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unto his people : for he shall not enter into the land which I

have given unto the children of Israel, because ye rebelled 25 against my word at the water of Meribah. Take Aaron and 26 Eleazar his son, and bring them up unto mount Hor : And

strip Aaron of his priestly garments, and put them upon Elea,

zar his son : and Aaron shall be gathered (unto his people,] 27 and shall die there. And Moses did as the LORD command,

ed : and they went up into mount Hor, in the sight of all the congregation.* And Moses stripped Aaron of his garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son ; and Aaron died there in the top of the mount, in an honourable and comfortable man

ner, in his one hundred and twenty third year it and Moses 29 and Eleazar came down from the mount. And when all the

congregation saw that Aaron was dead, they mourned for Aaron thirty days, [even] all the house of Israel,


1. THE conduct of the Israelites toward the Edomites,

I teaches us to guard against a love of contention and revenge. The Israelites request was a reasonable one ; the Edomites' denial was stiff and unjustifiable : especially consider, ing what God had done for the Israelites. But God directed them to turn another way. Our brethren may use us ill, deny our reasonable requests, and come out against us with a strong hand ; but it will be the wisest way not to oppose force to force, if it can be helped. Let us leave off contention, and turn away, The reason which God gives why they should not fall upon the Edomites or abhor them, was, that they were brethren. This argument will hold equally strong with us. We are brethren, the descendants of Adam, sons of God, brethren in Christ, united in dearer, tenderer bonds, than any natural alliance or relation can form. Let us rather put ourselves to any inconvenience, as Israel did by going about, than lay a foundation for quarrelling, and going to law, and the like ; rather put up with an injury or an insult, than study revenge. 'If any should think this a hard, impracticable lesson, let them remember, if they do not learn and practise it, they are not faithful disciples of Christ, and shall have no share in the glory of his kingdom.

2. Let the saints of the Lord, like Aaron, be willing to die. There is something very awful in his dying on this side Canaan ; but he had a better world in prospect, and therefore went up without reluctance, leaving his robes and honours to his son. Be our character ever so excellent, death will strip us of our garment. Naked we came into the world, and naked we must go out of it. Let us labour, like Aaron, to serve God with our spirit. Let us make sure of the heavenly Canaan, and then we may will, ingly resign our breath when God pleases. Let the thought of death prevent our being too fond of our ornaments and honours, even of those, which, like those of the priesthood, are most im, portant and desirable. Death will strip us of all but our virtues and graces ; but it cannot strip us of, nor separate us from, the love of Christ, nor destroy the union which subsists between him and the true believer. Let us be willing to die when God pleases, and leave this world with satisfaction ; especially when we see, as Aaron did, those coming in our room, who will serve God when we are gone.

They would, no doubt, be greatly affected at the loss of their high priest, seeing him Chus die by the appointment of God: but they were also witnesses to Eleazar's being ap.

t would be some comfort to Aaron, that his son succeeded to his office, and that the entail of the priesthood was not cut off from his family.

'7 In Deuteronomy x. 6 it is said, he was buried in Mosera ; that was the general name of this station, and Hor the particular mountain.

3. Let us rejoice in the unchangeable priesthood of Jesus Christ. The priests under the law, says the apostle, were not suffered to continue by reason of death : but Christ, because he con. tinueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood. He is consecrated for everinore, Heb. vii. 23. Christian ministers also die ; one gene. ration passeth away, and another cometh. But Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and for ever ; and this is a never failing comfort to the church. May we maintain a believing regard to this eternal high Priest, and rejoice in him as our sacrifice and advocate. And since, as the apostle observes, in consequence of this unchangeable priesthood, he is able to save to the uttermost, let us cheerfully come to God by him, seeing that he ever lives ta make intercession for us.


In this chapter the Israelites, proceeding on their march toward

Canaan, are stung by fiery serpents, and healed by the brazen serpent, which Moses, by God's direction, made. They conquer Sihon and Og; 1 AND [when] king Arad the Canaanite, or rather, the

n1 Canaanite, king of Arad, (whom Joshua afterward de. stroyed, see Joshua xji. 14. Judges i. 16.) which dwelt in the south, heard tell that Israel came by the way of the spies, that is, the way the spies came thirty eight years before, and

since then called by that name ; then he fought against Israel, 2 and took (some] of them prisoners. And Israel vowed a row

unto the LORD, and said, If thou wilt indeed deliver this peo, ple into my hand, then I will utterly destroy their cities

destroy the people and beasts, and burn the cities ; reserving

nothing for our own use, but bringing the spoils to God's treas. 3 ury. And the Lord hearkened to the voice of Israel, and

delivered up the Canaanites, this army of Arad : and they utterly destroyed them and their cities, they now conquered this army and destroyed them; and afterward when they conguered their cities, (lestroyed them also : and he, Israel, called the name of the place Hormah, that is, devotement, or, utter destruction ; by which name they both set up a memorial of God's mercy, and their duty to keep the vow which they had made."

. And they journeyed from mount Hor by the way of the Red sea, to compass the land of Edom, because they were de nied a passage through the land, (ch. xx. 18. 20.) and the soul of the people was much discouraged because of the length of

the way, and the many wants and troubles they met with therein, 5 And the people spake against God, and against Moses,

Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness ? for (there is] no bread, neither [is there any] water; and our soul loathed this light bread ; as if it had little substance or nourishment in it, in comparison of the more,

solid diet they had in Egypt : an old complaint, and a shameful 6 falsehood. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the

people, and they bit the people ; and much people of Israel

died.* 7 - Therefore the people came to Moses, and made an humble

and particular acknowledgment of their guilt, and said, We have sinned, for we have spoken against the LORD, and against

thee; pray unto the Lord, that he take away the serpents 8 from us. And Moses prayed for the people. And the Lord

said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, like those which bite them, and set it upon a pole, like an ensign, that it may be seen through all the camp : and it shall come to pass, that

every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live, 9 though he be not able to go near it.t And Moses made a ser

pent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass he lived.

Strabo and other geographers tell us, that this wilderness abounded with serpents of a bright shining colour, which gave an incurable wound. We read We t Indies, as redas blood, which appear at night like burning coals. Such as these God made use of to chastise this murmuring people..'

Naturalists observe, that the sight of the brazen serpent tended, of itself, rather to increase the disease, and to fill them with greater anguish, by disturbing their imaginations. If so, it was the more proper to convince the Israelites that their medicine came from God, who made that, whose aspect was hurtful, to be a means of their cure.

Jameson. I The serpents were nat taken away ; but were left to try their faith, and punish their guilt. The Indians have an idol, like a serpent, placed on a large pole, which they worshin. Escalapius, the god of health, among the Greeks, and Salus, a great physician, among the Romang, are both pictured with serpents, as an emblem of their healing power, perhaps in reference to this story..

10 And the children of Israel set forward, and pitched in 11 Oboth. And they journeyed from Oboth, and pitched'at Ije- abarim, in the wilderness which [is] before Moab, toward the 12 sun rising. From thence they removed, and pitched in the 13 valley of Zared. From thence they removed, and pitched on

the other side of Arnon, which [is] in the wilderness that

cometh out of the coasts of the Amorites : for Arnon is the 14 border of Moab, between Moab and the Amorites. * Where

fore it is said in the book of the wars of the LORD, What he 15 did in the Red sea, and in the brooks of Arnon, And at the

stream of the brooks that goeth down to the dwelling of Ar, 16 and lieth upon the border of Moab. And from thence (they

went] to Beer : that [is] the well whereof the LORD spake

unto Moses, Gather the people together, and I will give them 17 water miraculously, without their asking for it. Then Israel

sang this song, a song of praise for giving them this seasonable supply, and they said, Spring up, () well ; continue still to spring up, and supply us with water ; and then, calling to others, they said, Sing ye unto it, express your joy and thankfulness

in a song which may never be forgotten. Such responses were 18 the usual way of singing praises among the Jews. The princes

digged the well, the nobles of the people digged it, by (the direction of the lawgiver, with their staves ; that is, the heads of the tribes struck the earth, or ran the ends of their scep. tres into the ground, by the direction of Moses, and the water - sprang out. And from the wilderness (they went] to Mat19 tanah : And from Mattanah to Nahaliel : and from Nahaliel 20 to Bamoth : And from Bamoth [in] the valley, that (is) in

the country of Moab, to the top of Pisgah ; .or rather, the foot of Pisgah, or valley where it began io rise, which looketh toward

Jeshimon, or the wilderness. 21 And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the Amo. 22. rites, saying, Let me pass through thy land : we will not turn

into the fields, or into the vineyards; we will not drink [of]

the waters of the well : [but] we will go along by the king's 23 [high] way, until we be past thy borders. And Sihon would

not suffer Israel' to pass through his border : but Sihon gathered all his people together, and went out against Israel

into the wilderness; and he came to Jahaz, and fought against 24 Israel. And Israel smote him with the edge of the sword,

and possessed his land from Arnon unto Jabbok, even unto the children of Ammon ; for the border of the children of

Ammon was strong, well defended ; therefore Sihon had not 25 encroached on their country, as he had upon the Moabites. And

Israel took all these cities : and Israel dwelt in all the cities of the Amorites, in Heshbon, and in all the villages thereof.

They were so near to Moab as to be supplied with provisions from their country.

26 For Heshbon (was] the city of Sihon the king of the Amor

rites, who had fought against the former king of Moab, and 27 taken all his land out of his hand, even unto Arnon.* Where

fore they that speak in proverbs, in poems or histories, say, Come into Heshbon ; though formerly you were afraid to dwell

in it, yet noro ye may come safely, without fear ; let the city of 28 Sihon be built and prepared : For there is a fire gone out of - Heshbon, a flame from the city of Sihon, the fury of war, it

hath consumed Ar of Moab, or, those that dwell in a strong ánd fortified place, [and] the lords of the high places of Ar

non ; the princes, priests, and idols of the Moabites, are all 29 destroyed as far as Arnon. · Woe to thee, Moab ! thou art

undone, O people of Chemosh, the idol god of the Moabites ; he hath given his sons that escaped, and his daughters, into captivity unto Sihon king of the Amorites ; instead of protect.

ing and defending them, as they expected, he has suffered them to 30 be led away captive. We have shot at them ; Heshbon is

perished even unto Dibon, and we have laid them waste even

unto Nophah, which [reacheth) unto Medeba, first the Amo31 rites, and then the Israelites.t Thus Israel dwelt in the 32 land of the Amorites. And Moses sent to spy out Jaazer,

another city of the Moabites taken by the Amorites, and they took the villages thereof, and drove out the Amorites that

[were] there. 33 And they turned and went up by the way of Bashan, a rich

and fruitful country, abounding with fine pastures and large

cattle ; and Og the king of Bashan went out against them, he, 34 and all his people, to the battle at Edrei. And the LORD said

unto Moses, Fear him not, though he be a giant, (Deut. iii. 11.) for I have delivered him into thy hand, and all his peo

ple, and his land; and thou shalt do to him as thou didst : :unto Sihon king of the Amorites, which dwelt at Heshbon. $5 So they smote him, and his sons, and all his people, until there

was none left him alive : and they possessed his land.


1. TF we would expect particular favours from God, we

1 should lay ourselves under solemn obligations to obey his will. And Israel vowed a vow unto the Lord, and said, If thou wilt indeed deliver this people into my hand, then I will utterly destroy their cities. Israel resolved to obey his orders, and then

• Yoses from hence to the end of v. 30, proves, that both Heshbon and the country adjoining to it, was the possession of Sihon, when the Israelites took it ; Sihon having taken it from the former king of the Moabites, who was king before Balak. Jephthah pleads this afterward, in Fudges xi. 12.

† Some suppose this verse to be a triumphant addition of the Israelites ; We have shot at them, or rather, we have overthrown them with our arrows, by the strength of Jehovah.

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