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The ships of his squadron touch at the Moluccas, or Spice-
The Spanish merchants eagerly engage in a trade
with the Moluccas
Jealousy of the Portuguese
Extent of the Portuguese dominions in the East-Indies ibid.
Corruption of the Oriental government
Consequences of that prohibition
The dutch being shut out from the markets
1619 Peace between the two companies
War between the Portuguese and Dutch in the East-
Rise of the English East-India Company [.D. 1600.] ibid.
Low state of their trade during the reign of Charles I. ibid.
Early discoveries of the English in North America ibid.
Rapid progress of that colony
View of the English settlements in the West-Indies
FROM THE RISE OF THE MODERN KINGDOMS TO THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA, IN 1648.
A GENERAL VIEW OF THE TRANSACTIONS OF EUROPE, FROM THE DEATH OF CHARLES IX. IN 1574, TO THE ACCESSION OF HENRY IV. THE FIRST KING OF THE BRANCH OF BOUR
BON, TO THE THRONE OF FRANCE, IN 1589; INCLUDING THE RISE OF THE REPUBLIC OF HOLLAND, THE UNHAPPY CATASTROPHE OF DON SEBASTIAN KING OF PORTUGAL, THE EXECUTION OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS, AND THE DEFEAT OF THE SPANISH ARMADA.
A PARTICULAR detail of the many great and singular events, which the period before us contains, would rather perplex the memory than inform the judg ment. I shall therefore, my dear Philip, content myself with offering you a general survey. Consequences are chiefly to be noted.
The death of Charles IX. though the subject of rejoicing among the Hugonots, was far from healing the wounds of France, yet bleeding from the late His brother, the duke of Anjou, who succeed
A D. 1574.
ed him under the name of Henry III. and who, as I have already observed, had been elected king of Poland, whence he eloped with the secrecy of a felon, found the kingdom in the greatest disorder imaginable. The people were divided into two theological factions, furious from their zeal, and mutually enraged from the injuries which they had committed or suffered. Each part had devoted itself to leaders, whose commands were of more weight than the will of the sovereign; even the Catholics, to whom the king was attached, being entirely guided by the counsels of the duke of Guise and his family.
Henry, by the advice of the queen-mother, who had governed the kingdom till his arrival, laid a scheme for restoring the royal authority, by acting as umpire between the parties; by moderating their differences, and reducing both to a dependence upon himself. He possessed all the dissimulation necessary for the execution of this delicate plan; but being deficient in vigour, application, and sound understanding, instead of acquiring a superiority over both factions, he lost the confidence of both, and taught the partizans of each to adhere more closely to their several leaders.
Meanwhile the Hugonots were not only strengthened by the accessions of the duke of Alençon, the king's brother, afterwards duke of Anjou, and by the arrival of
A. D. 1575.
a German army, under the prince of Condé, but by the presence of the gallant king of Navarre, who had also made his escape from court, and had placed himself at their head. Henry, in prosecution of his moderating scheme, entered into treaty with them: and, desirous of A. D. 1576. preserving a balance between the factions, granted peace to the Protestants on the most advantageous conditions. They obtained the public exercise of their religion, except within two leagues of the court; party-chambers, consisting of an equal number of Protestants and Catholics, were erected in all the Parliaments of the kingdom, for the more equitable administration