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SIKE or SIECKE, HENRY, an Oriental scholar of ed; leaves lanceolate, lower ones obtuse; calyx very villous, some repute, who lived in the latter half of the seventeenth with short teeth; petals roundish, entire, with toothed apand the beginning of the eighteenth centuries. He was a pendages. The petals of this plant are of a deep crimson native of Bremen, and a professor of Oriental languages at with pale edges, giving them the appearance of having Utrecht, and afterwards at Cambridge. It appears that been stained with blood in the centre; hence their specific owing to some misdemeanor he was to be subjected to
It is a native of Spain, France, and Italy, and has punishment; and order to escape from this disgrace, he been found in the county of Kent in Great Britain. It is put an end to his life by banging himself in 1712. The only frequent in gardens, but loses by cultivation much of the work of any note which he published is the ‘Evangelium colour of its flowers. Infantiæ Christi, adscriptum Thomæ,' 1697, 8vo., a very S. muscipula, Spanish or Fly-trap Catchfly: plant curious apocryphal gospel. It is reprinted in Fabricius's smoothish, elammy; stem erect; branches alternate, long ; *Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti, tom, i., pp. 127-212, lower leaves lanceolate, upper ones linear; Howers panicled; Sike also founded with L. Küster, at Utrecht, the literary calyx clavate, netted; petals bifid. It is a native of Spain, periodical called • Bibliotheca Novorum Librorum,' to which with intensely red petals. It is exceedingly clammy, so he contributed several papers.
that when thies alight on it they are caught; and hence the (Saxii Onomasticon Literarium, V., 490, &c.)
name Catchtly, which is given to the whole genus, though SIKHS. [HINDUSTAN. p. 233.]
few of the species possess the property. SILBURY HILL. (WILTSHIRE.]
8. fruticosa, shrubby Catchtly: stem shrubby at the SILCHESTER. (HAMPSHIRE.]
base, much branched, tufted ; flowering stems simple; SILENA'CEÆ, a natural order of plants, belonging to leaves obovate, dark-green, permanent, ciliated, particularly the syncarpous group of the Polypetalous subclass of Exo- towards the base; flowers crowded ; calyx clavate; petals gens. This order is a part of the larger order Caryophylleæ deeply emarginate, obtuse, with 4-parted appendages. This (CARYOPHYLLEÆ] of Jussieu, and was originally separated plant is a native of Sicily and of the island of Cyprus, and by De Candolle. It has since been adopted by Bartling grows among rocks. It is frequently cultivated in gardens, and Lindley in their systematic works. It differs from the and makes a handsome ornament. remaining portion of the order Caryophylleæ, which are now S. compacta, close-flowered Catchfly plant glabrous, called Alsinacew, in the possession of a tubular calyx, and glaucous; stem erect, branched ; leaves ovate-cordate, ses petals with claws.
sile; flowers crowded into dense corymbs ; calyx very long; SILE'NE. the name of an extensive genus of plants be petals entire, obovate, crowned. It is a native of Russia, longing tu the natural order Caryophyllacea. It is known and very nearly resembles the S. urmeria, but is distinguished by its having a tubular, naked, 5-toothed calyx ; 5 bifid by its entire petals. It is one of the most beautiful of the unguiculate petals
, which are usually crowned in the throat genus, and deserves a place in every collection of Howers. with 5 bifid scales, 10 stamens; 3 siyles ; capsules 3-celled In the cultivation of the species of Silene no great art is at the base, ending in 6 teeth at the apex. The species are required. The hardy kinds may be planted in the open m general herbaceous, many of them are annual, very few border, and the smaller species are well adapted for ruck shrubby. Their stems are leafy, jointed, branched, and work. The seeds of the hardy annual kinds may be sowa frequently glutinous below each joint. The calyx and in the beginning of the spring, where they are to remain deafstalks are also frequently viscous. The leaves are oppo: The perennial kivds are best increased by dividing them at site, simple, and entire. The petals are mostly red and the roots in the spring. The greenhouse kinds thrive rest while. sometimes greenish or yellowish. Some of them in a rich light soil ; the cuttings of shrubby species should give off a delicious perfume, especially at night. The ex be placed under a hand-glass. tent of this genus is very great, and constant additions are SILE'NUS (Leilnvós), a Greek deity. The traditions of being made to it by the collections of travellers. The his birth are various he is said to be son of Pan, of a greatest proportion are in habitants of the South of Europe nymplı, of the earth, and to have sprung from the blood of and Norih of Africa. Don, in Miller's Dictionary, enume Uranus. He was the instructor of Bacchus, a lawgiver and rates 256 species of this genus; of these we shall give a few prophet, sometimes con founded with Bacchus himself, of examples of the more common and interesting forms. ihe family of Satyrs, whom he resembled very much in
S acuulis, stemless Catchtly, or Moss Campion whole appearance and habits. He is represented as an old man, plant glabrous, cespitose; leaves linear, ciliated at the base; bald, with a beard, and depressed nose, sometimes with peduncles solitary, l-flowered ; petals crowned, slighily a tail, at times bolding the infant Bacchus in his arms, notched. It is a native of Europe, and is found abundantly or with a wine-skin on his shoulders. He has a conspion the Alps. It is found on nearly all the Scottish moun cuous place in the Bacchic chorus, and occurs in various tains, and also on Snowdon, and the highest hills of De combination with fauns and nymphs. Though endowed vonshire. Chamisso also gathered it on the islands of the with supernatural wisdom, he is of a comic disposition; western coast of North America. The flowers are of a his whole cliaracter is a mixture of jest and earnest; beautiful purple colour, and it forms one of the greatest he is harmless, sportive, fond of children, addicted to ornaments of our Alpine Hora. Several varieties of this wine; sometimes he rides on his ass reeling and supplant have been recorded, varying chiefly in the form and ported by a satyr; is said to have conducted Bacchus existence of parts of the flower.
from Thrace to Phrygia; and to have been ensnared by S. inflata, bladder Campion or Catchfly: stems branched ; Midas in a garden, and compelled to exert his marvellous flowers numerous, panicled; calyx indlated, netted ; petals power of speech. His discourse was of the second world, deeply eloven, scarcely any crown; leayes oyato-lanceolate. of the land of Meropis, and of its strange men, beasts, and
This is a very common plant throughout Europe, and is plants, of the origin of things and birth of the gods, and he met with in almost every field and wayside in Great Britain. showed the miserable condition of this present life. In all Like most plants that are widely and largely diffused. that he uttered was an irony consistent with his motley chamany varieties of it have been recorded. This plant has racter. The ass by which he is accompanied has given rise been recommended to be cultivated in the garden on account to many conjectures; the Bacchic myths and those of of its edible properties. The shoots gathered young, when Apollo speak of this animal as sacred to both deities. It about two inchos high, and boiled, are a good substitute for may therefore be considered as the link uniting the two green peas or asparagus. They are thus eaten by the na- worships, and we find accordingly Apollo called the son of tives of Zante, and in 1685 the inhabitants of Minorca are Silenus. (Porphyry, Vit. Pythag., p. 10, ed. Rome, 1630.) said to have been saved from famine, oceasioned by a swarm Attempts have been made by Bochart and others to conof locusts, by using this plant as food.
nect Silenus with the name Shiloh in Scripture, and his S. noctiflora, night-flowering Catchfly: panicles forked; ass with that of Balaam. Other imaginary resemblances are petals bifid; calyx with long teeth, oblong in fruit, with ten noticed by Creuzer (Symbolik), founded on the theory that connected ribs ; leares lanceolate, lower ones spathulate; the ass is the symbol of prophecy in the East. The myth whole plant clammy, pubescent. It is a native of Sweden, of Silenus has been further thought by Creuzer to have Germany, and Great Britain; it resembles very much the reference to cosmogony. He quotes Porphyry (Euseb., Pr. common red and white campion (Lychnis dioica). It is Ev., iii., p. 110, Cologne, 1687) in support of this opinion, not a common plant, and is remarkable for opening its and considers Silenus as' the half-embodied soul of the uniflowers at night only, and in warm weather, when they ex verse, the struggle of the shapeless into shape, or, to speak hale a powerful and delicious scent.
physically, the moist breath which, according to the EgypS.quinquevulnerata, five-wounded Catchfly.stems branch. I tian and old Ionian philosophies, nourishes the stars.'
This theory is made still further to interpret the connection | 4950 feet above the level of the sea, the Glatz Mountains, &c. between Silenus and Bacchus, and the various modes in in the interior there are some ranges unconnected with the which he is represented on antient monuments: the argu- great chain-the principal of which is the Zobtengebirge, ments on which it rests are however too numerous and in- 2318 feet above the level of the sea. On the right side of the tricate to be here entered upon.
Oder, from the part where its course is to the northward, the The distinction between Sileni and Satyrs does not appear high land disappears, and those immense plains begin which very clearly made out. According to authorities quoted by haracterise this part of Europe. The Oder, called by the comCreuzer, the Sileni are the older of the two. The terms mon people the Ader, that is, the vein,' comes from Moravia, were certainly not co-extensive; that of Satyr may be con and receives all its rivers, with the exception of some on the sidered as the genus. They were mostly represented in the frontiers. The principal are the Elsa, the Klodnitz, the sáme manner, with beards, tails, and pricked ears like Slober, and the Bartsch, on the right side; the Oppa, the beasts. In the procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus (Athen., Neisse, the Oblau, and the Kafzbaeh, on the left." There v. 197) țhey were dressed differently from each other, and are few lakes, and those which are so called are rather the Sileni have sometimes a more buman form. See Creu- large ponds. The largest are the Koschnitz, Moswitz, and zer's Symbolik,'and Grüber's “Worterbuch der Mythologie,' Schlawer lakes. The last is however four miles in length, for representations of Silenus; Millin's Galérie Mytholo- but nowhere above a mile in breadth. The climate varies gique," and the various works on gems, sculpture, vases, and very much in the different parts of the province. The air other monuments of classical antiquity.
on the whole is very mild, except in the mountainous tracts; SILESIA. This country, which is now divided between but in proportion as we approach the southern frontier, the Prussia and Austria, was once inhabited by the Lygii and temperature becomes lower, and the winter longer and more Quadi, who, in the sixth century, were forced to yield to the severe, which is owing to the elevation of the country, to pressure of a Slavonian tribe from Poland, by which event the extensive forests, and parily to the lofty Carpathians Silesia became subject to that country:
Under the do- and the winds that come from them. minion of Poland, the Polish language and manners, which Natural Productions.-The animals are-horses, horned still remain in the eastern parts of the province, and the cattle, sheep, goats, swine, game, fisb, bees; and domestic Christian religion, were introduced. To promote the latter poultry. Wolves are found on the Zubtengebirge, otters à bisbopric was founded in 906, at Schmogor, which was in the Bober, and sometimes beavers in the Oder. The afterwards transferred to Breslau. The country being in vegetable products are-corn, pulse,, garden vegetables, course of time divided and subdivided among the descen- fruit, flax, tobacco, hops, madder, woad, leazle, and timber. dants of Boleslaus III., king of Poland, numerous small The minerals are copper, lead, cobalt, arsenic, iron, and principalities arose. Being weakened by these divisions, zine. This last metal is found in Silesia and in the adand by the dissensions between the princes; it was subdued joining republic of Cracow in far greater quantities than by the king of Bohemia in the fourteenth century. Under in any other country in Europe. Other mineral products the dominion of Bohemia the doctrines of Huss, Luther, are sulphur, marble, alum, lime, and, above all, coal, of and Calvin gained ground, and their adherents obtained which from two millions to two millions and a half ions the partial exercise of their religion. With the Polishi are annually obtained, which are worth from 100,0001. to princes Polish manners and customs disappeared ; every- 130,000l. sterling. thing was placed on the same footing as in Germany; Though Silesia is on the whole one of the most fertile trade, manufactures, arts, and sciences Hourished. The and best-cultivated provinces of the Prussian monarchy, prosperity of the country would have been greater in and produces much corn, so that in good years it can export former times, had not the Protestants been so much op a portion to Bohemia, yet, as it is very densely populated, it pressed under the Austrian government. Austria, which ob- has not sufficient in unfavourable years for its own consumptained possession of Silesia, together with Bobemia, in the tion, and is obliged to import. The cultivation of polaearly part of the sixteenth century, retained it undisturbed toes has become much more general of late years. till the death of the emperor Charles VI. in 1740, on which The manufactures of Silesia are of the greatest importance, Frederic II. of Prussia revived a dormant claim to the and that of linen has exişted from a very remote time. It is western part of Silesia, which he immediately invaded; and carried on with little aid from machinery, and chiefly by the greater part was eederl to him in 1742, and confirmed to the country-people, though this branch of industry affords him by the treaties of Dresden, in 1745, and of Hubertsburg, them but a scanty subsistence; it is however their chief in 1763. Austria retained the smaller portion:
oceupation. Dieterici says: Á third part of all the looms SILESIA (in German, Schlesient), the Prussian Province at work in the Prussian dominions, viz. 12,799 out of 36,879, of, is situated between 49° 40' and 52° 8' N. lat., and between is in Silesia. The linen annually manufactured in Silesia 14° 25' and 19° 15'E. long. It is bounded on the north-west by is estimated at between eight and nine millions of dollars Brandenburg; on the north-east by Posen; on the east by (1,333,000l. to 1,500,0001.). Uncertain as such estimates Poland; on the south-east by Cracow and Galicia; on the are, the quantity, exported may be assumed to be worth south by Austrian Silesia , and on the south-west by Bohemia. between three and four millions of dollars. Woollen cloths Including the county of Glatz, and the Prussian part of Upper are manufactured in some towns, and cottons at ReichenLusatia, its area is 15,600 square miles. The province is bach. There are sugar-houses in several places; tanneries 210 miles in length from north-east to south-west, and from at Breslau and Schweidnitz, and breweries and brandy-dis70 to 80 miles in breadth from east to west. The river Oder, tilleries in most of the towns. With respect to spinning and which becomes navigable soon after entering the Prussian weaving, we may observe that machinery is beginning to be boundary, divides the province in its whole length into two introduced into some larger manufactories. The population of nearly equal parts, which are very different from each other. the province, which at the end of 1837 was stated at 2,679,473, Thať on the left bank, which is called the German side, is had increased, at the end of 1840, to 2,868,820. They are mountainous, but has a very fertile soil, which amply rewards mostly Germans, and some Slavonians of Polish origin. thie labour of the husbandman, and supplies almost the whole About half the inhabitants are Protestants, and the remainprovince. That on the right bank, called the Polish side, is der Roman Catholics, besides about 18,000 Jews: all have very different; it consists chiefly of a sandy and not very the free exercise of their religion. The province is divided fruitful soil. There are however some sandy tracts on the into the three governments of Breslau, Oppeln, and Lieg German side, and some rich and productive spots on the Polish nitz; and has twenty towns with above 5000 inhabitants, side. The country is highest on the south-eastern frontier, as noted in the statistical table in the artiele Prussia. Ali and declines more towards the north-western frontier, where the most important of these towns are described under it is the lowest.
their respective heads. Where the frontiers of Silesia and Bohemia meet, a AUSTRIAN SILESIA is that part of the province which was mountain-chain rises, which extends southwards to the retained by Austria in the treaty of Hubertsburg in 1763 sources of the Breswa and the Ostrawitza, where it joins the It is united with Moravia, with which it forms oue province. Carpathians, divides the basin of the Oder on the one side It is bounded on the north-west, north, and north-east by from those of the Elbe and Danube on the other, and forms Prussian Silesia, on the east by Galicia, on the south by the natural boundary between Silesia and Bohemia and Hungary and Moravia, and on the south-west by Moravia. Moravia. This chain, called by the general name of the Su- The area is about 1750 square miles, with 430,000 inhabidetic chain, is divided into different parts, bearing different tants, who are partly of German and partly of Slavonian names, as the Isergebirge, the Riesengebirge, the loftiest and origin. Next to the kingdoms of Lombardy and Venice, it wildest part of the whole chain, the Schneekoppe, which is I is the most densely peopled part of the Austrian dominions.
The country is mountainous, and on the south-east are the small town-situated somewhat to the south of their southern Carpathians (of which the Sigula is 4300 feet high), and on termination. But in proceeding farther east, the mountainthe north-west the Moravian-Silesian chain, a branch of the mass rises gradually in elevation, and occupies a greater Sudetes. Near the Carpathians, and about the source of breadth. In 90°20' E. long. it has attained a general elethe Oppa and the Mohra, the climate is cold, and the vation of more than 2000 feet above the sea-level, and mountains are partly covered with snow till the middle occupies a width of about 50 miles. We are only acquainted of June. The southern part of the circle of Teschen is not with the outer border of this mountain-mass, where it confruitful, the soil being stony; in other parts it is better. sists of ridges broken by numerous watercourses, and is The principal rivers are the Oder, with its tributaries the entirely covered with trees and dense underwood. Some Oelsa and the Oppa; the Vistula (in German, the Weichsel) | isolated peaks rise 2000 feet above the general level of the rises on the north side of the Carpathians from three sources, mass. According to information collected from the natives, called the Little, the White, and the Black Vistula; this the interior of this elevated region is nearly a level tablelast rises in the village of Weichsel, at the foot of the land, destitute of trees, and covered only with grass; and Tankowberg, which village gives its name (Weichsel) to the this is probable, as it corresponds to the characteristic feawhole river.
tures of the mountain region farther east. Only the lower The inhabitants have a very good breed of horses, and of portion of the Garrow Mountains is subject to ihe British, oxen, and especially a very improved breed of sheep. They are and united to the three divisions of Bengal, Rangpoor, Myvery skilful and industrious farmers. The manufactures, mansing, and Silhet. The interior, called Gonaser, or Ganesespecially those of linen and woollen cloth, are very im wara, is occupied by the Garrows, a mountain-tribe which portant. The exports are linen, thread, woollen cloth, wire, has never been subjected by the princes of Bengal, as the paper, earthenware, cheese, tlax, rosoglio, &c. The transit country is only accessible by long and winding mountaintrade is very profitable: the chief articles are Hungarian passes, which are so narrow as to be impracticable for and Austrian wines, Russia leather, tallow, linseed, and horses or other beasts of burden: they are properly only furs; Galician rock-salt, Moldavian oxen, Vienna fancy- paths over rugged crags, and along steep precipices, goods, &c. [MORAVIA; TESCHEN; TROPPAU.]
and through extremely narrow gorges. From these fastSILEX. (SILICIUM.)
nesses the Garrows inake incursions into the alljacent SILHET, or SYLHET, is a district of Bengal, lying countries, and hence several tracts of some extent along the along its eastern border, on the east side of the Megna, as boundary of their country have been entirely abandoned. the lower course of the Brahmapootra is called. Up to the They cultivate rice, millet, and cotton, and use as food year 1830 it consisted only of what must now be called several plants which grow wild in the forests, as different Bilhet Proper, or a country situated between 24° and 25° N. kinds of arum, caladium, and dioscurias. They cultivate lat., and 91° and 92° 30' É. long., which, according to the capsicum, onions, and garlic. They keep cows, goats, hogs, most recent information, contained about 4500 square miles, and eat cats, dogs, foxes, and snakes. Different kinds of and a population of 1,083,120, which gives 241 to the square deer are said to be common in Gonaser. mile. It is about 1300 square miles less than Yorkshire, Adjacent to Gonaser on the east, and only separated from but more populous, as Yorkshire, in 1831, did not contain it by ihe river Patli, is the mountain region of the Kasias more than 235 persons to the square mile. In 1830 the (Cussyas), which extends eastward to the river Kopili, an royal family of Kashar, a country east of Silhet, became atfluent of the Deyung, which falls into the Brahmapootra. extinct; and a few years later the raja or sovereign of This mountain region runs above 100 miles east and west, beJyntea: a country north of Silhet, was obliged to give up (ween 91° 10' and 93° E. long. ; and in proceeding eastward his territory to the British, and both countries were annexed it gradually enlarges in breadth from 50 miles to about 70 to Silhet. These two countries taken together are at least miles. This portion of the mountain region is much better three times as large as Silhet Proper, and the district at known than Gonaser, being subject to the British, who have present contains about 18,000 square miles, or two-thirds traversed it at iwo places in passing from Silhet to Asam, of the area of Ireland. Silliet, in this extent, lies between and who have erected on it several sanatory stations, anong 24° 10' and 26° 20' N. lat., and between 90° and 94o E. which that of Chirra Punji is very much frequented. The long. On the west it borders op Bengal, on the district of western road leads from Pondua in Silhet, through Chirra Mymansing, and on the mountain-region of the Garrows; Punji, Moiplong, Lombray, and Nungklao, to the banks of the on the north on Asam; on the east on Muneepoor, and on river Kailasi, an affluent of the Brahmapootra, and to the low the south it is bounded by the unknown region called the land of Asam. The traveller, passing by a steep ascent over Tiperah Mountains or Wilderness. It is only towards Munee four ridges, arrives at Chirra Punji, which is 5000 feet above poor that it has a natural boundary, which is formed by the the sea-level. Here begios a table-land, the surface of wbich course of the river Barak, where it runs from south to is often level, but generally exhibits very gentle slopes, which north, east of 93° E. Jong., and by two of its confluents, the continues to Nungklao. The most elevated points are at MoipJeeree, which joins it from the north, and the Tooyaee, or long (5942 feet) and Lombray (5914 feet). At Nungklao it Chikoo, wbich falls into it from the south.
is only 4550 feet. North of the last-mentioned place it sinks Surface and Soil.—Silhet is naturally divided into two by three wide terraces with steep descents to the plain of regions. The northern part is a mountain region, which Asam. The table-land is entirely destitute of trees and extends along the southern boundary of Asam, and divides bushes, especially in the southern parts. This sterility, as that large vale from the valley of the Barak, which river, as Fisher thinks, is closely connected with the character of the far as it drains Silhet, runs through a wide valley that con- sandstone-rocks of which the mountain-mass is composed, stitutes the low and level portion of Silhet. The mountain and with the disturbance of the strata, but more especially region comprehends about two-thirds of the country, or the latter; for where the strata are horizontal, there is an 12,000 square miles, and the plain about one-third. absence of vegetation, and where the strata are inclined,
The Mountain Region, of which Silhet now comprehends symptoms of fertility begin to show themselves. Througl.nearly one-half, extends along the southern border of Asam, out ihe ascent from the plains of Silhet to Chirra Punji, and at its most eastern extremity, near 97° E. long. and the vegetation is only dense on the slopes; and where 28° 40' N. lat., at the sources of the Lohit river, or Brah- ledges or steppes occur, it is comparatively barren. The mapootra, it is united to the high table-land of Central table-land itself is covered with a short turf, and there Asia. Its western extremity comes close to the Brahma- occur only a few bushes, as raspberries; stunted fir-tsees pootra, where this river, after leaving Asam, forms its only occur in the glens which are formed by the rivergreat bend to the south (90° E. long.). The western coarses-as, for instance, in that of the Bogapani. To the portion of this extensive mountain region is called the north of this river the aspect of the country changes graGarrow Mountains, which are considered to extend east-dually; and though the elevation is greater, the vegetation ward to the river Patli, which, traversing the mountain increases, and continues to increase, until in the vicinity of region in a southern direction, joins the Soorma ntar i he Nung klao it becomes abundant, though it does not exhibit town of Laour (91° 10' E. lat.). The most western offset that excess which prevails farther to the north, on the lower of the Garrow Mountaitis skirts the banks of the Brahma- descent of the table-land towards Asam. This change is attripontra, between the mouth of the river Lalu and the village buted to the numerous large granite boulders which are scatof Mahendragandj. a distance of about iwelve miles. Along tered in great abundance over the country. The disintegrathe banks of the river the mountains are merely rocks, from tion of these boulders has largely contributed to the forma. 150 to 200 feet above the level of the river, rising wiib a tion of the soil, especially where it has been favoured by the sleep ascent. They are called the Caribari Rocks, from a l configuration of ihe surface. But in those tracts where
there are no boulders, and the strata preserve their hori- | to skirt the southern banks of the Sumoona, an affluent of zontal position, vegetation is deficient. The climate at the Deyung, the country north of that river constitutChirra Punji is very temperate and pleasant, especially be- ing a portion of the plain of Asam. It is much more thickly tween November and March. Neither snow nor frost inhabited than the table-land of the Kasia Mountains. Á occurs; but in December and January hoar-frost is very very large portion of it is fit for agriculture, and the small common. The sky is generally clear, but violent showers progress that both agriculture and population have made is frequently occur. The almost continual coolness of the air, inainly if not exclusively to be attributed to the unsettled and the absence of frost, has pointed out this place as a slate in which the country has been for a long time, under convalescent station. Near Moiplong however frost occurs the sway of petty sovereigns, who were never able to even in November, as the thermometer then descends to 21o defend their subjects against the incursions of the bold Nungklao has a more pleasant climate. The earlier part tribes who inhabit the mountains, especially the Angamee of the summer is not much warmer at that place than in Nagas. Some large tracts are quite uninhabited, though the London, as the thermometer ranges between 65o and 74o. vigorous growth of the trees shows the excellent quality of
Cultivation appears only on the southern declivity, and the soil. But along the large rivers and in their neighbourin the neighbourhood of Nung klao, where rice is grown in hood cultivated tracts and villages are numerous, and will considerable quantity. On the southern declivity of the increase, since the British have compelled the Angameo mountain-mass many fruits are cultivated, as oranges, plan. Nagas to keep quiet. The inhabitanis cultivate rice, and tains, and the areca palm; and much honey and wax is in the valleys of the hilly and mountainous part of the councollected. On the norihern declivity, where fir-trees cover try several kinds of coarser grain are grown; there is also a large tracts of land, European fruit-trees grow, especially very fine-flavoured kind of purple retch. About the vilapples, pears, and plums, and also strawberries and rasp. lages of the more elevated region there are grores of peachberries. The eastern road traverses the Kasia Mountains, be trees in the most luxuriant state, and the apple-tree grows tween 92° and 92° 20' E. long, from the town of Jynteapoor, wild and produces a well-tasted fruit. The bay-leaf and a the capital of the former kingdom of. Jyntea, to Raha very small kind of orange are also natives of these mounChoky in Asam, situated where the Deyung unites with tains. Cloth is made of a netile, which is procurable in the river Kulung. The southern edge of ihe mountain great abundance. On the lower hills cotton and chillies region, which is only a few miles distant from Jynteapoor, are grown as articles of commerce, and in these parts also seems to be formed by a ridge which is considerably elevated much wax and honey is collected. The cultivation of she above the table-land farther north, and which is traversed lower and level country resembles that of Asam, being simiby the mountain-pass of Mutagul. North of this ridge lar in climate and soil, but no part of it is subject to annual lies a plain, about 2000 feet above the sea-level, whose sur- inundations. face is undulating, and in some parts hilly, but it is covered The Plain. -Along the southern base of the mountain only with thick grass, without bushes or trees, except that region hitherto noticed there is a plain, or rather a vale, for in a few places, and at great distances from one another, along its southern side the mountain-system of Tiperah rises small groves of firs or other trees are met with. It cer to a great height. The length of this vale may be about 120 tainly might be used as pasture-ground, especially as the miles, and the width in the western half about 50 miles on climate is very mild ; but the few inhabitants say that they an average, but towards the east it narrows to 30 and even are prevented from keeping cattle by their neighbours, who 20 miles, until it is shut up by the Keibunda range, which frequently make prerlatory incursions into their country. lies near the boundary and within the territories of MuneeThis table-land occupies a width of 50 miles along the road. poor. As to the configuration of its surface and the capaciThe northern edge is less distinctly marked, and the descent ties of the soil, it may be divided into two portions. A line Oecupies about twelve miles. The nature of the table-land drawn from Chattac on the Soorma, south-west of Pondua precludes agriculture; but in the northern districts rice is (91° 49' E. long.), passing in a south by west direction west of raised in considerable quantity, particularly in the small Tajpur, through Nubigunj and thence to the bills south-east glens and on the sides of the valleys, where irrigation is of Turruf near the Tiperah Mountains, very nearly separates practised, water being brought to the fields through narrow these two tracts. The country west of this line is very low canals, and conveyed over hollows and up heights for short and level, and constitutes properly a portion of the lower distances by means of trunks of trees and bamboos. Rice portion of the plain of Bengal. It is in most parts marshy, and yams are cultivated, and a kind of coarse silk called and the whole is subject, like ihe greater part of Lower Benmong is collected on the trees.
gal, to periodical inundations of long duration, being in That portion of the mountain region which lies east of general under water from April to the middle of November. the Kopili and Deyung rivers, and extends eastward to the These inundations are partiy the effect of the heavy rains river Dooyong and the boundary of Muneepoor, comprehends which fall during the south-west monsoon, and partly of the Upper Kachar, and is called the Kachar Mountains. It is immense volume of water which is brought down by the likewise a table-land, the southern edge of which is marked rivers during that season, especially by those which drain by an elevated range, which continues to run east to 93° 12' the mountain-system of Tiperal, the Manu, Khwa-hi, and E. long., when it turns north-east and continues in that direc-Cognati. This lower tract is called Bhatia. The towns tion till it approaches 94o E. long., where it again runs east and villages, which in some parts, especially to the south, and stretches into an unknown country. Where this range are numerous, are built on mounds of earth; huts, ten; ples, runs north-east it is called the Bura Ail Mountains, and at mosques, and sheds for cattle are huddled together. tains a mean elevation of 6000 feet above the sea-level. It is When the inundations are at their height, there are from covered with large trees and light underwood. The southern 8 to 12 feet water on the lower grounds. As soon as they declivity of the Bura Ail Mountains is very little known, have sufficiently subsided, or in the beginning of Nobut it seems to be certain that this side of the range is vember, such lands as are high enough for the purpose are intimately connected with the three ridges which traverse sown with rice and millet; the crop is cut in April. The the western portion of Muneepoor, and by running north and lands yield only one crop. There appear occasionally a south unite the mountain region which we are now noticing little sursoo and hemp, with some gourds and cucumbers with the extensive mountain-system of Tiperah. The ridges about the huts. The marshes are however filled with cattle, are called, from west to east, the Keibunda, Kubitshing, and from which profit is derived sufficient to make the occupaMuneepoor Mountains. These chains and their numerous tion of these desolate tracts desirable. Ghee and cheese are short offsets render the western portion of Muneepoor a
made from the milk of buffaloes and cows, and the
upper rapid succession of elevated ridges and deep and narrow country, which lies farther east, is furnished with young valleys. The country which lies north of the Bura Ail Moun- bullocks for the plough. During the inundations the cattle tains, both near the range and to the distance of 10 or 12 are confined to the sheds and feed on green fodder brought miles, is covered with the high offsets of the range, and has in boats from the jhils or marshy tracts. an entirely mountainous character. North of this compara From this low country a few tracts of low and level land tively narrow mountain-tract the surface of the couniry is extend eastward of the line above indicated. They run up nilly. Most of the hills are isolated, but in some places for several miles, more especially between the courses of the they forta ridges. This hilly tract occupies a width of about great rivers, where they form jhils of great depth, which 20 miles, and it is followed by a plain. Both the hilly and are uncultivable. The remainder of the eastern division has level country are almost entirely covered with forests. The a higher level, and rises gradually towards the mountains norther edge of the table-land is marked by a range of low on both sides. This country is in general dry, though there hills, and a gentle descent, the greater part of which seems are some marshes of small extent. The surface of this divi.
sion presents great irregularities. It is crossed by several | windings through the upper plain in one channel for 40 ranges of alluvial formation, which run up into ridges miles, but having passed the northern extremity of the from one to three hundred feet high, and the valleys be- Banca ridge, it begins to divide at Banga. In these parts the tween rise gently towards each side. The banks of the name of Soorma begins to prevail. The northern arm, or Soorma and all the mountain rivers are also considerably the Soorma, flows along the southern base of the Kasia elevated above the general level ; the tracts which lie near Mountains with numerous windings, sometimes approachthe swampy places, and are not much elevated above their ing the hills and sometimes receding from them, until it level, are under water for some weeks, and yield only one reaches the town of Sonamgunj after a course of 90 miles, crop. They are sown in January, and the short inundation when it turns southward, and in that direction traversing does not damage the grain. The crops are much more the lower plain, joins the southern arm after having ran 70 abındant than in the Bhattå. The more elevated parts, miles. The southern arm of the river branching off at Banga which are never inundated, and especially the slopes of the bears different names, but in its upper course it is generally ridges, yield two crops of grain, which are generally good. known by that of Kusiara, and in the lower by that of Barak Some experiments which have been made show that wheat, or Brak. Its direction through the plain is west-south-west barley, oats, and potatoes might be raised. All the grains for about 100 miles, when it joins the Soorma, and the found in the plains of the Ganges are cultivated. Indigo is united river joins the Megna near Sunterampoor by a more not cultivated, but an excellent dye very similar to it is southern course of about 20 miles. These appear io be the obtained from a plant which grows wild on the hills. principal branches of the river, but both of them divide and Poppy, sugar-cane, safflower, súrsoo and other plants yield- subdivide again so frequently, that the whole of the lower ing oil, and also hemp and flax are grown. Orange-trees plain is traversed by numerous watercourses, all of which and the areca are cultivated on the declivities of the Kasia join, either singly or united, the Megna between the town of Monntains, and large quantities of the produce are annually Caribari and that of Sunerampoor, which are more than 100 sent to Calcutia and other places in Bengal. Areca of in- miles from one another. Nearly all these watercourses are ferior quality is found all over Silbet, but it deteriorates in navigable for boats, and greatly facilitate the transport of quality towards the east, and in Kachar it wholly disappears. grain from the upper plain of Silhet to other districts of Among other fruits the plantain is particularly fine, the Bengal. It is observed that these rivers are subject 10 lemon grows wild in the Kasia Mountains, and the apricot change their beds in the districts which approach tlre Megna, and lichi in those of Kachar. It is thought that the tea- which is the case with the Soorma itself below Azmeriplant would succeed in some of the alluvial soils of Kachar gunj. or Tiperah.
Of the rivers which join the Brahmapootra or Lohit, we The Tiperah Mountains, which lie to the south of the shall only mention the Dooyung and the Deyung. The plain hitherto noticed, belong to Sihet only so far as a por: first-mentioned river, which falls into the Brahmapootra tion of their lover declivities is included within the bound-west of 94o E. long., probably rises north east of the source ary of the district. We are not acquainted with the interior of the Barak, but its source has not been ascertained. Its of this extensive mountain-system. The central parts, be- course is nearly due north, and about 30 miles from its tween 230 and 24° N. lat. and 91° and 94° E. long., probably mouth it is joined on the left by the river Dhunsiri, which attain á great elevation, which may be inferred from the rises in the Bura Ail Mountains, and skirts their northern great volume of water brought down by the rivers which fall declivity for more than 30 miles. The Dooyung, as well from the south into the Soorma and Kusiara, as the Dela- as the Dhunsiri, is navigable. The Deyung rises in the seri, the Sungai, the Munu, the Khwa-hi, and the Cognati; Bura Ail Mountains near 936 E. long., and after having and from their rapid course. During the rains each of these been joined by some small rivers it becomes navigable about rivers discharges on an average a volume of about 25,000 20 miles below its source at Aloogong (25° 25' N. lat.), and cubic feet per second, though none of them are more than 50 continues to be navigable to its mouth, with the exception yards wide. It is certain that they have a long course, and of one place, where a ledge of rocks traverses the bed of the descend from a very elevated country. The northern por- river. The Deyung is joined from the left by the Kopili, tion of this mountain-region, towards Silhet, as well as that and from the east by the Soomoona river, of which the latter which towards the south enters the district of Chittagong, is navigable about 30 miles above its mouth. It is not consists of ranges running south and north, divided by wide known how far the Kopili is ravigable, but this important valleys. Some of these ranges enter the northern plain, as point will soon be ascertained, as it is supposed that a good the Banca Mountains, which extend along the western road, made between the places where the Kopili and the banks of the Delaseri, and the Bokman range in Kachar, Jatinga, an affluent of the Barak, become navigable, will which compels the river Barak to change its southern course establish an easy communication between Asam and the into a' northern one. Immense masses of lava occur even on plain of Silhet. the northern ranges of the Tiperah Mountains, and it is sup Climate.-Thé climate of the lower plain does not appear posed that this is the termination of the long series of vol- to differ in any respect from that of Bengal (BENGAL, vol. canoes which stretch from the island of Java northward iv., p. 230]; bui the upper plain has the advantage of earlier through Sumatra, Barten Island, the island of Naredndam, rains, which begin to fall in February, and become more and those of Cheduba and Ramri on the coast of Arracan, abundant in the following months. Owing probably to where the traces of volcanic agency are lost: they appear these rains, the lower plain of Silbet is under water earlier again in the Mountains of Tiperah. The southern declivi- than that of Lower Bengal. ties of the Tiperah Mountains are noted for immense Productions. In the forests of the Tiperah Mountains forests of bamboo and large herds of elephants. The there are herds of elephants, many of which are annually northern declivities are also covered with forests of trees sent to Caleutta, where however they are reckoned inserior and bamboos, from which the inhabitants of the plain derive in size and quality to those brought from Chittagong. great profit, but they resort also to these hills to cultivate Among the minerals the chunam, or lime, perhaps is still cotton, which does not grow in the plain. The quantity of the most important, as large quantities of it are taken from cotton which is raised is barely sufficient for domestic con- the lime-hills which skirt the Garrow and Kasia Mountains sumption. It is short in staple, but the cloths made from it at Pondua and farther west, whence it is conveyed by combine warmth with lightness.
water to Calcutta and other places in Bengal. Many years Rivers.-The largest of the rivers of Silhet is called in ago coal was discovered in the Garrow and Kasia Mounthe upper part of its course Barak, and in the lower part tains, but it was not turned to any profit until the introducSoorma. The Barak originates in the mountain region tion of steam-navigation. It is now known that coal is north of the plain of Muneepoor (MUNEE POOR), near 250 30' found on the table-land of the Kasia Mountains at ChirraN. lat. and ‘94° 20' E. long., and traverses in a south- Punji and Serarim, and at the base of these mountains near west and south by west direction the mountain region Silhet and Laoor. But none of these coal-deposits seem to which connects the Tiperah Mountains with the Bura Ail be extensive. It is however stated that those which occur range. After a course exceeding a hundred miles, it meets in the Caribari Hills and along the southern boundaries of with the Bokman ridge of the Tiperah Mountains, which Asam, both which localities are within the Garrow Mouncompels the river to change its southern into a northern tains, are not inferior in extent to any in England. Iron-ore course. Flowing in that direction 30 miles, it turns round is abundant in the Kasia Mountains north of Chirra-Punji, the northern extremity of the Bokman ridge westward, and where it is worked, and whence iron is sent to Bengal. thus enters the plain, where it begins to be navigable, à few Inhabitants. The inhabitants of Silhet Proper are Benmiles above Lukipoor. It runs westward with numerous galis, and hardly distinguishable from that race in the dis