THE FRANKLIN WRITTEN ARITHMETIC With Examples for Oral Practice BY EDWIN P. SEAVER, A. M. HEAD MASTER OF THE ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL, BOSTON ; FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS IN HARVARD COLLEGE AND GEO. A. WALTON, A. M. AUTHOR OF WALTONS' ARITHMETICS, ARITHMETICAL TABLES, ETC. BOSTON 1879 PREFACE. The Franklin Written Arithmetic contains a full course of arithmetical instruction and drill for pupils in the common schools. The definitions and principles are thoroughly illustrated and explained, so that the learner may work intelligently; while the range of applications is broad and varied enough to afford him good preparation for ordinary business affairs. Topics of a merely theoretical interest, antiquated or curious matter, and puzzling problems, are omitted altogether; while parts of the subject not very necessary to the greater number of pupils are given in the Appendix. To avoid a multiplicity of rules, decimals and integers have been treated together whenever that could easily be done. For the same purpose, the various problems in Percentage have all been referred to a few fundamental principles, stated and illustrated at the outset. The Metric System has been treated in a way to indicate the most practical course to pursue in teaching it. The topics that follow Simple Interest in this book, as in most arithmetics, can wisely be deferred till the last years of the common-school course. In the arrangement of work it will be noticed that Oral Exercises precede Examples for the Slate. For convenience in the class-room, the latter are numbered consecutively through the whole section, with the exception of four pages of typical examples (pages 17, 25, 35, and 48), which are lettered. The Oral Examples are designated by letters. All answers to Examples for the Slate, except those to Illustrative and Typical Examples, are omitted from the body of the book. Miscellaneous Examples are given in great number and variety, and each section is supplemented by a set of questions for review. A special feature of the book is the Drill Exercises. In general character these are like those previously published by Walton and Cogswell in their Book of Problems; and they have been introduced in this book by consent of Mr. Cogswell. They give a large number of miscellaneous examples, with answers, on all the topics treated in the Arithmetic ; and the teacher will be spared the trouble of selecting from other books examples for class drill. The fact that these exercises have been extensively imitated in books published of late shows the high estimation in which they are held by teachers and authors. TABLE OF CONTENTS. PAGE READING AND WRITING NUMBERS 1 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 136 38 Longitude and 'Ï'ime Mensuration of Surfaces and Coins and Paper Currency.... 67 Commission. 194 75 Stocks, Dividends, and Brok- Greatest Common Factor... 82 Taxes Present Worth and Discount 224 Bank Discount Commercial Discount To find the Whole when a Average of Payments. 234 Number is of another....... 113 Reading and Writing 8, 124, 300 POWERS AND Roots 265 Multiplication ......34, 35, 36, 130 Division ... 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 132 .57, 59, 63, 73, 123, 135, 171, 253 GENERAL REVIEWS.. ..50, 117, 165, 205, 247, 293 QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW ...11, 56, 73, 115, 135, 168, 250, 264, 294 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES... 27, 37, 52, 74, 118, 119, 166, 206, 229, 248, ARITHMETIC. SEOTION I. READING AND WRITING NUMBERS. ARTICLE 1. A collection of single things or ones is a number. By common usage one is also called a number. 2. A knowledge of numbers is Arithmetic. 3. Some numbers have simple names. These are one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten ; also a hundred, a thousand, a million, etc. All other numbers have compound names. (See Appendix, p. 299.) Exercises. 1. Name the numbers in regular order, or count, from one to fifty; from fifty to one. 2. Count to a hundred by twos; by fives; by tens. Count from a hundred downward by twos; by fives; by tens. 3. Name the number that is made up of two tens and five ones; of one ten and seven ones; of one ten and a one; of one ten and two ones; of six tens and six; of eight tens and five; of nine tens; of nine tens and nine; of ten tens. 4. Name the number that is made up of one hundred, one ten, and a one; of two hundreds, seven tens, and three ones; of six hundreds and three tens; of five hundreds and four ones; of four hundreds, three tens, and three ones; of nine hundreds, nine tens, and nine ones. |