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thus. much of diagrams, is requested to make a diagram ric acid ; replace the cork, and ignite the escaping jet. Hold (I do not insist upon atomic figures) of the decomposition over the latter firstly, a white plate in such a manner that the which takes place on the addition of dilute sulphuric acid jet of hydrogen Aame may play against the plate, fig. 38. !! to the sulphuret of iron. All the elements of this decom- all the materials be freed of arsenic, the hydrogen will leave position have been discussed directly or collaterally, so that I no stain. have no doubt my students will be able to frame the am Secondly, repeat the experiment, substituting for the plate

Resumption of the Metals. Having commenced these lessons a piece of glass tube open at either extremity, and about a foot with a sketch of the chemical relations of zinc and manganese, long; the diameter of the tube inay be about the fourth or the more especially as relates to the reagency of hydrosulphuric third of an inch. Again, if arsenic be absent from the materials acid and hydrosulphate of ammonia, we then branched off employer, the burning flame will impress no stain. collaterally into a discussion concerning the properties of these

Remove now the cork, pour into the bottle a small portion iwo guses ; which discussion being brought to a conclusion, of liquor arsenicalis, and repeat the experiments with plate for the time at least, back we return to the metals once more and tube as before. Notwithstanding the digression, we have not wandered so far The flame will now be recognised to evolve a dense smoke, from the study of metals as the reader may have supposed. which may be white or black according to circumstances. If This light and invisible gas -hydrogen-has many of the pro- collected from within the flame thus, fig. 39, the stain is black, perties of a metal ; indeed by certain chemists it is considered

Fig. 39. to be a metal; at any rate, it has the singular property of com. bining with two metals in a marked degree, and with a third to a less extent. These metals are arsenic, tellurium, and antimony. This circumstance furnishes us with a sufficient link of connexion to lead us at once to arsenic as being the most important metal of the three; but there is another connecting link. Arsenic, as I have mentioned already, is one of the few calcigenous metals (don't pass the term calci. genous without understanding it, I have explained its meaning once)--one of the calcigenous metals which does not yield a black precipitate with hydrosulphuric acid; so let arsenic be our present theme.

The student has heard of arsenic frequently enough; he has perhaps, however, never seen it, for the true arsenic, i.e. the metal arsenic, is rare. What people usually call arsenic is really a white powder, a combination of arsenic with oxygen ; in like manner, the substance usually called manganese is being composed of particles of metallic arsenic; if collecte ! really an oxide of the true manganese, which is a britile metal without or above the flame, thus, fig. 40, the deposition : something like steel in aspect. Arsenic is also a resplendent brittle metai, as will be evident hereafter,

Yig. 40. The substance I wish you to take for the purpose of studying the general properties of arsenic, is the white arsenic of the shops. There will be some difficulty in procuring this, however, druggists not being allowed to sell it, except disguised by the mixture of other substances; perhaps, therefore, the casier, and certainly the safer plan, will consist in the purchase of about a drachm of a very weak solution of white arsenic, used in medical practice under the denomination of liquor arsenicalis. The strength of this solution is one grain of white arsenic in fluid ounces ; a very weak solution consequently, but strong enough for our purposes.

The experiments about to be performed are not theoretically interesting merely; they will comprehend one of the processes, and perhaps the best of al, followed in the process of extracting white, being in this case white arsenic, otherwise called arsenic from bodies which contain it. The objects I shall have in view are--firstly, the extraction of arsenic from the liquor metall c arsenic into its oxide is most readily observed

arsenious acid or oxide of arsenic. The conversion of arealis : secondly, the examination by tests of the arsenic in the tube experiment, wherein the black crust of methus txtracted.

tallic arsenic which extends a certain way up, żey to Experiment 1. Take a bottle with tobacco-pipe shank and perforated cork. Pour into the bottle, the usual ingre.

Fig. 41,
Fig. 38.

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a, changes to white arsenic, say at b, and eventually escapes. Whilst operating with the tube, do not forget to smil the garlic-like odour produced by tric metal arsenit when volatilizing. This smell is an important indication of the

presence of the metal. I need not direct the learner's attention dients for generating hydrogen gas, i.e. zinc and dilute sulphu. 'to the curious fact, that the peculiarity of hydrogen gas, which

suminer,

we have just been investigating, namely, its property of com- 7. διγλωσσος (from δις, twice, and γλωττα, ης, ή, a tongue), bining with arsenic and carrying this metal away in the form | double tongued ; αποκαλυπτω (απο, from, and καλυπτω, Ilide of gas, presents us with an elegant and a powerful agent of I conceal; ovvedplov, ov, to, an assembly, hence our word sanhe analysis. Supposing arsenic to exist in the contents of a drim, the name of the Jewish Parliament ; avon, ns, ý, a stomach, it may be extracted in this way; or supposing a breathing, breath; MOTOS here would in classical Greek be compound to exist of the three metals already examin

i.e. | ο πιστός. zinc, nianganese and arsenic, and supposing it desired to remove

8. στεφανος, ου, ό, α crown, hence our proper name Stephen. the arsenic, tbis might easily be done by adding to the mixture

9. αισχυνομαι, dilute sulphuric acid, and thus driving the arsenic away in

I am ashamed, from αισχος, ούς, hatefulness,

shame. the form of arseniretted hydrogen gas. Finally, the zinc and manganese might be separated, as already described at p. 78. 10. σιδηρος, ου, ο, εron; οξυνω, I sharpen; in παροξυνει, the Having thus indicated the general method of obtaining—- preposition Tapa strengthens the force of the verb; eraupos, extracting-arsenic from liquor arsenicalis, we will in our next ov, ó, a companion, friend. lesson resume the subject, with the special view of obtaining 11. αμητος (from αμαω, I bind in oundles), harvest time; from the Auid in question a sufficient amount of arsenic in veros (trom veiv, Lat. pluere, to rain), rain; epos, oūs, to, the form of arsenious acid to prosecute our experiments upon.

12. ακανθα, ης, ή, a thorn; φυω, I produce (Lat. fui, 1 φας),

φυομαι, I am produced, I am born, I spring up; μεθυσμος (frοτη LESSONS IN GREEK.-No. XIII. μεθυ, wine, strong drink), drunken; αφρων, ονος (from a and

φρην), senseless, fools. By JoHN R. BEARD, D.D.

13. εννοια, ας, ή, sense (from εν, η, and νους, the mind),

πυλη, ης, ή, a gate και εκκλινω (εκ, from, and κλινω, Ιδend), I turn (Continued from page 100.)

away. EXERCISES FROM THE BOOK OF PROVERBS.

14. αποθνησκω (απο, from, arra θνησκω, I die), I die ; αμαρ

τια, ας, ή, εin; consult αμαρτανω, already explained. 1. Yίος σοφος ευφραινει πατερα, υίος δε αφρων λυπη τη μητρι. 15. χαιρω, I rejoice; κακοποιος, ου, ο (κακος, evil, and 2. Πενια ανδρα ταπεινοί, χειρες δε ανδρειων πλουτιζουσιν. 3. ποιεω, I do), an evil-doer; ζηλρω, I desire, envy; αμαρτωλος Ευλογια Κυριου επι κεφαλην δικαιου. 4. Μνημη δικαιων | (αμαρτανω), a sinner.

16. φοβεομαι, I fear, reverence. μετ' εγκωμιων (sc. εστι), ονομα δε ασεβούς σβεννυται. 5. Μισος εγερει νεικος. 6. "Ος εκ χειλεων προσφερει σοφιαν, ραβδω |σος, έλα, Here the personal pronoun is used for the article,

17. παραβαλλω (παρα, near, βαλλω, I throw), I apply to; τυπτει ανδρα ακαρδιον. 7. Ανης διγλωσσος αποκαλυπτει | ordinary Greek giving το ούς εμος, my. βουλας εν συνεδριω, πιστος δε πνοη κρυπτει πραγματα. 8.

18. ελεημοσυνη (from ελεος, pity), mercy; hence our word Γυνη ανδρεια στεφανος το ανδρι. 9. Aoyov adıkov HLOE eleemosynary, which, through the old English almesse, is conδικαιος, ασεβης δε αισχυνεται. 10. Σιδηρος σιδηρον οξυνει, | tracted into alms. ανηρ δε παροξυνει προσωπον έταιρου. 11. "Ωσπερ δροσος εν 19. πρεσβυτηρ (our presbyter, whence our priest), an old αμητω, και ωσπερ υετος εν θερει, ούτως ουκ εστιν αφρoνι τιμη.

man και πολιος, α, ον, bala, grey ; πολιαι, grey hairs (sc. τριχες,

hair). 12. Ακανθαι φυονται εν χειρι μεθυσμου, δουλεια δε εν χειρι των αφρονων. 13. Σοφια και εννοια αγαθη εν πυλαις σοφων (sc. | direct, φuide:

20. φαινομαι, I appear ; εαυτω, to himself; κατευθυνω, I εισιν): σοφοι ουκ εκκλινουσιν εκ στοματος Κυριου. 14. Απο

21 ακολαστος, ον (α not, and κολαζω, I punish, restrict), μηθνησκει αφρων εν αμαρτιαις. 15. Μη χαιρε επι κακοποιοις, restrainable, riotous; υβριστικος, ον, insulting : μεθη, ης, ή, μηδε ζηλου αμαρτωλους. 16. Φοβου τον θεον, υιε, και βασιλεα. | drunkenness: τοιουτος, such ; τοιουτοις, such things και συμπλεκω 17. Λογοις σοφων παραβαλλε σον ούς, και ακουε εμον λογον. 18. | (συν, with, nd πλεκω, I weave), Ibind together και συμπλεκεται, 15 Ελεημοσυνη και αλεθεια φυλακη βασιλει. 19. Κοσμος νεανιαις | entangled in, is chained το. σοφη, δοξα δε πρεσβυτερων πολιαι. 20. Πας ανηρ φαινεται

EXERCISES FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. εαυτω δικαιος, κατευθυνει δε καρδιας Κυριος. 21. Aκολαστον οινος, και υβριστικ τικον μεθη, πας δε αφρων τοιουτοις συμπλεκεται. 1. Μακαριος (sc. εστιν) ανηρ ος υπομενει πειρασμον. 2.

Εκαστος πειραζεται υπο της ιδιας επιθυμιας. 3. Η επιθυμια VOCABULARY TO THE PASSAGES FROM THE PROVERBS. τικτει αμαρτιαν, η δε αμαρτια αποκυει θανατον. 4. Πασα δοσις

αγαθη και παν δωρημα τελειον ανωθεν εστι καταβαινον απο 1. ευφραινω, I rejoice (transitively); λυπη, ης, ή, grief.

του Πατρος των φωτων. 5. Οργη ανδρος δικαιοσυνην θεου ου 2. πενια,

ας, ή, poerty; ταπεινοω, I lover, degrade; κατεργαζεται. 6. Γινεσθε ποιηται λογου, και μη μονον ακροαται. ανδρειος, α, ον, manly, excellent ; πλουτιζω, I male rich (front 7. θρησκεια καθαρα και αμιαντος παρα τω θεώ και Πατρι αυτη what noun is the verb derived?)

3. ευλογια, ας, ή, αδlessing (what are the components of the εστιν, επισκεπτεσθαι ορφανους και χηρας εν τη θλιψει αυτων, noun ?); Κυριος, ου, ο, Iord, master, the Lord, that is, the Al- ασπιλoν εαυτον τηρεις απο του κοσμου. 8. Η ανωθεν σοφια mighty, in the Old Testament; δικαιου for του δικαιου, the πρωτον μεν αγνη εστιν, επειτα ειρηνικη, επιεικής, ευπειθης, article is often omitted in the Greek version of the Hebrew | μεστη ελεου και καρπων αγαθων, αδιακριτος, ανυποκριτος, Scriptures : this version is called the Septuagint, sometimes καρπος δε δικαιοσυνης εν ειρηνη σπειρεται τους ποιουσιν ειρηνην. « the Seventy.” because said to have been made by that 9. Ποθεν πολεμοι και ποθεν μαχαι εν υμιν ; ουκ εντευθεν, εκ number of learned Jews at Alexandria in Egypt; the translation was completed in the second century before Christ.

των ηδονων υμων, των στρατευομενων εν τοις μελεσιν υμων. 4. μνημη, ης, ή, memory, the memory ; εγκωμιον, ου, το,

10. Μοιχοι και μοιχαλιδες, ουκ οίδατε οτε η φιλια του κοσμου praise, eulogy, our word encomium ; ασεβης, ούς, tmpious, com-Τεχθρα του θεου εστιν. 11. Ο θεος υπερηφανοις αντιτασσεται, pare σεβομαι, I worship ; σβεννυμι, I extinguish και σβέννυται, 1s ταπεινοις δε διδωσι χαριν. 12. Εις εστιν ο νομοθέτης και κριτης,

I extinguished, that is, destroyed.

ο δυναμενος σωσαι και απολεσαι.-The Epistie General of James. 5. μισος, ούς, τo, hatred, connected with μισεω, I hate; νεικος, ούς, τo, strife; here is exemplified the remark that the voCABULARY TO THE EXTRACTS FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. Seventy are given to the omission of the article, for in Attic Greek this proposition would be το μισος εγερει το νεικος. 1. Μακαριος, α, ον, happy, blessed; υπομενω (υπο, under, and

6, ύς, the relative pronoun he who: χειλος, ούς, τo, a lip; μενω, I remain), I endure ; πειρασμος, ου, ο (πειραζω, I try, ραβδον, ου, τo, a stick, staf: ακαρδιος, ον (from α, not, and tempt) trial. καρδια, the heart), heartless, senscless.

2. έκαστος, η, ον, each, every και ιδιος, α, ον, one's oιοι.

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3. atorvew (afo, from, and wvw, I conceive, am pregnant), I

dr 2h 6c bear, I bring forth; Davaros, ov, ó, death.

2. Reduce

and to fractions having a common

9 4. δοσις, εως, ή, a giving; δωρημα, ατος, τo, a gift και τελειος, e, ov, perfect; avwDev (ava), from above, the termination Dev denominator gives the idea of from, compare in Number IX., tolev and

dgry 6hmy 18cgm

Ans. εντευθεν; καταβαινω (κατα, down, and βαινω, I go), I come

3gmy 3gmy'3gmy down, coti kar, literally, is coming down, is constantly coming down a beautiful description of the constancy of the

2

4+1

3. Reduce Heavenly Father's goodness ; pws, PWTOS, TO, light.

to fractions having a

3' 5. opyn, ns, » (the root of opeyopai), desire, effort, a strong

denominator. emotion, anger ; dialoouvn, nsi y, justice, just designs ; karepyasouai (vara, down, thoroughly, and spyov, a work), I accom

2dx+-2ht 3ad3ah 3rr +31 Ans.

and plish.

3dx+3hx' 3dx+3hx' 3dx+3hx 6. γινομαι (the old form of γιγνομαι, compare γενος, o racer a kind), 1 become.; months, ov, , a doer, a maker, hence our

4. Reduce and to fractions having a common depoet, the great maker, that is, inventor; arpoarns, ov, ó, a hearer.

nominator. 7. Oonokela, as, y, service, God's service, religion; calapos,

atb a, ov, pure; aplavtos (ulaivw, I spot), unspotted; kai, even,

Ans.

and that is, ούτος, αύτη, τουτο, this; επισκεπτομαι (επι, over, and

a-62' OKETTouai, I survey) I overlook; from the same root is our

130. An integer and a fraction are easily reduced to fractions bishop,' that is, an overlooker, a superintendent; oppavos, ov, having a common denominator, by making the former a fraction ; ė, our word orphan; xnpa, as, y, a widow ; Outis, ews, , see Art. 121. affliction ; avrwv, of them, their; aonilos, ov, unstained (otros,

6 a stain), tnpew, I keep, preserve.

5. Reduce a and to fractions having a common derfominator. 8. åyvos, n, ov, chaste, holy; Apwrov, in the first place, ETTELTA, then, in the second place ; Elpnyikos (elpnun, peace), peace

b

b ful ; ETT LELKIS, mid; EUTELOns (Teidw, I persuade), easy to be Here, a and are equal to

and

which are equivalent to

1 entreated; JEOTOS, 1), ov, full ; adiakpitos (a, not, dia, through, kpivw, I distinguish), without partiality; avutokpitos (a, not, the v is interposed between the two vowels for the sake of and the fractions having a common denominator. euphony; no, under, and spivw, hence our word hypocrite), without hypocrisy ; OTELOW, I sow; TOLS TOLOVOLV, for those doing,

h d that is, those who do or pursue.

6. Reduce a, b, and to fractions having a common de9. nobɛv, whence ; EVTEVÕev, thence; 'uwv, of you, your ;

nominator. στρατευομαι, I war; των στρατ, which make war; μελος, ους, To, a limb, member ; vpivin you.

amy

hy

dm Ans.

and 10. Μοιχος, ου, o, an adulterer; μοιχαλις, ίδος, ή, an adul

my my ту

my teress ; Ouk oldate, know ye not? exOpa, as, y, hatred. 11. υπερηφανος (υπερ, αφουe, high, too much, and φαινω, I

7. Reduce and show), haughty; avriraooojai (avti, against, and tacow, I set),

O''

to fractions having a common de. I array myself in opposition to ; TA TELVOS, n, ov, low, lowly, humble ; &idwor, he gives.

adf bof bde nominator. Ans.

and 12. vouoberns (vouos, a law, and si nue, I place), a lawgiver ;

1dfbdf' bdf δυναμαι, I am αδί; ο δυναμ. who is able; σωζω, Ι εαυe ;

1 απολλυμι, I destroy; σωσαι and απολεσαι are infnitives

8. Reduce

and to fractions having a common degoverned by ο δυναμενος.

2 nominator.

3062 2ay

bab Ans.

and LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-No. VIII.

10ab' 10ab' 10ab REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS.

9. Reduce b,

to fractions having a common de129. To reduce fractions of different denominators to fractions

nominator, having a common denominator.

2by 2x

and Ans.

cy Multiply together each numerator and all the denominators

2y2y' 2y except its own, and the product will be the required numerator of each fraction ; next, multiply together all the denominators, and the

6 Зc product will be the required denominator of each fraction; these 10. Reduce

and to fractions having a common properly arranged in order will give the answer.

denominator. EXAMPLES.

3xyz 3aby Sacz ays Ans.

and

3ayz' 3ayz' 3ayz' 3ayz and - to fractions having a common de

3x 6 nominator.

11. Reduce

and a' 40

to fractions having a common deHere, axdXy=ady,

nominator.
are the three numerators.
CXbXy=cby,

60ex bab 4acx and, nxbxd=mbd,

Ans.

and

20ac' 20ac' 20ac Also, bxdxy=bdy, is the common denominator. ady boy bdm

5 8a Hence, the reduced fractions are and Ans. 12. Reduce

and to fractions having a common bdy' bdy bdy The reason of this rule is plain, for the reduction consists in denominator. multiplying the numerator and denominator of each fraction into

28ay 140by 22463 7 by all the other denominators, a process which does not alter the

Ans.

and value of the fractions ; see Art. 120.

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1 2 3 4

5 17. Reduce

and

to fractions 2ab' 36c 4cd' 5de 6ef having a common denominator,

30cdef 40adef 45abef 48abef 50abcd Ans.

, and 60abcdef' 60abcdef' 60abcdef' 60abcdef' 60abcdef' 131. To reduce an improper fraction to a whole or mixed qimtity.

Divide the numerator by the denominator, the quotient uith the remainder in a fracti val form is the answer : see Art 105.

EXAMPLES. ab+bm+d 1. Reduce

to a whole or mixed quantity. b

d Ans. atmint

ū : 2. Reduce m-atady-hr to a whole or mixed quantity,

hr

Ans. m-i+dy132. To reduce a mixed quantity to an improper fraction.

Multiply the integer by the given denominator, and add the given numerator to the product ; see Art. 121. The sum will be the required numerator; and this placed over the given denominator will form the improper fraction required

If the sign before the dividing line is —, all the signs in the numerator must be changed ; see Art. 123.

EXAMPLES

abti to an improper fraction. Ans.

atmt

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1. Reduce at

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8aay. 1. What is the value of Ans. 4.

Заху

aabbccddff 2. What is the value of

- Ans. abcdf. abcdf

ab 3. What is the value of X4! Ans, 46.

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to an improper fraction. Ans. mh+dh-d-412

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by 4? Ans. 2.x.

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2mn

8x +10

3bx+46 18. Reduce atb- to an improper fraction.

14. Add 2atx,

and

together. 4m

2

b
Ans.
4am +4bm-x+y

Ans. 20—36+5x+9.
4m
2acx

135. For many purposes, it is sufficient to add fractions in the C 19. Reduce of of of to a simple fraction. Ans. same manner as integers are added, by writing them one after

b d
Y

3bdy' another with their proper signs.
2 2x 4ab 2c 4dr abc

3

d 20. Reduce of

of of of - to a simple 15. Find the sum of and
7
46
2

2a 2d
abcg
fraction. Ans.

3 7

Here, the sum is simply

Ans. y

2n ADDITION OF FRACTIONS.

136. To add fractions and integers together. To add fractional quantities together. 134. Rule.- Reduce the given fractions to fractions having integers into fractions, reduce the fractions to a common denominator,

Write them one after another with their signs ; or convert the a common denominator if necessary; then add their numerators, and then add as before. and place the sum over the common denominator.

o EXAMPLES.

am+h 1. What is the sum of a and ?

Ans. et

a

or

972

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