« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Example, Pyrula Ficus.
Oporculum horny. Description.-Shell fig-shaped, delicately decussated, A. Fusiform, but not tuberculous species. cærulescent-grey; sprinkled with variegated bay or violet Example, Fasciolaria Tulipa. spots; transverse striæ the largest and most crowded; the Description.-Shell fusiform, ventricose in the middle, spire 'short, convex, mucronated at the centre; mouth unarmed, smooth, sometimes orange-rufous, sometimes coerulescent violaceous generally.
marbled with white and bay, girt with transverse browp Locality.—The East Indian Ocean, The Moluccas. lines unequally congregated; whorls very convex; sutures
fimbriated at the margin; tube suicated; outer lip white
Locality.-West Indian Seas; the Antilles.
large and wide, sensibly notched. Example, Pyrula Melongena.
Description.-Shell pyriform, turgidly ventricose, cærulescent, glaucous, or rufous, banded with white; the whorls channelled at the sutures; the last sometimes unarmed, but more frequently muricated, with various sharp tubercles; spire short, acute; aperture smooth and white. Locality.--West Indian Seas; Antilles.
Fasciolaria Tulipa, with the operculum in situ. F. Species still shorter ; aperture very wide; the right B. Fusiform and tuberculous species. lip subalated.
Example, Fasciolaria Trapezium. Example, Pyrula abbreviata.
Description.-Shell fusiform, ventricose, tuberculiferous, Description.-Shell sut pyriform, very ventricose, rather rather smooth, white or rufescent, girt with rufous lines; rough, transversely sulcated, cinerescent-white; the spire the tubercles conical, subcompressed, and in a single series rather prominent; the canal short, widely umbilicated; in the middle of the whorls; columella reddish-yellow; outer muriculated on the back with subechinate elevated furrows; lip elegantly striated within, the striæ red. outer lip striated within, and its margin denticulated. Locality. The East Indian Ocean.
Pyrulæ have been found on mud, sandy mud, and sand, C. Tuberculated and turriculated species. at depths ranging from the surface to nine fathoms.
Example, Fasciolaria filamentosa.
C.aiborne tertiary, Alabama.
Generic Character. - Animal imperfectly known.
Shell ordinarily turbinated, but also sometimes turriculated, rugous, thick; spire rather variable in form; aperture elongated, terminated by a straight canal, often sufficiently
short; the left lip nearly straiglit and formed by a callosity
A. Fusiform and nearly smooth species.
Description.-Shell subfusiform, ventricose in the middle, thick, very ponderous, unarmed, white; the whorls above covering the base of the preceding one; canal rather short; columella subquadriplicated.
Locality. The East Indian Ocean.
Descripion.-Shell subfusiform, ventricose in the middle, tuberculated, pale yellow; spire conical, tuberculato-nodose ; the last whorl crowned above with great tubercles; canal transversely sulcated; the columella orange-coloured and three-plaited.
Locality.—The East Indian Ocean.
Animal of Triton.
a, operculum. ribbed, fransversely sulcated, the ribs longitudinal and
A. Comparatively smooth species, with cordons slightly thick, the furrows smooth and red, and the interstices yellow; canal perforated, the aperture white.
or not at all marked, with the exception of that of the Turbinellæ have been found on bottoms of sandy mud,
right lip. at depths varying from the surface to eighteen fathoms.
Example, Triton variegatus, the marine trumpet or
Triton's shell. Lamarck records 23 living species, all from the seas of warm climates. Mr. Broderip describes three more brought ventricose below, girt with very obtuse smooth ribs, white,
Description.-Shell elongated-conical, trumpet-shaped, by Mr. Cuming from the Galapagos Islands, Elizabeth Island, and the Caracas. M. de Blainville observes that elegantly variegated with red and bay; the sutures crisped at when he wrote (1825) no fossils had been found. M. Rang white and with a single plait above; the edge of the outer
the margin; the aperture red; the columella wrinkled with (1829) states that there are fossil species. M. Deshayes, in lis tables, makes the number of living species 32 and the lip spotted with black, the spots bidentated with white. number of fossil (tertiary) 3.
Locality.—The seas of the West Indies and the Asiatic ** A persistent bourrelet on the right lip.
seas, especially those of the torrid zone.
Shell thick, turbinated, with a short obtuse spire; aperture narrow, elongated, terminated by a very short canal slightly notched, narrowed by a convexity at the internal side of the right lip and the plaits of the columella.
Operculum horny, very small.
Description.-Shell ovate-turbinated, transversely sulcated, white, painted with small, rufo-fuscous, transverse, subfasciculated lines, sometimes banded; outer lip denticu. lated within.
Locality. The Atlantic Ocean.
Columbella mercatoria. Columbellæ have been found on bottoms of sandy mud and mud at depths ranging from the surface to sixteen fathoms.
Lamarck describes eighteen species, all from the seas of warm climates. M. de Blainville acknowledges that this genus would perhaps be better placed among the operculated Angyostomata, or narrow-mouthed testaceous gastropods. M. Rang however arranges it between Triton and Turbinella. Mr. G. B. Sowerby has described thirty-nine additional species brought home by Mr. Cuming. Defrance notices one fossil species. M. Deshayes, in his tables, makes the number of living species thirty-three and
Triton Variegatus. of fossil (tertiary) four. M. de Blainville remarks that the Columbella avara of Say has not the character of the
B. Species more tuberculous, or spiny, whose aperture is thickened right lip.
more open, and terininated by a more or less ascending
canal. *(Genus Lotorium of De Montfort.) Triton. (Lam.)
Example, Triton Lotorium. Generic Character.–Animal a good deal resembling that Description.-Shell fusiform-turreted, distorted below, of Murer.
very much tuberculated, transversely rugous, and striated, Shell oval, with the spire and canal straight and moderate; rufous; the whorls above angulate-tuberculated; canal torordinarily rugose, furnished with few varices, which are scat- tuous, the extremity recurved, the aperture trigono-clontered and arranged longitudinally; aperture suboval, elon- gated and white; the outer lip toothed within. gated, terminated by a short open canal; the columellar lip Locality.—East Indian Ocean. less excavated than the right, and covered by a callosity. C. Species with a shorter spire, always very tuberculous, Operculum horny and inclined to oval.
most frequently umbilicated, a sinus at the posterior
junction of the two lips. (Genus Aquillus, De Mont- | verse, subgranulated, low ridges, the interstices between fort.)
which are longitudinally striated; the whorls armed with Example, Triton cutaceus.
one row of sharp tubercles, the middle of which are the Description.-Shell ovate, ventricose-depressed, cingu- longest, the other ridges of the body whorl obsoletely tuberlated, tuberculato-nodose, yellow-rufescent; the belts rather culated here and there; the columellar lip expansive and prominent, separated by a furrow; the whorls above angu- foliated, and the margin of the outer lip expanded and thin; lato-tuberculate, rather Hattened above; canal short, umbili. the aperture ovate, very strongly and thickly furrowed, of a cated; the outer lip notched within.
rich orange-colour, and terminating above in a deep foliated Locality.—The Atlantic Ocean.
sinus, which extends beyond the varix. (Brod.) D. Species like those of section C, but whose aperture is Locality.—The Mauritius.
closely narrowed by a callosity and irregular teeth. Ranelle have been taken on different bottoms at depths (Genus Persona, De Montf.)
varying from the surface to eleven fathoms. Example, Triton Anus, the Grimace of collectors.
Lamarck describes fifteen living species. M. Deshayes Description.-Shell ovate, ventricose-gibbous, distorted, has described another; and Mr. Broderip nine new species, flattened beneath ; nodulous above, subcancellated, white, eight of which were brought home by Mr. Cuming. M. de spotted with rufous; the aperture narrowed, sinuous, irregu- Blainville states that there is but one fossil species, but lar, ringent; the lip very much toothed; the canal short and allows that Defrance admits five, three of which, from recurved.
Italy, are identical. M. Deshayes, in his tables, gives the Locality:— The East Indian Seas.
number of living species as nineteen, and of fossil (tertiary) Tritons have been found on various bottoms at depths as eight: of these last he records Ranellæ gigantea, graranging from the surface to thirty fathoms.
nulata, pygmaa, and tuberosa, as living and fossil (terThe number of living species recorded by Lamarck tiary). amounts to fifty-one. Mr. G. B. Sowerby has described
Murex. (Linn.) eight additional species, and Mr. Broderip the same num Generic Character. - Animal furnished with two long and ber brought home by Mr. Cuming. Lamarck describes approximated tentacles; mouth without jaws, but armed three fossil species, all from Grignon. M. de Biainville states with hooked denticles in lieu of a tongue; foot rounded, that one of the species has its analogue. Defrance makes generally rather short; mantle large, often ornamented the number of fossil species ten, one from the Plaisantin, with fringes on the right side only; branchiæ formed of an analogue according to Brocchi. M. Deshayes in his two unequal pectinations ; anus on the right side in the tables, published before the descriptions of Mr. Sowerby and branchial cavity; orifice of the oviduct on the right side at Mr. Broderip, makes the number of living species of Triton the entrance of the same cavity; orifice of the deferent 43 and of fossil (tertiary) 25. Of these last, he records canal at the end of the exciting organ, on the right side of Tritones nodiferus, Lampas, Scrobiculutor, succinctus, clath- the neck. ratus, and unifilosus as both living and fossil (tertiary). Shell.—Oval, oblong, more or less elevated on the spiral Struthiolaria. (Lam.)
side, or prolonged forwards; external surface always interGeneric Character.
rupted by rows of varices in the form of spires or ramificaShell oval, the spire elevated, the aperture oval and tions, or simply tubercles, generally arranged in regular and wide; canal very short, very much notched; right lip sinu- constant order; aperture oval, terminated anteriorly by a ous, not toothed, furnished with a bourrelet; columellar straight canal, which is more or less elongated and closed ; border callous, extended; a sinus at the posterior union of right lip often plaited or wrinkled; columellar lip often the two lips.
callous. Operculum horny.
Operculum horny. Example, Struthiolaria nodulosa.
Description.-Shell ovate-conical, thick, transversely striated, white, painted with undulated, longitudinal, saffron-coloured flame-like lines; whorls angulated above, flattened on the upper side, nodulous at the angle; the sutures simple, the outer lip luteo-rufescent within.
Locality. - The seas of New Zealand.
Lamarck records two living species. M. Deshayes, in his tables, also makes the number of living species two; and he records one fossil (tertiary), with a query, from Paris.
Ranella. (Lam.) Generic Character.
Shell oval or oblong, depressed, having only two varices situated laterally; aperture oval; canal short, and a sinus at the union of the two lips, backwards.
A. Non-umbilicated species. (Genus Bufo, De Montf.) Example, Ranella granulata.
Animal of Murex. Description.-Shell ovate-acute, girt with closc-set granulated striæ, pale saffron colour, zoned with fulvous; colu
a, operculum. mella sulcated; outer lip thick and toothed.
A. Species with a very long and spiny tube. (Thorny Locality. The East Indian Ocean.
Woodcocks of collectors.) B. Umbilicated species.
Example., Murex Tribulus, Linn. (Murex tenuispina, Example, Ranella foliata.
Description.-Shell ventricose anteriorly, the tube very long, elegantly spired throughout its length, the spires set in triple order, each row at regular intervals, greyish or purplish grey; the spires very long, thin, rather closely set, and somewhat hooked; body of the sheil transversely suicated and striated; the spire prominent.
Locality. The Indian Ocean; Moluccas.
This is the Venus's Comb of collectors, and when perfect is a most delicate and striking shell. B. Species with a very long tube and without spines.
(Genus Brontes, De Montf.) Example, Murex Haustellum (Snipe's or Woodcock's head of collectors).
Description.-Shell anteriorly ventricose, naked, scarcely
armed, fulvous inclining to red, lineated with bay; body of Ranella foliata.
the shell rounded and furnished with three or more ribs Description.-Shell ovate conical, ventricose, not com- | between the varices; the tube ver, long and slender ; the pressed, of a flesh or pale rose-colour; with frequent trans- 1 spire short; mouth roundish, red.
D. Species with three ramified varices. (Genus Chico
reus, De Montf.) (Example, Murex adustus.
Description.-Shell abbreviate-fusiform, suboval, ventricose, thick, with three rows of frond-like ramifications, transversely sulcated, black; the fronds short, curved and dentate-muricated; the tubercle of the interstices very large; aperture small, roundish, white. Locality.--East Indian Ocean.
E. Species which have a greater number of varices; the tube nearly closed.
Example, Murex regius.
No description can convey an adequate idea of the splendid colouring of this species when it is in fine condition; the form is given below.
Locality.—The western coast of Central and South
F. Subturriculated species.
Description.-'Shell fusiform-turreted, thin, multifariously varicose, horny-fulvous; the varices thin and lamelliform; the interstices smooth; the whorls convex; the tube short. G. Subturriculated species; the tube closed; a tube
pierced towards the posterior extremity of the right side, and persistent upon the whorls of the
spire. (Genus Typhis, De Montf.) Example, Murex pungens, fossil. H. Species more globular; the spire and canal shorter,
very open; the aperture rather wide, Example, Murex vitulinus.
Description.-Shell ovate-oblong, ventricose, somewhat rough, with seven rows of varices, which are obtuse, asperulate, and ruddy; the interstices wbite; tube narrow, some
what acute ; the aperture white; the lip toothed internally Murex Tribulus (Common Thoruy Woodcock; Murex rarispina, Lam.): 1. Species which have an oblique fold very much anterior Locality, the East Indian Ocean; Moluccas.
to the collumella, and an umbilicus. (Genus Phos, De Montf.)
Murices have been found on different bottoms at depths ranging from five to twenty-five fathoms; and species of Typhis on sandy mud at depths varying from six to eleven fathoms.
Lamarck records 66 recent and 15 fossil species, mostly from Grignon. To the recent species are to be added 26 Murices described by Mr. Broderip from specimens brought home by Mr. Cuming, and 5 of Typhis (recent), also described by Mr. Broderip.
M. de Blainville remarks that among the fossil species of France there is no true analogue; but he adds that Defrance,
who admits 50 fossil species, counts 30 analogues from the Murex Haustellum,
Plaisantin, after Brocchi. C. Species with three elevated, flattened, and ampa M. Deshayes, in his tables, makes the number of recent ratively thin varices.
species of Murex (apparently including Typhis) 75, a numExample.-Murex acanthopterus.
ber much below the roark, and gives 89 as the number of Description.— Shell oblong, fusiform, trialated, trans- fossil species (tertiary). Of these last he records the fol· versely sulcated and striated, white; the alæ membrana- lowing as having been found both living and fossil (tertiary): ceous; whorls angulated; aperture ovate-rounded.
-cornutus, Brandaris, trunculus, erinaceus, triplerus, Locality. - East Indian Seas.
cristatus, fistulosus, tubifer, a new species, elongatus, angularis, sa rutilis (var.), another new species, Lasseignei, and a third new species.
Dr. Mantell records one species (argutus) from the blue clay of Bracklesham (Sussex); and another (Smithii) from the arenaceous limestone of Bognor. Professor Phillips names one (Haccanensis) from the coralline oolite of Yorkshire. Dr. Fitton records one (Calcar) from the gault of Kent and Blackdown; and Mr. Lea one from the Claiborne tertiary, Alabama.
The ENTOMOSTOMATA and Siphonostomata may be considered as the two great tribes of carnivorous gastropods or trachelipods appointed to keep down the undue increase of the ConchiFERA and herbivorous gastropods, whose shells the majority of those carnivorous testaceans penetrate by means of an organ which makes a hole as truly round as if it had been cut by an auger, and then feed on the juices of the included animal.
Dr. Buckland notices tliis habit with a view to the condition of the testaceous inhabitants of the earlier seas of our planet with his wonted felicity. Most collectors,' says the Professor, ' have seen upon the sea-shore numbers of dead shells, in which small circular holes have been bored by the predaceous tribes, for the purpose of feeding upon the bodies of the animals contained within them: similar holes occur
in many fossil shells of the tertiary strata, wherein the shells Murex regius,
of carnivorous trachelipods also abound; but perforations of
this kind are extremely rare in the fossil shells of any older may have some notion of its relationship to the other peren formation. In the green-sand and colite they have been nibranchiate Batrachians. roticed only in those few cases where they are accompanied Cuvier then remarks that the Axolotl approaches nearly by the shells of equally rare carnivorous mollusks; and in to the Salamander, and especially to its larva. The cranium the lias and strata below it,* there are neither perforations, of the Axolotl is indeed more depressed; its sphenoïd bone nor any shells having the notched mouth peculiar to perfo- wider and flatter; the bones of the nose proportionally rating carnivorous species. It should seem from these smaller; the ascending apophyses of the intermaxillary bones facts that, in the economy of submarine life, the great longer and narrower; but, especially, in lieu of those large family of carnivorous trachelipods performed the same and fixed bones which Cuvier calls vomers or palatines, necessary office during the tertiary period which is allotted there are two oblong plates detached from the cranium beto them in the present ocean. We have further evidence set with teeth in quincuncial order, and continuing themto show that in times anterior to and during the deposition selves with the pterygoïds, which reach them because they of the chalk, the same important functions were consigned are longer than in the Salamander, and which also carry to other carnivorous mollusks, viz. the testaceous cephalo- teeth in front on their external edge. Behind, these pterypods: these are of comparatively rare occurrence in the goïds are widened, without always articulating themselves tertiary strata and in our modern seas; but throughout the to the sphenoïd, as in the Salamander of the Alleghanies. secondary and transition formations, where carnivorous tra- [SALAMANDRIDÆ, vol. xx., p. 332.] The space betwcen the chelipods are either wholly wanting or extremely scarce, orbital and the petrous bone is also more considerable than we find abundant remains of carnivorous cephalopods, con- in the Salamanders. The lower jaw has a regular dental sisting of the chambered shells of nautili and ammonites, portion forming the symphysis and the greatest part of the and many kindred extinct genera of polythalamous shells external surface, and armed all along its superior edge of extraordinary beauty. The molluscous inhabitants of all with small, fine, and pointed teeth; an articular portion, these chambered shells probably possessed the voracious which doubles the posterior part of the internal surface of habits of the modern cutile-fislı; and by feeding like them the preceding, forms the posterior angle and carries the upon young testacea and crustacea, restricted the excessive articular tubercle; lastly, there is a true opercular bone, increase of animal life at the bottom of the more antient long and delicate, covering at the internal surface the inseas. Their sudden and nearly total disappearance at the terval of the two preceding, but furnished throughout with commencement of the tertiary era would have caused a very small pointed teeth arranged in quincuncial order. blank in the" police of nature," allowing the herbivorous And this is the structure which we find in the Siren, with tribes to increase to an excess that would ultimately have this difference, that the dental portion in the latter has no been destructive of marine vegetation, as well as of them- true teeth, which are only seen on the opercular bone. selves, had they not been replaced by a different order of In all the Axolotls that Cuvier examined, the branchial carnivorous creatures, destined to perform in another man- apparatus was cartilaginous. It consisted of two suspensory ner the office which the inhabitants of the ammonites and branches, or anterior horns, asfixed to the cranium under the various extinct genera of chambered shells then ceased to fenestra rotunda, carrying an unequal piece, to which two discharge. From that time onwards we have evidence of lateral branches were attached on each side: the first carried the abundance of carnivorous trachelipods, and we see good the first arch of the branchiæ; the second, the three others. reason to adopt the conclusion of Mr. Dillwyn, that in the The first of these arches had dentilations on its posterior formation above the chalk the vast and sudden decrease of border; the two intermediate ones, on both their borders. one predaceous tribe has been provided for by the creation Under tbe unequal piece was one which went backward, of many new genera and species possessed of similar ap- and whose extremity was bifurcated. petencies, and yet formed for obtaining their prey by habits When Cuvier wrote this description in the Ossemens entirely different from those of the cephalopods. The design Fossiles), he thought that this animal was the larva of some of the Creator seems at all times to have been to fill the unknown Salamander; but in his last edition of the Règne waters of the seas and cover the surface of the earth with Animal he corrected this conjecture, and placed it where all the greatest possible amount of organised beings enjoying zoologists now place it, among the Batrachians. life ; and the same expedient of adapting the vegetable SIREN (Zoology), a genus of Perennibranchiate Batrakingdom to become the basis of the life of animals, and of chians. multiplying largely the amount of animal existence by the Generic Character.-Form elongated, nearly like that of addition of curnivora to the herbivora, appears to have the eels; branchial tufts three on each side; no posterior prevailed from the first commencement of organic life to feet, nor any vestige of a pelvis; head depressed; gape of the ihe present hour.' (Bridgewater Treatise.)
mouth not wide; muzzle obtuse; eye very small; the ear Sİ'RACUSE. [SYRACUSÆ.]
concealed; lower jaw armed with a horny sheath and SIRE'DON, Wagler's name for the Axolotl. Since several rows of small teeth; the upper jaw toothless; but that article was written, further information has been ob- numerous small, pointed, retroverted teeth occur on the palatained relative to the structure of this genus of perenni- tal region. (SALAMANDRIDE, vol. xx., p. 328.] branchiate Batrachians. The form and character of the Dr. Garden appears to be the first who called attention to teeth, as given by Professor Owen, will be found in the ar- this form, which is declared by Cuvier to be one of the ticle SALAMANDRIDÆ, vol. xx., p. 328, and we avail ourselves most remarkable of the class of Reptiles, and indeed of the of this opportunity to introduce a reduced copy of the figure whole animal kingdom, from the anomalies of its organizaof the animal, lately published by MM. Duméril and Bib- tion, and its apparent relationship with different families, ron, to whose excellent work on Reptiles we refer for the and even classes. Dr. Garden (1765-1766) sent a descriplatest particulars known.
tion of this reptile to Linnæus and Ellis, and the former, relying upon Dr. Garden's assurance that the Siren did not change its form, established an additional order for it in his class Amphibia, with the name of Meantes.
Pallas, Hermann, Schneider, and Lacépède however saw, as Cuvier remarks, nothing more in the Siren than the larva of some large unknown Salamander; whilst Camper, followed by Gmelin, went so far as to give it a place among the fishes. The latter arranges it at the end of the Eels, under the name of Muræna Siren. These differences of opinion sufficiently show the doubts which arose on the ex amination of this extraordinary form..
Cuvier, in 1807, satisfactorily established, in a memoir read to the Institute of France, and inserted in the 1st rol. of the ‘Zoological Observations of Humboldt,' that whatever
changes it might undergo, the Siren was a reptile sui geSiredon seen in profile; a, mouth seen in front, open to show the teeth.
neris, which never could have hind feet, and whose whole We shall confine ourselves in this article to an account of bony framework differed essentially from that of the Salaits organization, as observed by Cuvier, so that the reader manders; that there was no probability that it ever changed
• Carnivorous gastropods occur in the Silurian rocks; and the long tube of its form or lost its branchiæ; and that the Siren is consethe Siphonostomata is equally characteristic of carnivorous habits with the notch of the Entomostomata,
quently a true amphibian, which respires at will throughout