« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
brated for their quality: the inhabitants import the raw ma- | such bends that a discharge will take place from thence. terial. There are very few sheep, horses, or horned cattle. As the water in that cavity may only attain the necessary The climate is good, and the inhabitants long-lived.
height in consequence of periodical falls of rain, it will folSiphnus was celebrated among the antients for a sort of low that corresponding increases in the total quantity of stone mentioned by Pliny (Nat. Hist., xxxvi. 22), of which water discharged can only then take place. drinking-cups were made, which was easily carved, and har For the amusement of young persons, several philosodened afterwards by boiling oil. This was a species of talc, phical toys have been constructed, in which the effects are according to Fiedler, who gives further particulars relating produced by means of concealed siphons. The siphon is to the geology of the island. Tournefort was shown the sometimes placed within a figure in the middle or on the situation of one gold-mine, but could not discover the en- edge of a cup, and sometimes between its exterior and intrance. Fiedler gives an account of one near Agia Sosti. terior sides, Such are Tantalus's Cup and the siphon
The antiquities of the island are few. On the south side, fountain. at Porto Plati Gallo, are the remains of an old Greek town. SIPHONA'RIA. [SEMIPHYLLIDIANS, vol. xxi., p. 218.] Tournefort speaks of a temple sacred to Pan near the SIPHONIA. [SPONGIADA.) castle, which is also noticed by Carpacchi, and of several SIPHONIA, a genus of plants of the natural family of marble sarcophagi with good sculpture. There are also Euphorbiaceæ, consisting of two species, but one may be Greek inscriptions, which are given by him and Fiedler. only a variety of the other. This is celebrated as being the The Greek coins of Siphnus are very numerous: they are tree which yields the large quantities of caoutchouc, called of gold, silver, and copper. The types on them are the Cahuchu by the native Americans, annually imported from head of Apollo (there was a town called Apollonia in Siph- Para in South America. The genus has been named Sinus, according to Stephanus Byz., 'Atolluvia), the Chi-phonia, from the Greek word siphon (oiqwv) a tube, from the mæra, head of Bacchus, and a dove with wings spread. The purposes to which caoutchouc is applied; but it was origi coins struck under the emperors have Pallas on the reverse. nally called Hevea by Aublet, and the name was changed Kastron is a castle built apparently when the Venetians first by Richard from its similarity to Evea. The species, or occupied the island. Various buildings bear the arms of the South American caoutchouc, was named s. Cahuchu from Gozzadini family, three of whom were still living there in its Indian name Cahuchu. The same plant was first called the time of Tournefort.
Jatropha elastica by the younger Linnæus ; so that it is SIPHON (oiowv), a tube or pipe. This machine, which known and referred to by three names, and in some works has been described in the article HYDRAULICS, was pro- these are considered to indicate distinct plants. Aublet bably invented in the second century B.C., by Hero of has figured the plant, and Jussieu the details of its inAlexandria, who, in the 'Spiritalia,' or Pneumatics, men- florescence. tions its employment for the purpose of conveying water Siphonia elastica is a tree fifty to sixty feet in height, from one valley to another over the intervening ground. common in the forests of Guiana and Brazil, and which has
In order that a fluid may issue from that branch of a been introduced into the West Indies. Condamine fresiphon which is on the exterior surface of the vessel con- quently mentions it in his voyage down the Amazon. taining it, it is necessary, as has been stated in the article Caoutchouc (CAOUTCHOUC) is the milky juice of the plant above mentioned, that the extremity of the branch should which exudes on incisions being made, and solidifies on exbe below the surface of the fluid in the vessel; but it may posure to the air. Aublet states that a deep incision is be observed that there is an exception to the rule when the first made into the wood near the bottom of the tree, interior diameter of that branch is very small; for example, another is then made longitudinally from the upper parts when it is less than 1-10th of an inch, the interior diameter of the tree down to the first lateral and oblique incision, of the branch in the vessel being considerably greater. For others are also made along the stem, which terminate in if such a fluid as water or wine be introduced into a bent the longitudinal one, and the milky juice which exudes from tube having one branch only very small, and the open ends all is collected in a vessel placed at the original incision. He be uppermost, the top of the fluid in the more slender also states that the nuts are edible, and Mr. Morney says branch will, by the effect of capillary attraction, stand that a caterpillar, which spins a tough coarse kind of silk, higher than the top of that in the other branch. It would feeds on the leaves. follow therefore, that if the bent tube were inverted, and SIPHONI'FERA, M. D'Orbigny's name for an order the orifice of its larger branch were placed under the sur of testaceous Mollusks, consisting of ihe families Spirulidæ, face of the fluid in a vessel, the fluid would begin to issue Nautilidæ, Ammonitidæ, and Peristellidæ, according to the from the other branch, though the orifice of the latter were arrangement of M. Rang. The latter family comprises the a little above the level of that surface.
genera Ichthyosarcolites and Belemnites. The effect of a siphon may be produced by capillary SIPHONOBRANCHIA'TA, M. De Blainville's name attraction alone; for if a piece of cotton cloth have one of for the first order of his first subclass of Mollusks, Paraits extremities in a vessel of water, and part of it be made cephalophora dioica. He describes the Siphonobranchiata to hang over the edge of the vessel, the water will be at as possessing organs of respiration constanily formed of one tracted along the threads of the cloth, and will descend or two pectiniform branchia, situated obliquely on the anfrom thence in drops, provided the extremity of the part terior part of the back, and continued in a cavity, the supethus banging over be below the surface of the water in the rior wall of which is provided with a tubiform canal more vessel.
or less elongated and attached to the columella; and arThe phenomena presented by springs of water are ex ranges under the order the following families :- SIPHONOplained by supposing that the rain which is absorbed in the STOMATA ; ENTOMOSTOMATA; and Angyostomata. earth occasionally finds its way by small channels to some The Angyostomata are described as differing very little interior cavity, and from thence by other channels, which from the other families as far as the animal is concerned, may be considered as natural siphons, to an orifice on a and as possessing a very large subventral foot, which can be lower level at the surface of the ground. At this orifice it folded together longitudinally for the purpose of being issues in a stream of water, which continues to flow till the withdrawn into the shell. surface of the water in the cavity has descended below the The aperture of the shell of the family is described as tops of the vertical bends in the channels: the water then being more or less notched anteriorly, generally very narceases to flow till the rains again raise the water in the row, but always much longer than it is wide, and ihe colucavity above those bends. But it sometimes happens that mella as being straight or nearly straight. a spring, without ceasing to flow, discharges periodically The operculum is rudimentary in a certain number of greater and smaller quantities of water in given times; and genera, and entirely null in others. this is accounted for by supposing the existence of two cavi. The genera arranged under the Angyostomata are Stromties either unconnected or communicating with one another bus, Conus, Terebellum, Oliva, Ancillaria, Mitra, Voluta, by small channels. The channels leading from one of these Marginella, Peribolus, Cypræa, and Ovula. cavities to the point of efflux are supposed to be below the level SIPHO'NOPS, Wagler's name for a genus of Cæciliof the water in both cavities, so that the water flows through oïdians. them continually; but if the channels from the other have The first suborder of the Batrachians, the Péromèles of vertical bends, so that they act as siphons, and at the same MM. Duméril and Bibron, consists but of one family, the time these channels carry off the water in them faster than Ophiosomes (snake-bodied Batrachians) or Cæcilioidiuns. it can flow from the first cavity to the second, it will be only Their round elongated form, without either tail or feet, apwhen the water in the latter cavity is above the level of all | proximates so closely to that of the serpents, that the
Scales of Csecilia albiventris.
greater number of authors have arranged them in the order | dyles, the presence of lungs and nostrils which open disSphidians, acknowledging at the same time the anomalies tinctly within the cavity of the mouth, and the entire alwhich they present, and observing that they ought to form sence of branchiæ, remove these animals from that class. a very distinct group. [SERPENTS, vol. xxi., p. 281.]
ORGANIZATION. The characters which lead to the classification of these Skeleton.—The cranium presents above a single vaulted reptiles into one family, and to their separation from all piece, in which no trace of orbits is perceptible. The lower others, are, Ist, a body extremely extended in length, and jaw is not articulated with the skull by an intermediate of a cylindrical shape; 2nd, the absence of limbs or lateral bone, as in the birds, lizards, and serpents, but nearly as it appendages proper for locomotion ; 3rd, a skin naked in ap- is in the mammals, without however there being the pearance and viscous, but concealing between the circular slightest trace of a zygomatic bone. The branches of the folds which it forms many rows or rings of tlat, delicate, lower jaw are joined anteriorly by a true suture, as in the imbricated scales, with free and rounded borders, resem- lizards.
Professor Owen states that the teeth are implanted in a single row upon the maxillary, intermaxillary, and palatine bones, the upper jaw being thus provided with two semi-elliptical and sub-concentric series; that there are also two rows of equal-sized teeth on the premandibular bones of the lower
jaw in certain species: the Cecilia, he remarks, is the bling those of the greater part of the fishes; 4th, the rounded last example in the ascending surrey which he has taken orifice of their cloaca situated below, very near the posterior of the dental system of this disposition of teeth, which was extremity of the body, which is sometimes truncated, as it so common in the class of fishes. were,
and rounded; sometimes obtusely pointed, as in the • There are,' writes the Professor, 'twenty teeth in the angenus Typhlops ; 5th, their head, as in all the Batrachians, terior or outer premandibular row in the lumbricoïd and is articulated io the spine by means of two distinct and sepa- white-bellied Cæciliæ, and ten or twelve of much smaller rate condyles; 6th, their lower jaw moves upon the cranium size in the second row. There are twenty teeth in theouter without any separate articular bone, and the two branches row of the upper jaw, of which six are supported by the which form it are short and very solidly soldered together intermaxillaries, and sixteen in the inner or palatine row. towards the symphysis of the chin.
All these teeth are long, slender, acute, and slightly recurved. In the Serpents the occipital bone presents, below the In the rostrated Cæcilia the first two teeth of the maxilvertebral hole, a single articular eminence, or condyle; and lary and premandibular series are longer and stronger than the structure and disposition of the jaws will be remem the rest : they are succeeded by small and recurved teeth ; bered by those who have referred to ihe article SERPENTS. the median margins of the palatal bones are bristled with The brevity of the jaws, and their construction in the Cæci- small teeth ; the second row in the lower jaw is reprelioïdians, reduce the aperture of their mouth to a very small sented by two small recurved teeth on the internal border diameter.
of the premandibular bones. In the modification of the The bodies of the vertebræ of the Cæcilioïdians are doubly dental system presented by this species may be perceived a excavated into cones, instead of being concave before and retention of the Batrachian type. The annulated Cæcilia convex behind. Their tongue is large, papillose, fixed by (Siphonops annulatus) has the maxillary and palatine teeth its borders upon the gums in the concavity of the jaw, and strong, pointed, and slightly recurved. In ihe glutinous not protractile, nor forked, nor susceptible of entering into a and two-banded Cæciliæ (Epicrium), the teeth are slender, sheath. The disposition and structure of their teeth are acute, and more inclined backwards, thus approaching noticed in the article Serpents and more fully detailed in nearer to the ophidian type; in the latter species (Epicrium this.
-Rhinatrema—bivittatum) the palatal series, instead of Professor Owen observes that in the extinct family of the ranging concentrically with the outer row, is chevron-shaped Labyrinthodonts (SALAMANDROIDES), the Batrachian type of with the angle turned forwards and rounded off. The teeth organization was modified so as to lead directly from that of the Cæciliu are sub-transparent; their intimate strucorder to the highest form of repliles, viz. the loricate or ture corresponds with that of the frog's tooth; but their crocodilian Saurians; that some of the existing edentulous mode of implantation resembles that of the teeth of the genera of the Bufonide (Frogs) connect the Batrachian Labyrinthodonts, the base being anchylosed to the parietes with the Chelonian order, and that the family founded of a shallow alveolus.' (Odontography.) upon the Linnean genus Cæcilia forms the transition to In the junction of the vertebræ there is an entire differthe ophidian reptiles. The characters,' says the Professor, ence from that of the lizards and serpents, and a perfect
which retain the Ceciliæ in the Batrachian order are gene approximation to that of the perennibranchiate batrachians rally known, and may be briefly enumerated as the double and fishes. All the bodies of the vertebræ are hollowed, occipital condyle, the biconcave vertebræ, the smooth mu- 'both before and behind, by tunnel-shaped cavities, in which cous integument with minute and concealed scales, and the ligamentous fibres are implanted; they are not really arti· branchial apertures retained by the young some time after culated, but placed one upon the other. Their superior
their birth. In the fixed tympanic pedicle, and the anchy- spinous processes are like those of the Amphisbænd and : losed symphysis of the lower jaw, the Cecilie are also far those in ihe neck of birds, in other words, depressed so as to i removed from the typical ophidian structures; but the teeth, present only a slight carina. Each body of a vertebra is
in their length, slenderness, sharp points, wide intervals, furnished below with an apophysis curved backwards, and and diminished number, begin to exhibit the characters of forked forwards for the reception of the eminence of the the dental system of the serpent tribe.' (Odontography.) preceding vertebra. On the sides is seen a small projection,
The characters above set forth show the connection which on which one of the bifurcations of the rib is applied, for the these reptiles have with the Batrachians; but there is one other and longer fork rests upon an inferior eminence. The striking feature, metamorphosis, which is not yet quite satis- ribs are short, straight, direcied backwards, and triangular, factorily made ont. Muller indeed states that he had ob- forked as in the birds, and united to the vertebræ very nearly served young Cæcilice whose neck was furnished with small in the same manner. branchial fringes, as will be hereafter more particularly Respiratory System.-In Cæcilia lumbricoïdea the rudinoticed.
ment of a lung only has been observed ; and Meyer, who The departure in a degree of the Cæcilioïdians from the made this observation, and recognised also scales under the Batrachians is marked by the presence of small scales; by folds of the skin, conceives that these animals are species ribs which are forked at their vertebral extremity, and mucn between the two orders of reptiles which he indicates under more distinct than in the genus Pleurodeles ; by the ab- the name of Ophisaurians on account of the existence of sence of a sternum; and especially by the form and struc- the ribs and the presence of the single lung. Müller anture of the mouth, the aperture of which is small, the lower nounced the existence of branchial holes in a young Cæcilia jaw being shorter than the upper, and the teeth long, sharp, (hypocyanea) preserved in the Museum of Natural History and generally curved backwards.
at Leyden. He noticed an aperture of the size of a line on The Cæcilioïdians resemble many species of the osseous each side of the neck, at some lines' distance from the exfishes of the division of the Murænidæ in the form and tremity of the buccal slit
. This aperture was much wider structure of the skeleton, the articulation of the jaws, the than it was deep, situated in the yellow stripe which exists mode of implantation of the teeth, &c.; but the mode of on the sides. The edge of the hole was rough (âpre), and junction of the head with the spine by means of two con- ) in the interior were observed black fringes, which appeared
to be fixed to the horns of the os hyoïdes, or branchial arcs;
Siphonops. (Wagler.) but they did not project beyond the external orifices. The Generic Character. – Head and body cylindrical ; muzzle holes themselves are in free communication with the buccal short; maxillary and palatine teeth strong, pointed, and a cavity. It must be remembered that this observation was little recurved; tongue large, entire, adhering on all sides, made without dissection. The specimen is four inches and with a surface hollowed into small vermiculiform sinkings. a half in length, whilst an adult individual, which showed Eyes distinct through the skin. A fosset or false nostril in no trace of holes, was more than a foot long.
front of and a little below each eye. Generation. - Mayer thinks that he observed two intro MM. Duméril and Bibron remark that the species of this mittent organs in the Cæcilia. See further the remarks at genus generally have the muzzle shorter than the Cæciliæ, the end of this article.
which gives their mouth the air of opening less under the SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT.
head. The fossets or false nostrils are placed not under the
muzzle, but under the eyes, a little more or less forward. The position assigned to the Cæcilioïdians will be found The skin which covers the eye is sufficiently transparent to in the articles Reptiles and SERPENTS. We will only here enable the observer to see that organ through. The border add that Müller proposes for them the name of Gymnophids, of their nostrils and false nostrils are without the least ruhis first order of naked amphibians. The second order con- diment of a tentacle. Their teeth resemble those of the sists of the Derotremes, the third of the Proteïdians, the Cæciliæ ; but their tongue, whose surface is furrowed with fourth of the Salamandrines, and the fifth of the Batra- small vermiculiform sinkings, has no hemispherical protuchiuns. Tschudi arranges the Cæcilioïdians between the berances. Pipas and Salamanders, adopting the three genera of Wag Geographical Distribution of the Genus.—Two species ler, who placed them between the Amphisbænæ and the only are known, both American. Batrachians.
Example, Siphonops annulatus (Cæcilia annulata, Geographical Distribution of the Suborder.-America, Auct.). Asia, and Africa.
Description.-Muzzle very short, very thick, very much Genera.-Cæciliu, Siphonops, Epicrium, Rhinatrema. rounded, hardly less than the back of the head. Nostrils Cæcilia.
opening on the sides of the muzzle, entirely at the end, and Generic Character.—Head cylindrical; muzzle project- a little upward. False nostrils placed below each eye, and ing. Maxillary and palatine teeth short, strong, conical, and very slightly forward. Diameter of the body a sixteenth or slighily curved. Tongue velvety or cellulose, most fre- seventeenth of its total length: it is rather strong, and perquently offering two hemispherical convexities correspond- fectly cylindrical, of the same size throughout its extent. ing to the internal orifices of the nostrils. Eyes distinct or There are from eighty-six to ninety annular folds, slightly not distinct through the skin. A fosset or false nostril and equally separated from each other; these cease a litile below each nostril. (D. and B.)
in front of the vent, so that the skin of the terminal extremity of the body, which is rounded, offers no wrinkles.
MM. Duméril and Bibron state that in no individual could they discover scales in the thickness of the skin, where
they probably exist, as in the other Ceciliæ, but doubtless b
much smaller and more difficult of exposure, on account of the extremely close tissue, which renders it as it were cori
Colour olive or bluish-ash, but, in all, the circular folds have a white tint. Locality.-Cayenne and Surinam.
1. Ilead of Cæcilia lumbricoidea. a, seen iu profile : b, mouih open, to show the tongue, the teeth, and the in.
ternal orifices of the nostrils. (Dum. and Bib.) Geographical Distribution of the Genus.-Of the four species, one is Asiatic, one African, and two American.
Example, Cæcilia lumbricoidea.
Deseription.— The longest and most slender of the whole family, its length being more than vinety times the diameter of its body measured towards the middle. MM. Duméril and Bibron state that individuals fifty-three centimetres long have the thickness of a stout goose-quill; cylindrical; its body however being rather smaller in its last part than its first, excepting at the extremity, where it is always a little convex. "The muzzle is wide and rounded; the maxillary and palatine teeth are rather long, sharp, a little sessile backwards, and separated from each other. The tongue adheres to all parts in the concavity formed by the submax
1, Siphonops annulatus very much reduced. a, head and neck seen in illary branches; its surface exhibits small vermiculiform profile ; 6, mouth open, to show the tongue, the teeth, and the internal orifices fulds and furrows, and there are two hemispherical convex
of the nostrils; C, termiual extremity of its body seeu below. (Dum, and
Bibr.) ities, corresponding to the internal orifices of the nostrils, which are great and oval. The external nostrils are two very Epicrium. (Wagler. Ichthyophis, Fitzing.) small lobes situated on each side of the end of the muzzle, Generic Character.- Head depressed, elongated; muzzle under which are seen two very small apertures, upon a por- obtuse; maxillary and palatine teeth of_loose texture (effition of the border of each of which there seems to be a lées), sharp, and couched backwards. Tongue entire, with small tentacle. MM. Duméril and Bibron were unable to a velvety surface; eyes distinct through the skin, a fosset perceive the eyes through the skin, which is perfectly smooth (with a tentaculated border ?) below the eye, near the border over the whole head; that which envelopes the body is of the upper lip. Body subfusiform, with numerous circular scarcely marked with circular folds, except at the posterior folds close-set one against the other. (Dum. and Bibr.) extremity, that is to say, at about the iwenty-secondth of Example, Epicrium glutinosum ; Cæcilia glutinosa, the length of the body, where there are from twelve to Linn.: the only species known. fifteen. When these folds are raised, large but delicate Description. The diameter of the body taken near the scales are discovered, bearing much resemblance to those middle is the twenty-second or twenty-third part of the total of the carp, forming one or two verticillations, in the com- length. There are about three hundred and twenty-five position of which they show themselves to be very distinctly folds, rather uniformly approximated. Those which occupy imbricated. The vent is situated under the terminal ex- the two first thirds of the length of the trunk do not comtremity of the body, which is rounded. The colour is of a pletely surround it, that is to say, they do not descend so as brownish or olive tint.
to meet under the belly. These same folds of the two first Locality.-Surinam.
thirds of the length of the trunk are remarkable for breakP. C., No. 1365,
ing on a point of their circumference, so as to form, each of
Pleurotoma. (Lam.) them, a very open chevron, the summit of which, directed Generic Character.–Animal ? forwards, is found placed on the medio-longitudinal line of
Shell fusiform, slightly rugose, with a turriculated spire ; the back. The other folds of the body, those, namely, which aperture oval, small, terminated by a straight canal more or surrouưd the last third of it, form complete rings. The less long. The right lip trenchant and more or less incised. scales which these folds hide are small, numerous, delicate, Operculum horny. transparent, subcircular, and offering on their superior sur
A. Species in which the incision is a little behind the face a small figure in relief, representing a net with quadri
middle of the lip, and the tube of considerable length. lateral meshes. A yellowish band extends to the right and
Example, Pleurotoma Babylonia. left all along the body, from the muzzle to the anal extre Description. The shell fusiform-turreted, transversely mity: above and below the tint is slate-colour.
carinated and belted, white, with black-spotted belts, the Locality.--Java and Ceylon.
spots quadrate; whorls convex; tube or canal rather long. Rhinatrema. (Dum. and Bibr.)
Locality. The East Indian Seas and the Moluccas. Generic Character.—Head depressed, elongated; muzzle obtuse; maxillary and palatine teeth of loose structure (effilées), sharp, and couched backwards. Tongue entire, of a velvety surface. Eyes distinct through the skin. No fossets, neither under the muzzle nor below the eyes. Body subfusiform, with numerous circular folds.
Example, Rhinatrema bivittatum ; Cæcilia bivittata, Auct. : the only species.
Description.- Head a little elongated and slightly de-
spire, and whose tube is short. (Genus Clavatula,
Pleurotoma auriculifera. This genus has been taken on different bottoms at depths varying from eight to sixteen fathoms.
Lamarck characterises 23 living species of Pleurotoma, Rhinatrema bivittatum. a, its scales.
and 30 fossil, the latter mostly from Grignon. Defrance MM. Duméril and Bibron terminate their account of the makes the number of fossil species 95. Caciliæ with the following information.
Mr. G. B. Sowerby has described in addition 36 living M. Leperieur, during his stay at Cayenne, having procured species collected by Mr. Cuming, M. Deshayes one, and a living Cæcilia, which he placed in a vessel filled with Dr. Turton one. (Synopsis Testaceorum; Zool. Proc., &c.) water, he saw it bring forth, in the space of some days, from M. Deshayes in his tables makes the number of living spefive to seven young, perfectly similar to their mother. Upon cies 71, and the number of fossil (tertiary) 150. Of these this MM. Duméril and Bibron observe that the Cæciliæ, in he records Pl. Cordieri, Caumarmondi, Vulpecula, craticuspite of their bearing a greater resemblance to the Batra-lata, and a new species as both living and fossil (tertiary). chians than to the other reptiles, must be ovoviviparous. In Europe the principal localities for the fossils are the The fecundation of their germs must be effected in the calcaire grossier, the London clay, the contemporary beds interior of their body; and their metamorphoses must take near Bordeaux, and the Subapennine beds. Dr. Mantell place in the body of their mother, as in the case of the notes an imperfect Pleurotoma in the blue clay of BracklesBlack Salamander of the Alps. (CECILIANS.]
ham. Mr. Lea has described and figured eleven fossil speSIPHONOSTO'MATA, M. de Blainville's name for his cies from the new tertiary at Claiborne, Alabama. Professor first family of SIPHONOBRANCHIATA.
Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison notice three species, prisca (?), The forms comprised under this family are principally to fusiformis, and spinosa, from the Gosau deposit and its be found under the extensive genus Murex of Linnæus. equivalents in the Alps; and Mr. Murchison records two All the known animals belonging to it are carnivorous and species, Pleurotoma articulata and Pl. corallii, in the Silumarine, and all are furnished with a horny operculum.
rian rocks. (Silurian System.) The Siphonostomata are thus subdivided by M. de Blain
Rostellaria. (Lam.) ville:
This genus, in our opinion, belongs to the STROMBIDÆ, * No persistent bourrelet on the right lip,
under which article it will be described.
Lamarck records 37 living species of Fusus, and 36 fossil, Generic Character. - Animal not differing much from nearly all from France, and principally from Grignon. Dethat of Murer.
france makes the number of ihe latter 70, four of which are Shell fusiform, often ventricose in the middle, rugose, analogues from Grignon, and one from the Plaisantin. thick, and with a very elevated spire; canal very straight M. Deshayes in his tables gives sixty-seven as the numand elongated; aperture oval; right lip trenchant, the left ber of living species of Fusus, and 111 as that of the fossil smooth.
species (tertiary): of these he records Fusi craticulatus, Operculum horny
rostratus, strigosus, lignarius, sinistrorsus, Tarentinus, antiquus, brevicauda, carinatus, despectus, and Peruvianus, both living and fossil (tertiary). Dr. Mantell notes one species (longavus) from the blue clay at Bracklesham. Professor Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison enumerate six species from the Gosau deposit and its equivalents in the Alps. Dr. Fitton notes Fusi clathratus, quadratus, rigidus, rusticus, and an indistinct species in the strata below the chalk. (Observations on the Strata between the Chalk and Oolite, &c., in Geol. Trans., 2nd series, vol. iv.) Mr. Lea records
sixteen new species from the tertiary beds at Claiborne, Animal of Pusus. a, operculum.
Alabama, and one from Maryland. (Contributions to GeoA. Turriculate or subturriculate, but not umbilicated logy.) species.
Shell pyriform, in consequence of the lowness of the rowed, white, the apex and base rufous; whorls convex, times slightly notched ; aperture oval
, rather large; coluspire ;
the canal conical and very long or moderate, somenodulously carinated in the middle ; canal long and slender; mella smooth and bent; right lip trenchant. the lip sulcated within, and denticulate on the margin. Locality.—The East Indian Ocean.
Description.-- Shell subpyriform, thick, ponderous, muricated anteriorly, of a rulous-bay colour; the last whorl crowned above with compressed tubercles; spire rather prominent; the sutures simple ; canal sulcated and subumbilicated.
Locality.—East Indian Ocean.
B. Species subturriculated and umbilicated. (Genus La
tirus, De Montf.) Example, Fusus filosus.
Description.-Shell fusiform-turreted, thick, knotty, but smooth to the touch, whitish yellow girt with numerous orange-red lines; whorls knoity above, the knots hemispherical; the aperture white; the lip striated within.
Locality.—The seas of New Holland.
B. Species with a long and rather narrow tube; spre Description.-Shell fusiform-turreted, very delicately striated transversely, shining, saffron-coloured or violaceous Example, Pyrula Spirillus. cærulescent, girt with articulated bay lines; lip sulcated Description.-Shell ventricose anteriorly, the canal very within; columella with one plait above; canal 'short and long, delicately striated transversely, white, spotted with emarginate.
saffron-colour; body-whorl abbreviated, carinated in the D. Species with the whorls of the spire rounded and middle, flattened above, tuberculated below the middle;
spire very much depressed, its apex mamilliferous. Example, Fusus Islandicus.
Locality.-East Indian Ocean. Coasts of Tranquebar. Description.-Shell fusiform-turreted, ventricose below, C. Species with a long and rather narrow tube, but sinisnot knobbed, transversely striated, white, the whorls con trorsal or left-handed, and with the indication of a vex; the lip thin, smooth within ; the canal rather short plait on the columella or pillar. (Genus Fulgur, De and subrecurved.
Montf.) Locality. The seas of Iceland.
Example, Pyrula perversa. E. Muricoïd species.
Description.-Shell sinistrorsal, pyriform, very ventriExample, Fusus muriceus.
cose, smooth, yellowish-white, ornamented with broad rufoF. Buccinoïd species.
fuscous longitudinal lines; the last whorl crowned above Example, Fusus buccineus.
with tubercles; the upper whorls tuberculiferous at the Fusi have been found on bottoms of mud, sandy mud, base; the canal or tube rather long and striated. and sand, at depths ranging from the surface to eleven Locality.--The Antilles. Bay of Campeachy. fatioms.
D. Species more ventricose and deicate.