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48. To the Student. The foregoing rules and regulations should be carefully studied by the student, for questions relating to them play an important part in the examination of navigators and pilots. In order to intelligently and unhesitatingly answer such questions, therefore, it is suggested that the student make a suitable number of small cardboard models of ships (see diagrams), and place on them, in the proper positions, colored marks to represent the various lights carried by ships at night. Then, by placing these models in every possible position and consulting the rules appertaining to each position, a few hours, study will be of considerable more value to the student than any number of questions asked and answered.

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES RELATING TO PILOT RULES

EXAMPLE 1.-Suppose that a steamer is steering south and hears two blasts of a fog horn on the starboad bow; what is the duty of the officer in charge of the deck in such a case, assuming the wind to be northerly?

Two blasts of the fog horn mean that the approaching vessel is close-hauled on the port tack and heads, therefore, about ENE (see Fig. 15); consequently, it is the officer's duty to port the helm until the fog horn is heard on the steamer's port bow. Ans.

EXAMPLE 2. - (a) What lights should be carried by a steam vessel when it is towing another vessel? (6)•What lights should the towed vessel carry? (a) A steam vessel when towing another

FIG. 15 vessel should, in addition to side lights, carry two bright, white lights in a vertical line, one over the other, not less than 6 feet apart.

Both lights must be of the same construction and character, and must be fixed and carried in the same manner as the masthead light. Such a steamer should also carry a small, bright light abaft the funnel or after mast for the towed vessel to steer by, but such light must not be visible forward of the beam.

(6) The towed vessel should carry, in addition to the regular side lights, a small, bright light aft, but such light should not be visible forward of the beam. Ans.

EXAMPLE 3. – What should be the dimensions of the lights carried by a steamer?

AP

There is no law for the exact dimensions of these lights, the requirements or stipulations by law being that the masthead light shall be of such character as to be visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere at a distance of at least 5 miles, and each of the side lights shall be of such character as to be visible at a distance of 2 miles. Ans.

EXAMPLE 4. – What are the fog signals for a steamer under way?

A steamer shall sound at intervals of not more than 1 minute, three distinct blasts of the whistle. A steamer with a raft in tow shall sound, at intervals of not more than 1 minute, a screeching, or Modoc, whistle for from 3 to 5 seconds. Ans.

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EXAMPLE 5. - Suppose that you are approaching another steamer nearly head on, her masthead light and both side lights being plainly visible, which blows two blasts. (a) What does that indicate? (6) How would you answer her signal, if circumstances permit you to comply with her request?

(a) It indicates that the approaching steamer is altering her course to port and intends to pass me on my starboard side.

(6) I would answer her by two blasts from my steam whistle. Ans.

EXAMPLE 6. – Referring to the preceding question, if circumstances do not permit you to comply with her request, if, for instance, the draft of your vessel does not warrant any deviation to the indicated side, what action should be taken?

If there were still a good distance between us, I would signal her with several short and rapid blasts and, if necessary, slow down my engine. To signal her with one blast in reply to her two is out of the question, since cross-signals are forbidden by Rule III, Pilot Rules. Ans.

EXAMPLE 7. - (a) If, in the meantime, the two steamers have drawn very close, what should be done to prevent a collision? (6) In this case who had the right of way, you or she?

(a) I would stop, reverse my engine, and signal her, by giving several short and rapid blasts, of my so doing.

(6) According to law, Rule I, Pilot Rules, I had the right of way, since when two steamers are approaching each other “head and head,” or nearly so, it shall be the duty of each steamer to pass to the right, or port side of the other, except that in all narrow channels where there is a current, and in the rivers Saint Mary, Saint Clair, Detroit, Niagara, and Saint Lawrence, when two steamers are meeting, the descending steamer shall have the right of way and shall, before the vessels shall have arrived within the distance of į mile of each other, give the signal necessary to indicate which side she elects to take. On the other hand, by virtue of having signaled me first, she had the right of way, although in the eyes of the law this would not be of sufficient grounds on which to base a claim for damage had a collision occurred. Ans.

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EXAMPLE 8. – When under way at night (a) if you see a red on your starboard bow, and later (b) a green light on your port bow, what would you do in each case, assuming your vessel to be a steamer?

(a) I would change my course to starboard, showing my red light to her red light and pass under her stern.

(6) If the green light belonged to a steamer, I would keep my course, having the right of way, Rule 1, Pilot Rules, and watch her closely to observe that she changed her course to starboard, if necessary to clear me and pass under my stern. If a sailing vessel, I would change my course so as to show my green light to her green light and pass under her stern. Ans.

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EXAMPLE 9. - Should a sailing vessel ever keep out of the way of a steamer?

Under no circumstances should a sailing vessel alter her course for the purpose of keeping out of the way of a steamer; a steamer, when under command, must keep out of the way of a sailing vessel under any and all circumstances. Only one exception to this rule exists, viz., when a sailing vessel overtakes a steamer it is her duty, Rule 22, being the overtaking vessel, to keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel. Ans.

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NOTE.- The student's attention is called to the special "Rules and Regulations Governing the Movements and Anchorage of Vessels in St. Mary's River," of January 22, 1901. The pamphlet containing these rules may be obtained from the Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C., or any of its agencies.

INSTRUCTIONS TO MARINERS IN CASE

OF SHIPWRECK

THE LIFE-SAVING SERVICE 49. The following information and instructions to mariners are furnished by the United States Life-Saving Service. The student should make himself thoroughly conversant with all its details so as to be able to give intelligent and satisfactory answers to any questions when examined on this subject.

50. General Information. – Life-saving stations, lifeboat stations, and houses of refuge are located on the

Atlantic and Pacific seaboards of the United States, the Gulf of Mexico, and the lake coasts.

All stations on the Atlantic Coast from the eastern extremity of the State of Maine to Cape Fear, North Carolina, are manned annually by crews of experienced surfmen, from September 1 to the May 1 following. On the Pacific Coast they are opened and manned the year round, with the exception of the station at Cape Arago, which depends on volunteer effort from the neighboring people in case of shipwreck.

All life-saving and life-boat stations are fully supplied with boats, wreck guns, beach apparatus, restoratives, etc. Houses of refuge are supplied with boats, provisions, and restoratives, but are not manned by crews; a keeper, however, resides in each throughout the year, who, after every storm, is required to make extended excursions along the coast, with

a view of ascertaining if any shipwreck has occurred, and finding and succoring any persons that may have been cast ashore. Houses of refuge are located exclusively on the Florida Coast, where the requirements of relief are widely different from those of any other portion of the seaboard.

Most of the life-saving and life-boat stations are provided with the international code of signals, and vessels can, by opening communication, be reported or obtain the latitude and longitude of the station, where determined; or information as to the weather probabilities in most cases; or, if crippled or disabled, a steam tug or revenue cutter will be telegraphed for, where facilities for telegraphing exist, to the nearest port, if requested. All services are performed by the life-saving crews without other compensation than their wages from the government.

Destitute seafarers are provided with food and lodging at the nearest station by the government as long as necessarily detained by the circumstances of shipwreck.

The station crews patrol the beach from 2 to 4 miles each side of their stations four times between sunset and sunrise, and if the weather is foggy the patrol is continued through the day.

51. Each patrolman carries Coston signals. On discovering a vessel standing into danger he ignites one of them, which emits a brilliant red flame of about 2 minutes' duration, to warn her off, or should the vessel be ashore, to let her crew know that they are discovered and assistance is at hand.

If the vessel is not discovered by the patrol immediately after striking, rockets or flare-up lights should be burned; or, if the weather be foggy, guns should be fired to attract attention, as the patrolman may be some distance away at the other end of his beat.

52. Masters are particularly cautioned, if they should be driven ashore anywhere in the neighborhood of the stations, especially on any of the sandy coasts where there is not much danger of vessels breaking up immediately, to remain on board until assistance arrives, and under no circumstances should they attempt lo land through the surf in their own boats until the last hope of assistance from the shore has vanished.

Often, when comparatively smooth at sea, a dangerous surf is running that is not perceptible 400 yards off shore, and the surf when viewed from a vessel never appears as dangerous as it is. Many lives have unnecessarily been lost by the crews of stranded vessels being thus deceived and attempting to land in the ship's boats.

The difficulties of rescue by operations from the shore are greatly increased in cases where the anchors are let go after entering the breakers, as is frequently done, and the chances of saving life correspondingly lessened.

RESCUE WITII TIIE

LIFE

BOAT OR SURF

BOAT

53. The patrolman, after discovering your vessel ashore and burning a Coston signal, hastens to his station for assistance. If the use of a boat is practicable, either the large life boat is launched from its ways in the station and proceeds to the wreck by water, or the lighter surf boat is hauled overland to a point opposite the wreck and launched, as circumstances may require.

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