the parapet of the better that the staircase should be kept out of view until stairs formed either by richly carved balusters, or open fret- the first vestibule has been passed through, and that it work, frequently with heraldic figures of animals on the should be placed as remote from the entrance into the pedestals at the angles of the different flights--the staircase house as the plan will admit, both in order that the apitself was usually enclosed within a comparatively small proach to it may be lengthened, and that, in case it has any area, so as to admit of no general view of the whole of it, architectural pretensions at all, it may strike the more by there being very little open space, or well, as it is termed; not coming into view at once. At all events
, only the line sometimes none at all. The staircases at Aldermaston, part of the staircase—no more than is sufficient to indicare Berks, Crewe Hall, Cheshire, and Knowle, Kent, may be its situation-should be visible from the entrance, othertaken as examples of the kind. At a later period, stair- wise it will be inconveniently exposed; and if there are cases in mansions of a superior class were made dispropor- doors to several rooms on the upper landing, persons passing tionably spacious, being upon a scale as to size with which rom one to the other would be seen from the hall. It the apartments themselves were not at all in keeping. is therefore a great error to place the staircase, as is some
The planning of a staircase is generally considered one times done, in the first or entrance hall of a mansion, beof the most difficult matiers in internal architecture, and cause, in addition to the inconvenience just pointed out, it is certainly one that requires great consideration. Yet such hall must be made the height of two floors, and conthere is no particular difficulty, except where, as is gene- sequently, if otherwise suitably proportioned to such height, rally the case in moderate-sized houses, the architect is it will be the most spacious and loftiest room, and so far be cramped for room; more especially if, while restricted in attended by a degree of effect which, instead of being afterthat respect, the ascent from one floor to another is greater wards increased or kept up, is greatly diminished. Such than usual. The number of stairs and the space required arrangement also cuts off the communication abore befor the convenient arrangement of them, are easily esti-tween the rooms on one side of the hall and those on the mated when the height of the ascent from one floor to other, except there is a gallery or continuation of the landanother is given, and the dimensions are determined for ing carried over the entrance. the risers and treads. Stairs are technically described as Even when kept apart from the entrance-ball or other consisting of Risers and Treads, the former being the fronts vestibule, a staircase will always be sufficiently striking in or heights of the steps, and the other their flat surfaces or proportion to the rest of a house, because it will produce breadths. Stairs are further distinguished as being Flyers, greater architectural effect, and be loftier than the rooms those which ascend straightforward; and Winders, which ihemselves. We are now speaking only of what is usualiz having their treads triangular, coming quite to a point at termed a 'grand staircase,' leading up no higher than the their ends next balusters, afford no footing there, and ought principal floor, so that the whole of the space from the consequently to be avoided whenever it is at all practicable level of the landing is perfectly clear, and there are no tligbts to do so. A Flight is a consecutive series of stairs in the leading up higher, for if there were, the space over bead same direction, or between one Quarter-space or Half-space would appear encumbered and confused. There is in fact (Pulier de repos) and another, which last are short inter- no part of an interior which accommodates itself more reamediate landings, serving to lessen the fatigue of a con- dily to architectural character and display, or which admits tinuous ascent, by subdividing it into shorter flights. For of greater variety of design both as to plan, section, and the area containing, or rather constituting, the staircase decoration, than a staircase of the kind just referred to. !! itself, we have no distinct term in addition to the general the house itself be not upon a very large scale, there is one, similar to the French Cage, the Italian Gabbia, and danger of doing here rather too much than too little. In the German Treppenhaus.
regard to altitude, there will here always be greater magniWe proceed to notice the most convenient proportions of tude than elsewhere ; if therefore corresponding magnitude the stairs themselves as to height and breadth for their of area be given to it, the staircase will overpower ereri. length. As to the breadth of the tights, that is comparatively thing else, cause the rooms to appear small by comparison, arbitrary : it should never be much less than four feet, so and appear in itself too large for ihe house. It is therefore as to allow two persons to pass, except in back-staircases; desirable to make the area, at least the visible area of the but it may be as much more as the space will permit, or staircase, rather less than more than that of any of the the effect aimed at in the design may require. The best principal rooms. It is also rather a solecism to affect maggeneral and what may be considered standard proportions, nitude of space in other respects corresponding to that of are 6 inches for the risers and 12 inches for the treads; height. While it serves as a contrast to the apartments, though from 6 to 7 inches may be allowed for the former, loftiness or excess of height, as compared with length and and only 10 for the latter, in secondary staircases. In those breadth, is as much an appropriate characteristic of a stairof a very superior kind, on the contrary, the risers do not case as it is of a tower. Its altitude therefore from the botuxceed 's or even 4 inches (less lieight than which last tom of the first flight to the ceiling, may very properly be would be more fatiguing than convenient), and their treads made between two or three times the breadth. Accordingly are then made from 14 to 16 inches. The height therefore it will be found expedient to enclose the landing, if continued
quite round the staircase, not merely by a screen of columns, quently adopted in similar cases, being one which contribut in such manner as to shut it out from view, with only butes to solidity and nobleness of appearance, and prevents partial openings at intervals, in order to avoid too much spa- that mass of shadow beneath the stairs which gives a gloom ciousness on that level, and to keep the cage of the same to the lower part of the staircase. size from bottom to top. Of such staircase upon a large scale Instead of there being a central flight below, the ascent there is an example at Taymouth Castle, the seat of the frequently begins on each side, and is carried up in one or marquis of Breadalbane, which is about 40 feet square by more flights to the common landing where both branches 100 feet in height, with an upper corridor surrounding it, terminate; from which point the stairs are sometimes conwith open arches.
tinued, returning in an upper central flight which is carOne of the most simple and effective yet least common ried across an arch thrown from that landing or half-space, arrangements of a staircase, is that which may be described to a higher landing. Staircases of this kind, which may be by the term Avenue staircase, the stairs being continued in termed bridge staircases, occur in the Custom-house and the a straight line, though broken by spaces into a succession of Auction Mart. Their effect, however is not good, because flights, within what would else be a level corridor or gal- the upper suspended flight or bridge darkens the lower part lery; and occupying its entire width. There is something of the staircase, and has a strangely awkward cumbersome particularly noble and majestic in a staircase of this kind, appearance when viewed from that station. At the best for although it may be narrow, considered as a gallery, it therefore they are suitable only for places of evening resort, looks unusually spacious as a staircase, the flight itself where they can be lit up below as well as above. being wider than those of staircases placed within a much The staircase of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, larger area. Besides which, the whole is more regularly claims notice, not only on account of the richness of the disposed, and forms a more striking piece of perspective. general design, but of some peculiarities in its arrangement. Still simple as such plan is in itself, it is by no means Strictly speaking however, this example can hardly be given adapted to general application, because, although it requires as that of a staircase, according to the usual meaning of the only moderate width, it requires considerable ength, short term, the stairs being mere flights of steps in the entrance flights, and ample spaces between them, and stairs with low hall. That in the centre is a broad descending one, leading risers and broad treads; otherwise the descent as viewed down to the libraries, which are on a lower level than the from above, being in a straight line, looks precipitous, or at hall; and on each side of it is a rather narrower ascending least has no dignity of appearance. Another circumstance flight to the spacious landing carried around three sides of which limits a staircase of this kind to particular cases, is, the ball, and serving as a statue gallery. Though the lower that in order for it to produce proper effect, the height to area is only 32 by 26 feet, consequenily that of the floor bo ascended should be very moderate, hardly more than very much less, owing to the space occupied by the flights seven or eight feet; for else, the space at the foot of the of steps, that of the upper part on the level of the landing stairs looks confined, and the upper flights scarcely show is 68 by 44 feet, the landing itself being about 17 feet wide. themselves from that station. Hence, though it may be In some degree similar in plan, although very different in referred to as an instance of an avenue staircase, the one design, is the hall at Holkham, the seat of the Earl of leading to the keep or round tower at Windsor Castle is Leicester, which has a noble flight of steps within a recess more remarkable than beautiful or grand, leaving decoration or tribune enclosed by columns which are continued along out of the question; the altitude ascended being so very the sides of the hall. great. Sir John Soane has given some ideas of the kind in The grandstaircase of the Reform Club-house, London, his designs for a 'Scala Regia'-a favourite subject with is an example, somewhat unusual in this country, though him; and he executed such a staircase, though upon a more common enough in Italy, of what may be called an enclosed limited scale, for the royal entrance to the House of Lords. staircase; the Hights are shut up between walls, and conThe width of that siaircase is only 10 feet, by 49 in extreme sequently there is no open well, nor can the whole be seen length, and the ascent 3 feet. Though not free from little at one view. A plan of this kinıl therefore differs from the conceits, the whole was considerable effect, as may be judged avenue staircase, merely in not being carried straightfrom the perspective view of it in vol. i. of the Public forward, but either returning in a parallel tight from the Buildings of London,' by W. H. Leeds, which also contains half-space or first landing, or having the second flight at a longitudinal section of it. The staircase of the Chamber right angles with the first. The last is the case at the Reof Peers at Paris, designed by Percier and Fontaine, is form Club-house, where the staircase consists of three enanother example of the kind upon a larger scale, but not closed flights, the last being a return one to the first, and the very best, for the ascent is so great, that the columns landing upon the gallery around the upper part of the on its sides, on the same level as the landing, look quite in- inner hall or saloon. That at Burleigh too is similarly significant. That at Covent-Garden Theatre also belongs to planned. The same mode may be adopted for circular the same class, although it differs from the preceding in or semicircular as well as rectangular plans; and one adbeing extended in the upper part by the landing being vantage attending it is, that while the ascent itself is as continued along its sides as a gallery divided from it by spacious and commcdious as if the whole were entirely open, columns; the ascent is about 10 feet, in two flights. The there may be a secondary staircase for servants, shut up National Gallery, again, affords instances of a different modi- within the larger one. fication of the same arrangement, half the ascent being by Though Milizia objects to them as inconvenient, circular an external fight in the vestibule, the remainder by another and semicircular staircases, and such also as are partly rectwithin the corridor leading from it; and though not exactly angular and partly semicircular, being curved in the latter suited for such a building, the idea is pleasing in itself and form at one or boih ends, are very beautiful, at least capawould produce a striking effect in one of less pretension. ble of being rendered so; neither is the inconvenience
In public edifices or large mansions, whatever be the plan alleged against them one of any moment, because though of the principal staircase, it is generally branched, that is, all the stairs are winders, the diameter of the staircase itself there is first a wide central flight, and ihen two other nar- may be such, that the treads may be 10 inches wide at their rower ones branching off from it one on each side, either at ends next the balusters or open part of the staircase, and right angles to it or as return flights parallel to it; and it is the whole ascent be completed in half a revolution or semihardiy necessary to observe that in all such staircases the circle; whereas in a narrow newel staircase of the kind two foot-spaces are large, and that there are no winders. The or more revolutions will be required. staircase at Goldsmiths' Hall, which is parted off from the The architectural effect of a staircase will greatly depend vestibule by a glazed screen, is an example of more than upon the mode of lighting it. Where it is carried up only ordinary splendour, being lighted by a dome. The branching one floor, the best mode is to light it entirely from above, flights at right angles to the first, lead to a landing on each either through a dome or lantern in the ceiling, or by side, which has a double screen of Corinthian columns, so making the upper part of the walls just beneath the ceiling that the view across from side to side, in the upper part, is a continued lantern. If there are windows on the landings unusually rich. At Buckingham Palace, there is first a of the several flights, the effect will be improved by their very wide flight, entered from between columns, branching being filled with stained glass, especially if towards a back off right and left in curved tights, the cage, which is about couit; or, if a conservatory can be carried out on the level of 36 by 26 feet, being curved elliptically on those sides oi the first landing, so as to show itself through glazed foldingends. In this example, the stairs rest upon a graduated doors, a very pleasing and cheerful effect is obtained, even podium or wall enclosing the space immediately beneath, though the conservatory itself should be hardly more than which serves as a private passage behind; a moda fre, a glazed viranda. As to material, stone is greatly preferabla P. C., No. 1412.
VOL. XXII.—3 I
to wood for stairs, if only on account of greater security inquires much experience and attention. It has been prored case of fire; in lieu of stone, cast-iron may be employed. that animals require a certain portion of meat and drink to Marble is very rarely used for stairs in this country, and keep them alive, and that this quantity, in the same specie, whenever it is, it should be left unpolished on the treads, is in general in proportion to the weight of the animal. or it would be dangerous to descend them.
The same If an animal has his exact ration of food, he will continue in remark applies to stairs of wainscot, unless they are car- health, but he will not increase in weight: in this case therepeted nearly their entire width.
fore it only produces a certain portion of manure, which is STALACTITE and STALAGMITE. Stalactitic car- not equivalent to the food consumed. If a larger quantity bonate of lime occurs chiefly in long masses suspended be given, the animal, if in health, will increase in weight, from the roofs of caverns in limestone rocks. Stalactites ap- and the more food he has, within a certain limit, the 'asier pear to be continually forming; water containing carbonate will be this increase : but there is a point where increase of lime held in solution by carbonic acid, trickling through stops; and if by any means the animal is induced to take more, crevices in the roofs of the caverns, gradually during its ex- his stomach will be deranged, and he will become diseased, posure to the air loses its carbonic acid, and consequently and occasion loss by over-feeding. It is consequently of great deposits its carbonate of lime; the water passing over the importance to the stall-feeder to ascertain what is the exact portion first deposited gradually adds to it, and eventually quantity of food which it will be most profitable to give to gives the carbonate of lime its great length and stalactitic a stall-fed animal. Experience alone can teach this; but character. The flatter deposits, called stalagmites, are formed sonje rules may be given which will enable any one who on the floor of the cavern by the water there depositing wishes to stall-feed cattle not greatly to err in his mode of that portion of its carbonate of lime which is not separated feeding, and soon to find out what is the most profitable during the formation of the stalactite.
Stalactitic car- course to pursue. For this purpose it is essential that after bonate of lime is met with in the veins of lead-ore in Dar- having ascertained by experiment the quantity of food ham and Northumberland. Caverns are sometimes nearly which will give the greatest increase of tiesh per week on a filled with these deposits, which in some cases are of very certain weight of beasts when put up to faiten, all the large dimensions; the most remarkable instances of their food given to the cattle be carefully weighed, and no more occurrence in Britain are in the cavern at Castleton in Der- be given in any day than is needful. The quality of the byshire, and Macallaster Cave in the Isle of Skye: the grotto food should also be attended to; for a truss of fine wellof Antiparos in the Archipelago, the Woodman's Cave in made clover, lucern, or sainfoin hay, may contain double the Harz in Germany, and that of Auxelle in France, are the nourishment of another truss of coarse marsh hay. The striking instances of their formation in other countries. best kind of food should always be reserved for fatting cat
Besides the occurrence of this variety of carbonate of lime tle. Roots are excellent helps; but roots alone are too in the stalactitic form, it is sometimes met with reniform watery, and must be corrected by dry food, such as straw eut and tabular, and in other imitative shapes. The fracture is into chaff
, or good hay, and especially farinaceous fool, whesometimes perfectly lamellar, occasionally fibrous, the fibres ther it be corn ground or bruised, or oil-cake after the oil diverging from a centre, with a pearly or silky lustre, and has been expressed. By a judicious mixture of food a much sometimes resinous or waxy. The colour varies from white greater increase of flesh may be produced than by an irreto greyish, brown, red, and yellowish white. Opaque, but gular mode of feeding, however good the quality or abun frequently translucent.
dant the quantity given may be. To overfeed is as unprofitable The Oriental alabaster, much employed by the antients as to starve a beast, and produces similar effects. It is of in statuary and the formation of vases, appears to be of sta- great importance that the cattle should be fed with great lactitic origin.
punctuality, at certain hours during the day, and that the STALAGMITES (from stalayuós, a dropping), the name trouglis should be cleared of all the reinains of food which
a genus of plants belonging to the natural order Clusiacea they do not eat at each time of feeding. Rest and or Guttiferæ. It has polygamous or bisexual flowers; 4-5 sleep are great aids to digestion, and a little gentle exercise sepals, which are persistent and bractless; 5 petals alter- after sleep prepares the stoniach for a fresh supply of food. nating with the sepals; 4-5 united stamens, the bundles Air also is highly conducive to health ; and hence those fiat, elongated, and divided at the apex into several short beasts which are allowed to move about in a loose stall, or a antheriferous portions opposite to the petals, and alter- small yard protected from the rain and wind, ih rive better in nating with 5 large truncated glands; the anthers are 2- general than those which are tied up. It is the practice of celled, bursting longitudinally; the ovary is 3-5-celled, with many good feeders to put oxen in pairs in small stalls, partly 1 ovule in each cell; stigma 3-5-lobed ; and fruit a berry.open, so that they may be in the air, or under shelter, as The species are trees natives of the East Indies and Ceylon, they prefer; and the finest oxen, if not the faitést, are pre and belong to the family which produces the gamboge of pared for the market in this way. Experience shows that
Dr. Wight states that one of the species, the all domestic animals like company, and that they are more S. ovifolia, which is a native of Ceylon, yields a true gam-contented and quiet when they have a companion than when boge, which is employed in commerce. It is known by its they are alone. This is the reason why they are put up in oval shining leaves, its lateral fascicled flowers, male and pairs. Whatever promotes the health and comfort of the hermaphrodite mixed. Its anthers are arranged in 6 or 8 animal will be most profitable to the feeder. When a bundles, and it possesses a 3-celled 1-3 seeded ovary. , beast has acquired a certain degree of fatness, it is a nice STALBRIDGE. [DORSETSHIRE.]
point to decide whether it would be best to send him STALL-FEEDING. The feeding of cattle in stalls for the to market or continue to feed him. This is often decideil purpose of fatting them more readily than by simple grazing, by mere caprice or fancy; but if the food has been weighed, and at a time when they cannot get fat on pastures, as a and the weekly increase of the beast is noted, which is regular part of the process of husbandry, is comparatively best done by weighing, but may nearly be guessed by meamodern. In former times cattle were slaughtered in Octo- suring, it becomes a mere question in arithmetic to de er ber and November, which latter, in most languages derived mine whether bis increase pays for his food and attendance; from the Teutonic, is called Slaughter-month, there being if it does not, there is a loss in keeping him; and if a lean no possibility of buying fresh meat of any degree of fatness animal put in his stead would increase faster on the same during winter, and salt meat was the food of all classes in food, every day he is kept there is a loss of the difference that season. But now the process of fatting cattle goes on between the increase of the two. The pride of pro without interruption during the whole year, and fat beasts ducing a wonderful animal at a fair or show may be dearly come as regularly to market in winter as in summer. Stall- paid for, and must be put down to the account of luxuries, feeding is now the principal means by which oxen and cows such as keeping hunters or racehorses. are rendered fit for the market.
The most profitable food for fattening cattle is, in general, It has been observed, in the article Soiling, that one ob- the produce of the farm : the expense of all purchased food ject of that system was to save the waste of food which is is increased by the profit of the dealer and the carriage of it. occasioned by the treading of cattle in pastures, and by their And the only compensation for this additional cost may be in choosing the sweetest grasses to the neglect of the coarser. increasing the manure, where the straw and roots of the farm The principal object however is to save the manure, which are deficient: in that case oil-cake, or even corn, may be in the pastures goes to waste, but in the yards or stall is all purchased with advantage, since by means of the manure preserved. In stall-feeding another object is looked to, crops may be raised which without it must fail. The stallthat of increasing the substance of the animal, especially ing of cattle, as well as the fatting of pigs, is in many situthe fat; and to do this judiciously and with profit re- ations the best means of carrying the produce of the farm