15. Rectilineal figures are those which are contained by straight lines. 16. Trilateral figures, or triangles, by three straight lines. 17. Quadrilateral, by four straight lines. 18. Multilateral figures, or polygons, by more than four straight lines. 19. Of three sided figures, an equilateral triangle is that which has three equal sides. 20. An isosceles triangle is that which has only two sides equal. AAA 21. A scalene triangle is that which has three unequal sides. 24. An acute angled triangle is that which has three acute angles. 25. Of four sided figures, a square is that which has all its sides equal and all its angles right angles. 26. An oblong is that which has all its angles right angles, but has not all its sides equal. 27. A rhombus is that which has all its sides equal, but its angles are not right angles. ᄆᄆ 28. A rhomboid is that which has its opposite sides equal to one another, but all its sides are not equal, nor its angles right angles. 29. All other four sided figures besides these, are called trapeziums. 30. Parallel straight lines are such as are in the same plane, and which, being produced ever so far both ways, do not meet. POSTULATES. 1. LET it be granted that a straight line may be drawn from any one point to any other point. 2. That a terminated straight line may be produced to any length in a straight line. 3. And that a circle may be described from any centre, at any distance from that centre. AXIOMS. 1. THINGS which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another. 2. If equals be added to equals, the wholes are equal. 3. If equals be taken from equals, the remainders are equal. 4. If equals be added to unequals, the wholes are unequal. 5. If equals be taken from unequals, the remainders are unequal. 6. Things which are doubles of the same thing, are equal to one another. 7. Things which are halves of the same thing, are equal to one another. 8. Magnitudes which coincide with one another, that is, which exactly fill the same space, are equal to one another. 9. The whole is greater than its part. 10. All right angles are equal to one another. 11. "Two straight lines which intersect one another, cannot be both pa"rallel to the same straight line." PROPOSITION I. PROBLEM. To describe an equilateral triangle upon a given finite straight line. Let AB be the given straight line; it is required to describe an equilateral triangle upon it. From the centre A, at the distance AB, describe (3. Postulate) the circle BCD, and from the centre B, at the distance BA, describe the circle ACE; and from the point C, in which the circles cut one another, draw the straight lines (1. Post.) CA, CB to the points A, B; ABC is an equilateral triangle. Because the point A is the centre of the circle BCD, AC is equal (11. Definition) to AB; and because the point B is the centre of the circle ACE, BC is equal to AB: But it has been proved that CA is equal to AB; therefore CA, CB are each of them equal to AB; now things which are equal to the same are equal to one another, (1. Axiom); therefore CA is equal to CB; wherefore CA, AB, CB are equal to one another ; and the triangle ABC is therefore equilateral, and it is described upon the given straight line AB. PROP. II. PROB. From a given point to draw a straight line equal to a given straight line. Let A be the given point, and BC the given straight line; it is required to draw, from the point A, a straight line equal to BC. From the point A to B draw (1. Post.) the straight line AB; and upon it describe (1. 1.) the equilateral triangle DAB, and produce (2. Post.) the straight lines DA, BD, to E and F; from the centre B, at the distance BC, describe (3. Post.) the circle CGH, and from the centre D, at the distance DG, describe the circle GKL, AL is equal to BC. Because the point B is the centre of the circle CGH, BC is equal (11. Def.) to BG; and because D is the centre of the circle GKL, DL is equal to DG, and DA, DB, parts of them, are equal; therefore the remainder AL is equal to the remainder (3. F K H D B Ax.) BG: But it has been shewn that BC is equal to BG; wherefore AL and BC are each of them equal to BG; and things that are equal 1 to the same are equal to one another; therefore the straight line AL is equal to BC. Wherefore, from the given point A, a straight line AL has been drawn equal to the given straight line BC. PROP. III. PROB. From the greater of two given straight lines to cut off a part equal to the less. Let AB and C be the two given straight lines, whereof AB is the greater. It is required to cut off from AB, the greater, a part equal to C, the less. From the point A draw (2. 1.) the straight line AD equal to C; and from the centre A, and at the distance AD, describe (3. Post.) the circle DEF; and because A is the centre of the circle DEF, AE is equal to AD; but the straight line C is likewise equal to AD; of A E B whence AE and C are each of them equal to AD; wherefore the straight line AE is equal to (1. Ax.) C, and from AB the greater of two straight lines, a part AE has been cut off equal to C the less. PROP. IV. THEOREM. If two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other, each to each; and have likewise the angles contained by those sides equal to one another, their bases, or third sides, shall be equal; and the areas of the triangles shall be equal; and their other angles shall be equal, each to each, viz. those to which the equal sides are opposite.* A D Let ABC, DEF be two triangles which have the two sides AB, AC equal to the two sides DE, DF, each to each, viz. AB to DE, and AC to DF; and let the angle BAC be also equal to the angle EDF: then shall the base BC be equal to the base EF; and the triangle ABC to the triangle DEF; and the other angles, to which the equal sides are opposite, shall be equal, each to each, ÄÄ B E viz. the angle ABC to the angle DEF, and the angle ACB to DFE. F For, if the triangle ABC be applied to the triangle DEF, so that the point A may be on D, and the straight line AB upon DE; the point B shall coincide with the point E, because AB is equal to DE; and AB * The three conclusions in this enunciation are more briefly expressed by saying, that the triangles are every way equal. coinciding with DE, AC shall coincide with DF, because the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDF; wherefore also the point C shall coincide with the point F, because AC is equal to DF: But the point B coincides with the point E; wherefore the base BC shall coincide with the base EF (cor. def. 3.), and shall be equal to it. Therefore also the whole triangle ABC shall coincide with the whole triangle DEF, so that the spaces which they contain or their areas are equal; and the remaining angles of the one shall coincide with the remaining angles of the other, and be equal to them, viz. the angle ABC to the angle DEF, and the angle ACB to the angle DFE. Therefore, if two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other, each to each, and have likewise the angles contained by those sides equal to one another; their bases shall be equal, and their areas shall be equal, and their other angles, to which the equal sides are opposite, shall be equal, each to each. PROP. V. THEOR. The angles at the base of an Isosceles triangle are equal to one another; and if the equal sides be produced, the angles upon the other side of the base shall be equal. Let ABC be an isosceles triangle, of which the side AB is equal to AC, and let the straight lines AB, AC be produced to D and E, the angle ABC shall be equal to the angle ACB, and the angle CBD to the angle BCE. In BD take any point F, and from AE the greater cut off AG equal (3. 1.) to AF, the less, and join FC, GB. A Because AF is equal to AG, and AB to AC, the two sides FA, AC are equal to the two GA, AB, each to each; and they contain the angle FAG common to the two triangles, AFC, AGB; therefore the base FC is equal (4. 1.) to the base GB, and the triangle AFC to the triangle AGB; and the remaining angles of the one are equal (4. 1.) to the remaining angles of the other, each to each, to which the equal sides are opposite, viz. the angle ACF to the angle ABG, and the angle AFC to the angle AGB: And because the whole AF is equal to the whole AG, and the part AB to the part AC; the remainder BF shall be equal (3. Ax.) to the remainder CG; and FC was proved to be equal to GB, therefore the two sides BF, FC are equal to the two CG, GB, each to each; but the angle BFC is equal to the angle CGB; wherefore the triangles BFC, CGB are equal (4. 1.), and their remaining angles are equal. to which the equal sides are opposite; therefore the angle FBC is equal to the angle GCB, and the angle BCF to the angle CBG. Now, since it has been demonstrated, that the whole angle ABG is equal to the whole ACF, and the part CBG to the part BCF, the remaining angle ABC is therefore equal to the remaining angle ACB, which are the angles at the B C F G D E |