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TEMPERATURES AND LATENT HEATS OF FUSION

AND OF VAPORIZATION.

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EXAMPLE.—How many units of heat are required to melt 10 lb. of zinc from a temperature of 60° F.?

SOLUTION.—The specific heat of zinc is found from the table to be .0956. Hence, the number of heat units necessary to raise it to the melting point is 10 X (680 - 60) X.0956 = 592.72. Latent heat of fusion 50.63 heat units. Hence, the total number of heat units required is 592.72 + 10 X 50.63

1,099.02.

HEAT. COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION FOR A NUMBER OF SUBSTANCES.

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EXAMPLE.--A wrought-iron bar 22 ft. long is heated from 70° to 300°. How much will it lengthen ?

SOLUTION.– 22 X (300 — 70) X .00000686 .0347116 ft. .41654 in.

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ALLOYS.
NOTE.-A = Antimony, B Bismuth, C = Copper, G =
Gold, I = Iron, L= Lead, n Nickel, s Silver, T = Tin,

Zinc.
Name.

Proportions.
Brass, common yellow 2 C, 12
Brass, to be rolled

32 C, 10 Z, 1.5 T
Brass castings, common 20 C, 1.25 2, 2.5 T
Brass castings, hard 25 C, 2 Z, 4.5 T
Brass propellers

8 C, .5 2, 1 T Gun metal

8 C, 1 T

ALLOYS (Continued).
Name.

Proportions.
Copper flanges

9 C, 12, .26 T Muntz's metal

6 C, 42 Statuary

91.4 C, 5.53 Z, 1.7 T, 1.37 L German silver

2 C, 7.9 N, 6.3 Z, 6.5 I Britannia metal

50 A, 25 T, 25 B Chinese silver

65.1 C, 19.3 Z, 13 N, 2.58 S, 12 I Chinese white copper 20.2 C, 12.7 Z, 1.3 T, 15.8 N Medals

100 C, 8Z Pinchbeck

5 C, 12 Babbitt's metal

25 T, 2 A, .5 C Bell metal, large

3 C, 1 T Bell metal, small

4C, 1T Chinese gongs

40.5 C, 9.2 T Telescope mirrors

33.3 C, 16.7 T White metal, ordinary 3.7 C, 3.7 Z, 24.2 T, 28.4 A White metal, hard

35 C, 13 Z, 2.2 T Sheeting metal

56 C, 45 Z, 12 arsenic Metal, expands in cooling 75 L, 16.7 A, 8.3 B

ALLOYS FOR SOLDERS.
Name.

Melting
Proportions.

Point. Newton's fusible

8 B, 5 L, 3 T,

2120 Rose's fusible.

2 B,1 L, 1T,

2010 A more fusible

5 B, 3L, 2 T,

1990 Still more fusible

12 T, 25 L, 50 B, 13 cadmium, 1550 For tin solder, coarse, 1 T, 3L,

5000 For tin solder, ordinary.. 2 T, 1L,

360° For brass, soft spelter. .1 C, 12,

5500 Hard, for iron

2 C, 12,

7000 For steel

19 S, 3 C, 12 For fine brasswork

1S, 8 C, 8Z Pewterer's soft solder. 2 B, 4L, 3T Pewterer's soft solder. 1 B, 1 L, 2 T Gold solder

24 G, 28,10 Silver solder, hard

4S, 10 Silver solder, soft.

28, 1 brass wire For lead

16 T, 33 L

WEIGHT OF ROUND AND SQUARE ROLLED IRON.

From t in. to 94, in. in Diameter, and 1 ft. in Length.
Side or
Weight. Lb. per ft.

Side or

Weight. Lb. per ft. Diam.

Diam. Inches. Round. Square. Inches. Round. Square.

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13 738 13

.010 .041 .093 .165 .373 .663 1.043 1.493 2.032 2.654 3.359 4.147 5.019 5.972 7.010 8.128 9.333 10.616 11.988 13.440 14.975 16.588 18.293 20.076 21.944 23.888 25.926 28.040 30.240 32.512 34.886 37.332

.013 .053 .118 .211 .475 .845 1.320 1.901 2.588 3.380 4.278 5.280 6.390 7.604 8.926 10.352 11.883 13.520 15.263 17.112 19.066 21.120 23.292 25.560 27.939 30.416 33.010 35.704 38.503 41.408 44.418 47.534

39.864 42.464 45.174 47.952 50.815 53.760 56.788 59.900 63.094 66.350 69.731 73.172 76.700 80.304 84.001 87.776 91.634 95.552 103.704 112.160 120.960 130.048 139.544 149.328 159.456 169.856 180.696 191.808 203.260 215.040 227.152 239.600

50.756 54.084 57.517 61.055 61.700 68.448 72.305 76.264 80.333 84.480 88.781 93.168 97.657 102.240 106.953 111.756 116.671 121.664 132.010 142.816 154.012 165.632 177.672 190.136 203.024 216.336 230.068 244.220 258.800 273.792 289.220 305.056

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235

21

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WEIGHT OF SHEET LEAD.

Thickness. W'ght. Thickness. W’ght. Thickness. W'ght.

aches. Lb. Inches. Lb. nches. Lb.

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SCREW THREADS, NUTS, AND BOLT HEADS. Diam. of Threads Diam. Width Ipside Outside Diago- Height Screw. of Core. of Flat. Diam. Diam.

nal. of Head.

per In.

20
18
16

1-4 19.64 11-32 25-64

7-16 31-64 17-32

5-8

1.4 5-16 3-8 7-16 1-2 9.16 5-8 3-4

7-8 1 1 1.8 1 1-4 1 3-8 1 1-2 1 5-8 1 3-4 1 7-8 2 2 1.4 2 1.2 2 3-4 3 3 1.4 3 1-2 3 3-4 4 4 4 1-4 4 1-2 4 3-4 5 5 1.4 5 1-2 5 3-4 6

13
12
11
10
9
8
7
7
6
6
5 1.2
5
5
4 1-2
4 1-2
4
4
3 1-2
3 1-2
3 1-4
3
3
2 7-8
2 3-4
2 5-8
2 1-2
2 1-2
2 3-8
2 3-8
2 1-4

.185 .240 .294 .344 .400 .454 .507 .620 .731 .837 .940 1.065 1.160 1.284 1.389 1.490 1.615 1.712 1.962 2.175 2.425 2.628 2.878 3.100 3.317 3,566 3.798 4.027 4.255 4.480 4.730 4.953 5.203 5.423

.0062 .0070 .0078 .0089 .0096 .0104 .0113 .0125 .0140 .0156 .0180 .0180 .0210 .0210 .0227 .0250 .0250 .0280 .0280 .0310 .0310 .0357 .0357 .0384 .0410 .0410 .0135 .0160 .0180 .0500 .0500 .0526 .0526 .0555

1-2
19-32
11-16
25-32

7-8
31-32
1 1-16
1 1.4
1 7-16
1 5-8
1 13-16
2
2 3-16
2 3-8
2 9-16
2 3-4
2 15-16
3 1-8
3 1-2
3 7-8
4 1-4
4 5-8
5
5 3-8
5 3 4
6 1-8
6 1-2
6 7-8
7 1-4
7 5-8
8
8 3-8
8 3-4
91-8

37-64
11-16
51-64

29-32
1 1-64
1 1-8
1 15-64
1 7-16
1 21-32
1 7-8
2 3-32
2 5-16
2 17-32
2 3-4
2 31.32
3 11-64
3 25-64
3 39-64
4 8-64
4 15-32
4 29-32
5 11-32
5 25-32
6 13-64
6 41-64
75-64
7 1-2
7 15-16
8 3-8
8 13-16
9 15-64
9 43-64
10 7-64
10 35-64

45-64
27-32

31-32
1 7-64
1 15-64
1 3-8
1 1-2
1 3-4
2 1-32
2 19-64
2 9-16
2 53-64
33-32
3 23-64
3 5-8
3 57-64
4 5-32
4 27-64
4 61-64
5 31-64
6 1-64
6 35-64
75-64
7 19-32
8 1-8
8 21-32
93-16
9 23-32
10.1.4
10 25-32
115-16
11 27-32
12 3-8
12 13-16

23-32 13-16

29-32 1 1 3-32 13-16 1 9-32 1 3-8 1 15-32 1 9-16 1 3-4 1 15-16 2 1-8 2 5-16 2 1-2 2 11-16 2 7-8 3 1.16 3 1-4 3 7-16 3 5-8 3 13-16 4 4 3-16 4 3-8 4 9-16

The threads have an angle of 60°, with flat tops and bottoms, and are of the following proportions:

Notation of letters. All dimensions in inches. D= outside diameter of screw;

i = inside diameter of hexagon, or d= diameter of root of thread, or of

side of square nut or bolt head; hole in the nut;

s = diagonal of square nut bolt p= pitch of screw;

head; t=number of threads per inch; h= height of rough or unfinished bolt f = flat top and bottom;

head. o= outside diameter of hexagon nut The height of finished nut or bolt or bolt head;

head is made equal to the diameter D

of the screw. 16 D + 10 - 2.909

1 p=

t

S= 1.414 i. 16.64

P 1.299

3 D 1 d = D

+ 0 = 1.155 i. f t

2 8

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