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The lighters convey the goods to the river of Singapore, According to this statément the number of vessels which where ihey discharge them at a convenient quay, and at the entered the port in 1836 exceeded the number in 1835 by door of the principal warehouses. There is no want of com- 22, and by 9540 tons; and the number of vessels which mon artisans. The Chinese follow the occupations of shoe cleared out in the first mentioned year exceeded that of the makers, bakers, butchers, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, gold-preceding year by 16, and by 9443 tons. This statement smiths, and carpenters; they also manufacture pearl sago however does not include the native craft, which are largely on an extensive scale, for the European market, the mate- used in the intercourse with Sumatra, the Malay Peninrial being obtained from the island of Sumatra. They also sula, Rbio, Borneo, and the neighbouring islands, and which employ a great number of forges, in which native arms in 1836 amounted to 1484, of 37,521 tons. If these are and domestic and agricultural implements are made. These added, the shipping that entered the port in 1836 amounted latter articles are mostly sent to the settlements of the to 203,574 tons. Chinese on the different islands of the Indian Archipe The commerce of the newly established colony increased Jago.

at first with incredible rapidity. In the year 1824, ovly The principal public buildings at Singapore are the go- five years after its foundation, the imports amounted to vernment-house, a court-house, a gaol, custom-house, Mis: 6,914.536 Spanish dollars, and the exports to 6,604,601. In sion chapel, and the Singapore Institution. Sir Stamford the following year however it suffered some slight diminuRaffles formed a very extensive plan for this institution, tion, and it may be said that it has been nearly stationary which however has not been carried into effect. At present since that period ; for in 1835 the imports amounted only to t consists of three schools, English, Malay, and Tamul, and 6,611,778 dollars, and the exports to 6,238,13). In the forthe number of scholars amounts to upwards of seventy. A mer account however the exports to and ihe imports from Chinese school on a large scale was contemplated in 1837, Malacca and Penang probably were included, whilst they and has probably been opened. Some Chinese youths are were not taken into account in 1836. In this year goods lo to be admitted as students, to reside at the institution, and the value of 160,970 dollars were imported from Malacca, and to receive instruction both in English and Chinese for a term others amounting to 168,867 dollars exported to that settleof four or five years. There are several native schools in the ment. The commercial intercourse with Penang was much town.

more important; the goods imported from that settlement If the commerce of Singapore were limited to the pro- were to the value of 426,176 dollars ; and those that were duce of the place, it would hardly give employment to two exported rose to 544,640 dollars. If these sums are added, or three vessels. Besides the pearl sago and the iron im- the exports in 1835 amounted to 7,325,285 dollars, and the plements, it exports only a small quantity of pepper and imports to 6,825,277; and the whole commerce exceeded gambier, and perhaps at present coffee of its own growth, that of 1824 by 631,425 dollars. From 1835 an increase together with a large quantity of aggar-aggar. But Singa- both in imports and exports took place ; for in the year endpore has become the London of Southern Asia and the In- ing with the 30th of April, 1837, the imports amounted to dian Archipelago. All the nations that inhabit the countries 8,243,629 dollars, and the exports to 7,806,965 dollars, exbordering on the Indian Ocean resort to it with the produce clusive of the trade with Malacca and Penang, so that the of their agriculture and manufacturing industry, and take difference between that year and the preceding was 1,900,032 in exchange such gooils as are not grown or produced in Spanish dollars. their own countries. All of them find there a ready market, The commerce of Singapore may be divided into the which at the same time is well stocked with European Eastern trade, that of the Straits, and the Western trade. goods. This effect has partly been produced by the wise The Eastern trade, or that which is carried on with the policy of declaring the harbour of Singapore a free port, in countries east and south-east of Singapore, comprehends which no export or import duties, nor any anchorage, har- the commerce with China, the Spanish settlement of Mabour, nor lighthouse fees are levied. The effect of this nilla, the independent tribes of the Indian Archipelago, the policy was evident even at the beginning of the settlement. Dutch settlements on the island of Java and at Rhio, and In the first year the exports and imports by native boats the countries of the Peninsula beyond the Ganges whichi alone exceeded four millions of dollars, and during the first lie east of the Malay Peninsula. The most important year and a half no less than 2889 vessels entered and branches of this commerce are those with China, Java, and cleared from the port, of which 383 were owned and com- Siam. manded by Europeans, and 2506 by natives : their united The commerce with China is entirely carried on in tonnage amounted to 161,000 tons. In 1822 the tonnage Chinese vessels. The Chinese junks come from the poris amounted to 130,639 tons, and the total value of exports of Canton, Changlim, and Ampo, in the province of Quanand imports to upwards of eight millions of dollars. tong, from Amoy in the province of Fokien, and from the Number and tonnage of square-rigged vessels which entered island of Hainan. They leave their respective ports during into and cleared at the port of Singapore in 1835 and the north-east monsoon, about January, and return with the

south-west monsoon, which blows from April October. 1836.

They perform the voyage from Canton in from 10 to 20 days, and from Fokien in 12 or 15 days. The most valuable, but not the largest of the Chinese junks are from Amoy; the

largest come from the province of Quantong, and the No. | Tonnage No. [Tonnage No Tonnage No. Tonnage smallest and least valuable from Hainan. They bring an

nually from 2000 to 2500 emigrants to Singapore. The

7210 Continental Europe

1794

imports from China amounted, in the year ending the 30th 700

2147 of April, 1836, to 712,265 dollars; the most important ar

506 ticles were Spanish dollars, 138,927 in number; raw silk, 29,351 88

61,302 134 66,023 113,942 dollars ; chinaware, 93,902; tea, 57,509; tobacco,

2751 1834 47,239; cassia, 93,092; nankeens, 25,715; and gold30,963 87

17,131
4079 18
10,237

5771

thread, 11,016 dollars. Minor articles were camphor, Bombay and Coast 26,770 31 15,031 16,319 18,204 copperware, carthenware, ironware, paints, piece-goods,

2378 salt, sugar-candy, and woollens. The ini ports entered under 7

the head of sundries amounted to 152,440 dollars. Ceylon

The ex5396 ports to China amounted in the same year to 1,079,752 Penang •

7703 57

10,157
19,013 78 16,677 75 17,025

dollars, and consisted chiefly of opium and such articles as 171

2759 had been brought to Singapore from the Indian archipelago

2009 Next to opium, which amounted to 252,327 dollars, the most 997

1696 important articles were edible birds'-nests, to the amount of 2737 6

357

394 162,852 ; tin, 117,386; and trepang, 74,7:23 dollars. Rice was Cape of Good Hope

sent there to the amount of 59,408; pepper, 56,023; betelTringanu and the

nut, 44,962; and ratans, 36,019 dollars. Other articles of other neighbouriug

importance were woollens (25,064 d.), European piece-goods 988 7 Bally and Eastern

(20,796 d.), cotton-twist (18,100 d.), raw cotton (16,155 d.), Islands. 7 1764

ul

2047 aggar-aggar (16,100 d.), camphor barus (16,155 d.), spices 156,513 539 166,053 517| 155,974 533) 165,417 (11,314 d.), tortoise-shell (12,684 d.), sandal-wood (11,143 d.),

and lakka-wood (10,800 d.). Minor articles were antimony,

INWARD.

OUTWARD.

1835.

1836.

1835.

1836.

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birds' feathers, canvas, dragon's-blood, gambier, gold-dust, , rice (12,911 d.), and opium (5252 d.). Minor articles were glassware, European gold thread, hides, garro-wood, spirits, anchors and grapnels, arms, chinaware, ebony, iron and and sundries. Spanish dollars were sent to China to the steel, lead, oils, paints, ratans, raw silk, sago, salt, spelter, number of 21,864.

tea, lakka-wood, and sundries, with Java rupees amounting The commerce between Singapore and Manilla is carried to 400 dollars. on partly by Spanish and partly by American and English The direct commerce between Singapore and Java is yessels. In the year ending on the 30th of April, 1836, the limited to the three ports of Batavia, Samarang, and Suraimports from that settlement into Singapore amounted to baya, but European and India goods may be shipped from 166,086 dollars, of which cigars constituted more than one these places to any other Dutch settlement on the island of half the amount, viz. 89,468 dollars. Sugar was brought to Java. or on the other islands of the Archipelago, the Mothe amount of 23,190 dollars, and the other minor articles luccas excepted. The exports of Java to Singapore, in 1835, were trepang, cotton, hides, indigo, mother-of-pearl shells, amounted to 876,321 dollars. The most considerable articles qils, wines, sapan-wood (8802 d.), spirits, and sundries (8842 were—tin (155,527 d.), European piece-goods (142,317 d.), d.), Cowries were imported to the amount of 2252 dollars, birds -nests (101,949 d.), and rice (86,479 d.). Next to these and also 3000 dollars.

were tobacco (44,139 d.), spices (41,845 d.), ratans (34,589 d.), The trade with Celebes is almost exclusively in the hands spirits, especially hollands (26,938 d.), Java sundries of the Bugis of Waju, a country on the western side of (26,145 d.), pepper (18,176 d.), sandal-wood (18,490 d.), that island, the inhabitants of which have colonized many sugar (17,043 d.), gold-dust (14,523 d.), cotton (10,751 d.), islands of the Indian Archipelago, and carry on what may and tortoise-shell (10,059 d.). The importations werebe called the foreign trade of the countries in which they woollens (9394 dollars), European sundries (8088 d.), arhave settled. They disperse the goods obtained at Singa- rack (7856 d.), hides (7519 d.), glass.ware (6275 d.), pore over most of the islands east of Celebes, as far as the mother-of-pearl shells (5308 d.), and cotton-twist (4223 d.). coast of New Guinea, and also over that chain of islands called Minor articles were camphor, camphor barus, coffee, copthe Lesser Sunda Islands. (SUNDA ISLANDS.] Their coun per-ware, copper sheathing, ebony, ivory, indigo, oils, painis, try vessels, called prahus, arrive at Singapore during the provisions, spelter, stick-lac, sugar-candy, tea, wine, garroprevalence of the eastern monsoon. The goods brought by wood, and Eastern sundries. There were also brought to the Bugis from Celebes in 1835 amounted to 214,703 dol- Singapore 48,374 dollars in specie, Java rupees to the lars. The most important articles were tortoise-shell amount of 4709 dollars, doubloons (980 dollars), and cow(61,878 d.), gold-dust (23,230 d.), mother-of-pearl shells ries (150 dollars). The exports from Singapore to the (21,277 d.), coffee (14,098 d.), trepang (12,755 d.), birds'- ports of Java were of the value of 568,470 dollars. The most nests (10,190 d.), and rice (10,501 d.). Minor articles were valuable articles were India piece-goods (135,900 d.), birds' feathers and birds of paradise, bees’-wax, hides, oils, opium (118,495 d.), and China sundries (70,790 d.). paddy, ratans, aggar-aggar, spices, and tobacco. The importa- Next to these were raw silk (40,135 d.), cigars (27,112 d.), tion of sundries amounted to 23,287 dollars, and 21,650 china-ware (22,336 d.), gunnies (15,252 d.), tea (14,310 d.), dollars in specie were also brought to Singapore. The value wheat (11,749 d.), and nankeens (10,994 d.); Euroof the goods exported to Celebes was 339,966 dollars, and the pean sundries (9231 d.), China piece-goods (7617 d.), India principal articles were derived from Europe and Hindustan, sundries (7308 d.), copper (6433 d.), pepper (6014 d.), viz. opium (71,162 d.), India piece-goods (66,236 d.), Euro- iron and steel (5537 d.), Straits sundries (4935 d.), tobacco pean piece-goods (47,881 d.), cotton-twist (44,244 d.), and (4829 d.), saltpetre (4449 d.), tin (4000 d.), and cassia copper coin brought from England (12,076 d.). The expor- (3340 d.) Minor articles were arms, benjamin, bees'-wax, tation of raw silk (17,498 d.) and of gambier (13,334 d.) was canvas, cordage, dragons'-blood, earthenware, glue, glassalso considerable. Minor articles were arms, benjamin, ware, gunpowder, ivory, lead, oils, provisions, European or benzoin, chinaware, earthenware, gold thread, ivory, iron piece-goods, Malay piece-goods, sago, stick-lac (3758 d.),wooland steel (7315 d.) ironware and cutlery (5510 d.), nan- lens, and American sundries (2052 d.). There are still to keens, stick-lac, tobacco (7569 d.), and woollens (7547 d.). be added 7024 dollars in specie, and Java rupees to the Besides, there went 8792 dollars in specie and 4000 Java amount of 2000 dollars. rupees.

The island of Bally, whose surface does not much exceed l'he commerce between Singapore and the northern coast 2000 square miles, sent to Singapore goods to the amount of of Borneo is almost exclusively carried on by native vessels, 59,724 dollars, of which the rice alone fetched 37,274 dolmany of which are of great size; some of them are managed lars ; the tobacco 8288 d., the tortoise-shell 4021 d., and the by Bugis. The articles importea from that island in 1835 edible birds'- nests 2755 d. Minor articles were trepang, amounted to 268,074 dollars. The most important article was bees'-wax, coffee, hides, sandal-wood, and Eastern sundries gold-dust, to the value of 128,748 dollars. Other articles of (1230 d.); also 4270 dollars in specie. The goods exported importance were edible birds’-nests (30,355 d.), ratans from Singapore to Bally amounted to 65,073 dollars, and (28,776 d.), antimony-ore (24,872 d.), pepper (17,847 d.), consisted especially of opium (24,264 d.), copper coin and camphor barus (10,478 d.). Minor articles were sago (13,339 d.), Îndia piece-goods (10,119 d.), and European (9102 d.), tortoise-shell (8624 d.), bees’-wax (8360 d.), tre-piece-goods (4583 d.), with several minor articles, as arms, pang (5067 d.), ebony, hides, rice, sugar, tobacco, garro- chinaware, earthenware, gold thread, ivory, ironware, China wood (5957 d.), and lakka-wood (4472 d.). The sundries piece-goods, raw silk, woollens, and China sundries, with amounted to 7137 dollars, and the dollars in specie to 5290. 200 dollars in specie. The goods exported to Borneo were to the value of 231,342 The commerce between Singapore and the several islands dollars. The largest articles were India piece-goods (110,934 which lie in the sea between the settlement and Java, ind.), opium (73,490 d.), nankeens (17,311 d.), Malay piece- cluding Banca, is also considerable. The goods brought goods (17,024 d.), and European piece-goods (9150 d.). from theny amounted to 133,536 dollars. The larger artiThere were also arms (5507 d.), iron and steel (6775 d), iron- cles were tin (47,461 d.), trepang (10,662 d.), India sundries ware and cutlery (4449 d.), raw silk (5155 d.), china-ware (7942 d.), Eastern sundries (5622 d.), pepper (5689 d.), aggar(3138 d.), gambier (3792 d.), cotton-twist (2627 d.), gun- aggar (4869 d.), and tortoise-shell (4882 d.). Minor articles powder (2001 d.). and China sundries (2309 d.). Minor were bees'-wax, birds'- nests, chinaware, coffee, ebony, ghee, articles were trepang, benjamin, earthenware, ivory, rice, gambier, gold-dust, gram, oils, paddy (3612 d.), ratans, rice, salt, saltpetre, stick-lac, tea, tobacco, woollens, Java and sago, tobacco, wheat, garro-wood, and sapan-wood. There Eastern sundries. To these were added 9389 dollars in were also 12,296 dollars in specie sent to Singapore. The specie, Java rupees to the amount of 4840 dollars, and cop- exports from our settlements amounted to 101,180 dollars, per coin to the amount of 100 dollars.

and consisted principally of opium (18,528 d.), India pieceAn active commerce is carried on between Singapore and goods (12,450 d.), rice (11,902 d.), raw silk (6858 d:), the rival settlement of the Dutch at Rhio. [Ruio.) The European piece-goods (5829 d.), and Malay piece goods imports into 8.ngapore from that place amounted, in 1835, (5047 d.). Minor articles were anchors, arms, cotton-twist, to 111,395 dollars, of whieh the pepper alone amounted to earthenware, gambier, gold thread, gunpowder, iron and steel, 82,483 dollars, and the rice to 12,349. Minor articles were ironware, nankeens, oils, sago, stick-lac, sugar, tea, tobacco bees'-wax, cotton, gambier, hides, sugar, tin (2700 d.), and (2500 d.), wheat, garro-wood, spirits, and sundries. Besides, Java sundries; there were also 7933 dollars in specie im- 17,110 dollars in specie and 300 dollars in copper coin ported. The exports to Rhio amounted to 167,461 dollars, were exported. and consisted especially of dollars in specie (84,882), Euro The commerce between Singapore and Siam is mostly pean piece-goods (25,938 d.), India piece-goods (16,940 d.), ) carried on by the Chinese who are settled in that country.

G 2

And in junks built at Bangkok and other places. The im- | Minor articles were arms (2475 d.), brass-ware, china-ware poris from Siam amounted, in the year terminating with the (3196 d.), copper sheathing, cotton-twist, earthenware, gold 30th of April, 1836, to 282,019 dollars. The principal thread, gunpowder, iron-ware, nankeens, oils, stick-lac, tea, articles were sugar (114,453 d.), rice (43,330 d.), stick-lactobacco, wheat, woollens, and several sundries. There were (18,264 d.), iron-ware (12,379 d.), sapan-wood (11,674 d.). also sent to Sumatra 26,906 dollars, and Jaya rupees to the oils (8485 d.), salt (7959 d.) and Eastern sundries (6483 d.). amount of 1800 dollars. Minor articles were china-ware (2147 d.), hides, ivory, paddy, The western trade of Singapore comprehends that with India piece-goods, raw silk, sugar-candy (2250 d.), tea, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, the island of Ceylon, and spirits, and China sundries. The imported silver consisted Arabia, with the Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius, and Ausof 12,120 dollars, and ticals to the amount of 35,913 dollars. tralia, and with Europe and America. In the commerce The goods imported into Siam were of the value of 180,604 which is carried on between Singapore and Calcutta larger dollars. The principal articles were European piece-goods capitals are employed than in that with China or Great (58,155 d.), India piece-goods (26,845 d.), cotton-twist Britain. The imports from Calcutta amounted, in 1835, to (19,913 d.), opium (18,925 d.), ratans (9533 d.), ebony 1,191,390 dollars. The principal article was opium, of 19200 d.), bees-wax (8475 d.), woollens (5085 d.), gambier which 1640 chests, of the value of 957,855 dollars, were (4708 d.), and iron and steel (4560 d.). Minor articles were imported. Next to it were India piece-goods, which anchors, arms, betel-nut, earthenware, lead, lakka-wood, amounted 135,679 dollars; gunnies (24,745 d.), cotand European, India, China, and Eastern sundries. Only ton (21,060 d.), rice (14,042 d.), wheat (13,978 d.), India 400 dollars, and cowries to the amount of 100 dollars, were su ries (8024 d.), and salt petre (7451 d.). The other artisent to Siam.

cles, as brass-ware, canvas, copper-ware, cordage, copper The commerce with Cochin China is much less consider- sheathing, ebony, ghee, hides, mother-of-pearl shells, able. It is likewise carried on by the Chinese settled at tobacco, and European sundries, amounted only to small Kangkao and Saigun in Camboja, and at Quinhon, Faifo, sums. The exports from Singapore to Calcutta were to and Hué in Cochin China. In 1835 the imports from these the value of 876,851 dollars. The most valuable article places amounted to 62,319 dollars, and consisted chiefly of was gold-dust, which amounted to 473,565 dollars. Tin sugar (27,055 d.), rice (10,356 d.), copper (9300 d.), and was sent to the amount of 69,045 dollars, pepper 44,839 d., salt (4388 d.), with some ebony, indigo (2970 d.), iron, oils, cigars 29,550 d., European piece-goods 20,669 d., sapanraw silk, tea, and Eastern sundries. The exports amounted wood 18,829 d., spirits 17,992 d., ratans 13,465 d., gambier to 91,073 dollars, and the principal articles were woollens 10,230 d., Jara sundries 8402 d., spices 6333 d., Eastern (28,534 d.) and opium (26,019 d.). The other articles, as sundries 5721 d., canvass .5931 d., cotton-iwist 5619 d., arms, canvas, copper sheathing, gambier (4708 d.), iron, European sundries 4712 d., and tea 4510 d. Minor articles iron-ware (2485 d.), lead, piece-goods, ratans, salt petre, were anchors and grapnels (2014 d.), arms, benjamin, bees spelter, tea, tobacco, sapan-wood, European sundries (3267 wax, betel-nut (3589 d.), cassia (3951 d.), copper, cordage, d.), and China and Eastern sundries, amounted in general to glass-ware, iron and steel, sago (3142 d.), sugar-candy, 10small sums; but 9500 dollars in specie were exported. bacco, wine, sandal-wood, woollens, and India, China, and

The commerce of the Straits is carried on with the Malay | American sundries (3916 d.). From Singapore there were Peninsula and with the island of Sumatra. The harbours sent to Calcutta 70,189 dollars, sicca rupees to the amount on the eastern side of the peninsula, which trade with of 5092 dollars, Java rupees 1943 dollars, sycee silver 650 Singapore, are Pahang, Tringanu, and Calantan, and this dollars, ticals 25,004 dollars, sovereigns 475 dollars, gold trade is rather active. The trade with the western coast of mohurs 93 dollars, and cowries 2989 dollars. the peninsula is not important, and is almost entirely The commerce with Madras is much less important. The limited to the harbour of Salangore. In 1835 the imports imports from that place to Singapore amounted only to from these places to Singapore were 319,134 dollars. The 151,133 dollars. The largest article was India piece-goods most valuable articles were gold-dust (145,040 d.) and tin (132,679 d.), and all the others, except ebony (6822 d.), (!07,670 d.). Pepper amounted to 11,273 dollars, and sugar amounted to small sums, and were trepang, eari henware, to 4210 dollars. The other articles were trepang, bees’-wax, ghee (2993 d.), mother-of-pearl shells, European piecebirds'-nests, coffee, ebouy, ghee, hides, ivory, iron-ware, goods (2880 d.), rice, wine, spirits, and a few sundries. The ratans (2216 d.), raw silk, rice, stick-lac, tortoiseshell, garro- exports to Madras amounted to 138,365 dollars, and conwood, lakka-wood, and several other articles ; 31,313 dol- sisted principally in money, viz. 99,758 dollars in specie, lars were also imported. The exports in 1835 amounted to ticals to the amount of 17,000 dollars, sicca rupees 311 316,370 dollars. The principal article was opium, to the dollars, and Jara rupees 125 dollars. Cigars, amountamount of 169,348 dollars, and next to it followed cotton- ing to 5187 dollars, were the most important article. twist (40,867 d.), tobacco (30,034 d.), Malay piece-goods Other articles were benjamin, chinaware, cordage, earthen(21,538 d.), European piece-goods (14,994 d.), and India ware, gold-dust, glassware, iron and steel, ironware (2984 d.), piece-goods (9474d.). Minor articles were arms, bees'-wax, | European piece-goods, r'atans, sago, spices, sugar-candy, cotton, earthenware, gambier, iron and steel (3431 d.), iron- woollens (2168 d.), spirits, and some sundries. ware and cutlery, raw silk, salt, and several sundries. There The commerce with Bombay is more important. The were also 14,408 dollars sent from Singapore to these ports. | imports from that place amounted to 156,904 dollars. Opium

The commerce between Singapore and the island of Su was to the amount of 117,195 dollars, and India piece-goods matra is almost entirely limited to the ports along the 19,578 dollars. The other articles were of little value, and coneastern coast of the island; there is hardly any commercial sisted of brassware, cotton (2308 d.), grain, salipetre, torintercourse with the Dutch settlements of Bencoolen, Padang, toiseshell, woollens, and a few sundries; there were also and Trappanuli, which are on the western coast. The com- imported 13,000 dollars. The exports to Bombay amounted merce of ihe eastern coast is divided between Singapore and to 196,757 dollars. The largest articles were gold-dust Penang. The ports south of the free port of Batu Bara send (38,683 d.), tin (31,050 d.), sugar (30,489 d.), spices (17,051d.), their goods to Singapore, whilst those which are farther piece-goods (11,202 d.), ratans (7598 d.), and cigars (5441 d.). north visit Penang. The harbours connected with the first- Minor articles were benjamin, betel-nut, cassia (2962 d.), named settlement are Campar, Siack, Indragiri, lam-gambier, ivory, oils, pepper, raw silks, sago, garro-wood bie, Assahan, and Batu Bara. The goods imported from (3360 d.), sapan-wood, spirits, and several sundries. Bombay these places amounted to the sum of 130,921 dollars. The received also from Singapore 30,437 dollars, ticals to the principal articles were coffee ( 44,842 d.), betel-nut ( 24,946 d.), amount of 5896 dollars, Bombay rupees 371 dollars, gold cotton (12,134 d.), sago (10,972 d.), ratans (8261 d.) gold coins 92 dollars, and doubloons 62 dollars. dust (5936 d.), and benjamin (4652 d.). Minor articles were The exports from Singapore to Ceylon amounted only to trepang, bces’-wax (3712 d.), dragon's-blood, gambier, 3849 dollars, and consisted of chinaware (1097 d.), ratans, hides, ivoiy, iron, iron-ware, mother-of-pearl shells, paddy, cigars, sugar (1358 d.), and a few sundries. But Ceylon pepper, rice (3682 d.), spices, tortoise-shell, lakka-woorl, and sent to Singapore goods to the amount of 30,876 dollars, of several sundries. There were also sent to Singapore 1250 which ebony alone was of the value of 19,872 dollars. The dollars, and Java rupees to the amount of 300 dollars. The other articles, except cordage (4669 d.), were small, and goods exported to these places amounted to the value of consisted of trepang, birds' feathers, canvas, ghee, hidez, 165,601 dollars. The principal articles were India piece | India piece-goods, wheat, spirits, and some sundries. goods (37,774 d.), European piece-goods (16,443 d.), raw-silk The imports from Arabia to Singapore amounted only to (12,680 d.) opiuin (11,767 d.), Malay piece goods (10,937 d.), 6395 dollars, and consisted of India sundries (4240 d.), and China sundries (8995 d.), iron (6390 d.), and salt (5915 d.). I small quantities of gold thread, tortoiseshell, oils, and salt

But Singapore exported to Arabia, probably on account of coloured cotton-twist (2541 d.), dragons'blood, ebony, goldthe pilgrims who go from the Malay Peninsula and the dust (4355 d.), nankeens (3440 d.), oils, China piece-goods, Indian Archipelago to Mecca, the value of 70,153 dollars, rice, cigars, wines, sapan-woord (4262 d.), and India sundries of which 41,000 dollars were in specie. The largest articles (3106 d.). There were also sent to Great Britain 95 soveof goods were benjamin (8708 d.), tin (6779 d.), sugar reigns, and cowries to the value of 1086 dollars. (5885 d.), and garro-wood (4710 d.) Minor articles were

Such is the state of the commerce of Singapore at present, gold-dust (607 d.), pepper, India piece-goods, rice, sago, but it will probably increase largely in a few years. If the spices, sugar-candy, sa pan-wood, and a few sundries. Chinese government continue the vexatious restrictions on

The imports into Singapore from the Cape, Mauritius, and our commerce at Canton, it may be expedient to discontinue Australia amounted only to 4860 dollars, of which 2900 the direct commercial intercourse with the Celestial empire. were in specie, to which arms and ebony in small quantities Instead of Canton, the settlement of Singapore would be were added. But Singapore exported to these places goods the market to which tea and other articles of Chinese into the amount of 88,674 dollars. The most important dustry would be brought, and our goods adapted for their articles were tin (12,570 d.), cigars (11,272 d)., wheat consumption would be sold. The consumption of all these (11,017 d.), Eastern sundries (8739°d.), sugar (6425 d.), and articles, with the exception of opium, would probably be coffee (5886 d.) The other articles were of less importance, much increased by such a change, for the Chinese themand consisted of antimony, bees-wax, canvas, cassia, cord selves would be able to sell their goods at a less price at age (2608 d.), gram, gambier, gold-dust, gunnies, opium Singapore than we have hitherto paid for them at Canton: (2400 d.), pepper, paddy, provisions (2302 d.), ratans, rice Our vessels and merchants have to pay very heavy dues, (2633 d.), sago, sugar-candy, tea (2360 d.), tobacco, wines, whilst Chinese vessels pay very little in comparison, and are: spirits, and European sundries (3216 d.).

almost entirely free from dues whenever a part of their The United States of America carry on an active com return cargo consists of rice. This article is at present merce with Singapore, but as most of their goods are not always to be had at Singapore, and might be grown to an adapted for the market of Southern Asia, they generally indefinite extent in the easiern districts of Sumatra and in pay for the goods that they buy with ready money. They our Tenasserin provinces, if there was a demand for it. imported 87,800 Spanish dollars, and also manufactured Thus it is probable that the Chinese junks would be able to goods (14,548 d.), provisions (9853 d.), and American sun- sell tea and other articles at least 10 per cent. less than we dries (9122 d.) Minor articles were canvas, cordage, gun pay for them at Canton; besides, the tea is brought to Canton powder, hides, cigars, and tobacco (1556 d.) The whole by a transport over land of many hundred miles, whilst importation amounted to 125,897 dollars, whilst the articles the countries in which it grows are near the sea; and it exported were of the value of 177,526 dollars. The most im- could be brought directly from Amoy, Ningpo, and Sanghae, portant articles among the exports were tin (43,751 d.), to Singapore, at a much less expense. The only difference sugar (38,184 d.), coffee (34,279 d.), pepper (19,793 d.), would be, that our vessels, instead of proceeding to Canton, tortoise-shell (6784 d.), rice (6258 d.), and gunnies (5760 d.). would stop at Singapore; but that can hardly be considered Minor articles were antimony, betel-nut, canvas, cassia

a loss, when we reflect that the increased consumption (3956 d.), cordage, dragon's-blood, gambier, hides, oils, of Chinese goods, in consequence of the decrease in price, opium (2660 d.), India piece-goods, ratans (2117 d.), sago, would certainly be attended by an increase of our shipping. cigars, spices (2400 d.), tea, and several sundries.

History.On the site of the present British settlement As to the harbours of continental Europe, that of Ham- formerly stood the capital of a Malay kingdom. According burg had the greatest share in the trade. But the imports to the history of that nation, Sang Nila Utama, from Menfrom these places amounted only 10 65,657 dollars, and the angkabau in Sumatra, founded the city of Singhapúra (the largest articles were spirits (12,876 d.), piece-goods lion's town) about 1160, and Ratlles was able in 1899 to (12,700 d.), wine (10,578 d.), and European sundries trace the outer lines of the old city. It then was the capital (16,584 d.). Minor articles were arms, canvas (3000 d.), of the kingdom of Malacca. This town was taken in 1252 cordage (2300 d.), cotton-twist (2340 d.), glassware, gold by a king of Java, and the residence of the king was transthread, iron (2161 d.), ironware, lead, oils, paints, provisions, ferred to the town of Malacca, which was then founded, salt, and woollens. The goods exported from Singapore to

After that event the town seems gradually to have decayed, these parts amounted to 115,303 dollars. The largest articles and the country to have been abandoned; for when the were coffee (42,649 d.), tin (23,319 d.), sugar (15,942 d.), British, after having restored the town of Malacca to the pepper (13,772 d.), European sundries (5329 d.), and cassia Dutch in 1816, wished to form a settlement on the shores (3355 d.). Minor articles of export were bees'-wax, cordage, of the Strait of Malacca or its neiglıbourhood, that they gold-dust

, bides, rice, ratans, sago (2084 d.), cigars (2386 d.), might not be entirely excluded from the commerce of the tortoise-shell, sapan-wood, arrack, and some sundries. Indian Archipelago by the Dutch, they found on their

The commerce of Singapore with Great Britain is nearly arrival at Singapore that the population of the whole island equal to that with Calcutta, and more active than that with did not exceed 150 individuals, as already stated. It was China. Great Britain imported into the port of Singapore then a part of the kingdom of Johore, which had been so in the year ending with the 30th of April, 1836, goods to the reduced by internal discord, that some of the superior ainount of 1,150,808 dollars. The most important article officers had become independent. One of them, the Tuconsisted of several kinds of piece-goods, to the amount of mungong, or chief justice, had got possession of the island 675,776 dollars. Other articles of importance were cotton- of Singapore and the adjacent country, and from him the twist (58,994 d.), European sundries (56,772 d.), iron Britishi obtained, in 1819, permission to build a factory on (49,409 d.), woollens (48,976 d.), arms (45,778 d.), earthen the south shore of the island. Soon afterwards a person ware(31,560 d.), glassware (23,480 d.), gunpowder (20,793 d.), who had some claim to the throne of Johore came to the copper sheathing, and nails (16,728 d.), ironware and British settlement and received a small pension. From this cutlery (15,486 d.), anchors and grapnels (14,383 d.), person, who was afterwards king of Johore, and the Tumunand wines (13,445 d.). The importations were — beer gong: the British obtained, in 1824, the sovereignty and (8281 d.), canvas (5188 d.), cordage (6684 d.), opium fee-siniple of the island, as well as of all the seas, straits, (2000 d.), paints (3077 d.), provisions (4220 d.), spelter and islands, for the sum of 60,000 Spanish dollars, and an (3296 d.), and spirits (4724 d.). Minor articles were brass- annuity of 24,000 Spanish dollars for their natural lives. ware, gold thread, lead, and tea. Great Britain sent also to In 1826 Singapore was placed under the provincial governSingapore 17,000 Spanish dollars, and copper coin to the ment of the Straits Settlement, which is fixed on the island amount of 25,072 dollars. The goods shipped at Singapore of Penang. for Great Britain amounted to the value of 890,017 dollars. (Crawfurd's Journal of an Embassy to the Courts of Siam The most important articles were tortoise-shell (125,101 d.), and Cochin China; Finlayson's Mission to Siam and Huć; tin (101,204 d.), pepper (91,289 d.), raw silk (70,675 d.), Moor's Notices of the Indian Archipelago, &c.; Newbold's sugar (62,406 d.), Eastern sundries (59,586 d.), coffee Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements (53,644 d.), tea (44,376 d.), sago (35,891 d.), spices (34,939 d.), in the Straits of Malacca.) mother-of-pearl shells (27,570 d.), China sundries (25,544 d.), SINIGAGLIA. [PESARO ET URBINO.] bees'-wax (22,656 d.), cassia (22,298 d.), antimony(i8,704 d.), SINKING FUND. (National DEBT.] gambier (16,339 d.) hides (13,950 d ), benjamin (8708 d.), SINO'PE, or SINUB. [PAPHLAGONIA.] Java sundries (7982 d.), ratans (6988 d.), Straits sundries SINTOC, or SINDOC, sometimes written Syndoc, is (5943 d.), and ivory (5053 d.). Minor articles were birds' the bark of a species of Cinnamomum, which has been feathers and birds of paradise, camphor, cordage (2524 d.), called C. Sintoc by Blume, who says it is tree 80 feet in

height, indigenous in the primeval forests of Java. It is in 1 The Dacotas who live along the Mississippi and St. Peter's flatiish pieces, of a warm spicy taste, but is seldom seen in river raise maize, and they also cultivate beans, pumpkins, this country. It resembles the Calilawan bark, called clove- and other vegetables. But these agriculturists constitute bark by some, which is called kulie-lawan by the natives of only a small portion of the tribe: by far the larger part ocJava, and is the produce of a nearly-allied species, the Cin- cupy themselves with hunting wild animals, especially the namomum Calilawun of Blume, which grows in similar buffalo. The other animals which abound in their country situations with the former, and of which the bark is used as are beavers, otters, martens, minxes, musk-rats, lynxes, a spice, and its essential oil is employed as a medicine and wolverines, elks, moose deer, bears, and wolves. As the as a perfume by the Javanese.

wild animals are so abundant in their country, the Dacotas SIOUX INDIANS, one of the most numerous and are not obliged to live in small societies, but they generally powerful of the native tribes within the territories of the live in camps consisting of eighty or a hundred lodges, each United States of North America. They inhabit a large tract | lodge containing several families. Sometimes there are between 42° and 49° N. lat. and 90° 30' and 99° 30' W. long., above three hundred warriors in one encampment. comprehending nearly the whole of the country between (Lewis and Clarke's Travels up the Missouri, fc.; and the Mississippi on the east and the Missouri on the Keating's Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of the west, north of 42° 30' N. lat., or the present territory St. Peter's River, fc., under the command of Major Long.) of lowa. They also occupy a large tract of the territory SIPHNO, called also Siphanto and Sifanno (by Carpacof Wisconsin on the east of the Mississippi, extending chi, Isole del Mondo), an island in the Archipelago, formalong the river from Fort Crawford on the south to the ing one of the group called the Cyclades. The original name St. Croix river, and the whole country west of the last was Merope; it was called Siphnus from a personage of that mentioned river as far north as Lake Spirit, and westward name. It was colonised by lonians from Aihens. (Herodot., to the eastern banks of the Mississippi. In these parts their viii. 48.) In the reign of Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos, country borders on that of the Algonquins, who occupy the about 520 B.C., the inhabitants were very fourishing in contract west of Lake Superior, but along the banks of the sequence of their gold and silver mines, and, according to HeRed River of Lake Winnipeg the Sioux claim the whole rodotus (iii. 57), they were the most wealthy of the islanders. traet to the boundary-line of the United States (49o N. lat.). They had a deposit at Delphi of the tenth of the produce of On the banks of the Missouri they are found near Fort the mines. Some exiles, who were expelled from Samos by Mandan on the north (47° 30'), and at the mouth of the Polycrates (Samos), invaded Siphnus about this çime, and Soldiers' River (42°) on the south, and it is stated that they levied a contribution of 100 talents. The Siphnians wero hunt in the country west of the Missouri between 43° and among the few inhabitants of the Archipelago who resisted 47° N. lat. The southern boundary of their country may be the Persian claim of earth and water, and they contributed marked by a line drawn from the mouth of Soldiers' River one small ship of war at the battle of Salamis. (Herod., viii. to Fort Crawford.

48.) Their mines were not afterwards so valuable (DemosThe Sioux Indians call themselves Dacotas, but in their thenes, nepi ouvrátews). Pausanias (X., 11) says that after external relations they assume the name of Ochente Shakoan a time they ceased to send treasure to Delphi, and that in (the nation of the seven fires or councils), a name which re- consequence the sea broke in on their mines and destroyed fers to a division into seven great tribes, of which they were them. Siphnus is very little noticed by antient authors. formerly composed. The French Canadians divide them into From Stephanus Byzantinus, Hesychius, and Suidas we Gens du Lac and Gens du Large. The former once lived about learn that ihe natives were of dissolute manners, insomuch Spirit Lake, and are now principally found along the banks that to do like a Sipbnian (Eldviába.v) was a term of reof the Mississippi. They live in villages, and have begun to proach. In the work of Constantine Porphyrogenneluş apply themselves to the cultivation of the ground. The De Thematibus,' Siphnus is in the theme of Hellas, and Gens du Large, under which name the greater number of in the Synecdemus of Hierocles it forms part of the Prothe tribes are comprehended, rove about in the prairies be-vincia Insularum. tween the Mississippi and Missouri, and live almost exclu In the reign of Henry I., Latin emperor of Constan. sively by the chase. On these prairies the buffalo is found tinople, Marco Sanado, the first duke of Naxos, conquered in uncommon numbers, and probably there is no part of the island and made it part of his dominions. It passed North America in which this animal is so plentiful. Hence from him into the hands of the Gozzadini family, who held the means of subsistence are very abundant, and the nation it till it was wrested from them by Barbarossa, after the capof the Dacotas is more numerous than any other in such ture of Rhodes in the time of Soliman II. It was, in somhigh latitudes. It is stated that the Dacotas themselves mon with the neighbouring islands, partially protected from compose a population of 28,000 individuals, and that there the oppressions of the Turks by the Venetians; and Tourneare above 7000 warriors. The Assiniboines, who live north fort (Voyage du Levant) mentions that about 50 years beof the Dacotas, within the territories of the Hudson's Bay fore his visit to the place, so little was the power of the Company, formerly constituted an integral portion of the Porte there, that the inhabitants, assisted by a Provençal Dacotas, but separated from them in consequence of a corsair, expelled the Turks who had been sent there to work quarrel, whence they are named, by the Dacotas, Hoka the lead-mines. (the revolted). The Chippewas name them Assiniboines Sipbnus is between 36° 50' and 37' 10' N. lat., and in 25° or Stone Boines, and the Dacota they call Boines. This 10' E. long.: it is situated to the south-east of Serpho, northbranch of the Dacota Indians is stated to be no less nu- east of Milo, and south-west of Paro, lying immediately oppomerous than the Dacotas themselves.

site Antiparo. It is of an oblong form, narrower at the north The language of these two tribes differs from that of their than at the southern extremity. Pliny reckons it at about neighbours, yet some distinctions of the nature of dialects 28 Roman miles in circumference, and Carpacchi (Isole appear to prevailin some words as spoken by the roving In- del Mondo) at 40. Tournefort mentions five ports, which dians and by the Dacotas. They believe in the existence of were much frequented about 50 years before his visit there: a Supreme Being, and a great number of subordinate beings, Faro, Vathy, Kitriani, Kironisso, and Kastron, of which Kaswhose powers and attributes vary much. The Supreme tron is on the east, Faro and Kitriani on the south, and Being is called Wahkan Tanka, or Great Spirit, and they con- Vathy on the west side. Another on the east side, Agia sider him as the Creator of all things, and as the ruler and Sosti, is marked in the map attached to Fiedler's Reise disposer of the universe; they hold him to be the source of all durch Griechenland,' 1841. Tournefort gives the names of good and the cause of no evil. The next spirit in respect to five villages, Artimone, Stavril, Catavati, Xambela, and power is the Wabkan Shecha, or Evil Spirit, whose influence Petali; and of four contents of caloyers, Brici or La Fonis exclusively exerted in doing evil. The third divinity is taine, Stomongoul, St. Chrysostome, and St. Hélie. the thunder, whose residence they fix in the west, and some Fiedler mentions only two towns: Kastron, on a strong and believe that it dwells on the summit of the Rocky Mountains, rocky hill overlooking ihe sea, which is the residence of the because in this country all thunder-storms come from the governor; and Stawri, the Slavril of Tournefort, in the west. The thunder is considered the spirit of war. They centre of the island. Siphnus is in the pashalik of Nakscha. offer sacrifices to these three powers, and these sacrifices are The bishop is also bishop of Milo. The population in the accompanied with prayers, but not with dances,

time of Tournefort was about 5000; they were taxed in the To rise early, to be inured to fatigue, to hunt skilfully, to year 1700 at 4000 crowns of French money. The lands are undergo hunger without repining, are the only points to chiefly laid out in vineyards; the wine is not so good as that which the Dacotas think it important to attend in the of the neighbouring islands. The chief trade is in silk, education of their children.

figs, honey, wax, sesame, and cotton stuffs, which are cele

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