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INSTRUMENTAL ARITHMETIC.

INSTRUMENTAL ARITHMETIC.–No. II.

mark it; you can then take 5.5 inches from the scale and

mark it in a straight line with the former ; then the whole THE PLANE SCALE; ITS CONSTRUCTION AND USE. length will be that of the line of 11.5 inches required. Under

the line or rule thus described, there is another consisting of In our first lesson on Instrumental Arithmetic, we explained six inches divided into 5 equal parts, and having these parts the nature and use of an apparatus called the Neperian Abacus. ! in like manner subdivided into tenth parts. These parts are In this lesson, we propose to explain the construction and use i marked at every large division, thus : 10, 20, 30, &c., which of the Plane Scale. This scale is usually found in a case or means 10 hundredths, 20 hundredths, 30 hundredths, &c., of a box of Mathematical Instruments, and is one of the most foot, or 1 tenth, 2 tenths, 3 tenths, &c., of a foot. This, then, useful inventions we know for the purpose of the practical is a decimal scale of a foot, containing tenths and hundredths Mathematician, the Artist, the Mechanical Draughtsman, and of a foot without regard to inches ; and from it you may lay the Designer and Drawer of Plans, whether relating to Archi- down or measure lengths of lines very accurately to hundredths tecture, Machinery, or Civil Engineering. In our illustrations, of a foot, as far as it goes, and it may be extended to the laying fig. 1 and

2, we have given an example of a Plane Scale of the down or the measurement of a line longer than the scale itself most useful construction, for there are several varieties in this by doing it by parts as shown above. Thus, if you wished to respect, which we shall have occasion to explain. This example lay down a line of 2.37 feet, that is, 2 feet tenths of a foot is a fac simile of an ivory Plane Scale which has been in our own and 7 hundredths of a foot; you would draw an indefinite possession for more than thirty years, and a more useful instru- straight line, and repeat the length of the scale four times in ment in the solution of practical problems in Mathematics is succession on that line, this would give the length of the 2 not easy to be found. This instrument, although only six feet, then stretch the legs of your compasses so that the disinches long, contains the same Lines as those which are put | tance between the two points of the legs may extend from the

Fig. 1.

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upon one side of the Gunter s Scale, called the Common Gunter extremity A to the 7th vertical division beyond that marked 30, by sailors who use this instrument, and who solve their problems and this will give the length of the •37 of a foot ; next place in Navigation by its means. The Common Gunter is 24 inches this length on the straight line above mentioned, in continualong, and contains on the other side of it, Lines representing tion of the 2 feet already laid down, and you will have a line of the the Logarithms of the numbers which are represented by the whole length of 2.37 feet as required. By comparing the two Lines on the one side just alluded to. In explaining the scales extending from A to B, just explained, at the points where nature and use of the Plane Scale, therefore, we are explaining their divisions coincide, you will see that 5 hundredths of a the nature and use of one side of Gunter's Scale, so useful in foot is 6 tenths of an inch ; 10 hundredths or 1 tenth of a foot the study and practice of Navigation.

is 1 inch and 2 tenths of an inch; 15 hundredths of a foot is 1 In fig. 1, from A to B there is a common six inch ru.e, with inch and 8. tenths of an inch ; 20 hundredths or 2 tenths of a the inches marked on it from 1 to 6 each inch being sub- foot is 2 inches and 4 tenths of an inch; 30 hundredths or divided into tenths of an inch; this, then, is a decimal inch. | 3 tenths of a foot is 3 inches and 6 tenths of an inch ; 35

Fig. 2.

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scale, and you may measure or lay down the lengths of lines by, hundredths of a foot is 4 inches and 2 tenths of an inch ; 40
its means very accurately to tenths of an inch, as far as it hundredths or 4 tenths of a foot is 4 inches and 8 tenths of an
extends. Thus, if you stretch the legs of a pair of compasses, inch ; 45 hundredths of a foot is 5 inches and 4 tenths of an
so that the distance between the two points of the legs may inch; and so on, according to the length of the scale.
extend from the extremity a to the fourth vertical division We come now to the most useful and accurate Scale drawn
beyond that marked 3, you have in this distance the measure on this Instrument, fig. 1, we mean the Diagonal Scale of Equal
or the length of 3.4 inches or 314 inches. If you wish to Parts. The larger Divisions of this scale are sometimes an
measure or lay down a longer line, you can do it from the same inch, as on the Common Gunter, which is 2 feet long; and
scale by parts ; thus, to measure or lay down a line of 11.5 sometimes half an inch as on the Plane Scale, which is only
inches, you can first take 6 inches complete from the scale and half a foot long. In fig. 1 the larger divisions from o to D are
VOL, IV.

80

a

each half an inch long, marked 1, 2, 3, &c., to 10, from right to | units; or of units, tenths, and hundredths of units. Hence, the left and the smaller divisions from e to , are each a quarter numbers 478, 47.8, and 4.78 may all be expressed by the same of an inch long, marked 1, 2, 3, &c., to 19, from left to right. extent of the compasses upon the Diagonal Scale; thus, setting The mode of constructing this scale is the following: Draw one foot of the compasses on the line marked 4 of the larger eleven equidistant and parallel lines, such as those between divisions, at its intersection with the 8th parallel below e D, @ D and er inclusive; divide the upper of these lines c D, into and extending the other foot till it reaches the diagonal marked as many equal parts as the scale is intended to contain, with or understood to be) the 7th at the top, viz., on cd, that disone additional part of the same size as the rest ; from each of tance in the compasses will be the length of the line which is these divisions draw perpendicular lines across the eleven 478 equal parts, 47.8 equal parts, or 4.78 equal parts, accordparallel lincs, that is, from od to BP; subdivide the additional ing as the unit is considered to be one-hundredth of half an part on CD iad BP into 10 equal parts, and draw a line from inch, one-tenth of half an inch, or one-half of an inch; for if the left extremity of the additional part on CD, to the first divi- the four larger divisions be taken for 400, seven of the first subsion of the additional part on Ep to the left; a line from the divisions will be 70, and this, taken upon the 8th parallel first division on the left of the same part on CD, to the second below cd, which takes in 8 of the second subdivisions for division on the left of the same part on BF; a line from the units, gives the whole number 478; or, if the four larger second division on the left of the same part on cv, to the third divisions be tuken for 40, seven of the first subdivisions will be division on the left of the same part on E F, and so on, until 7 units, and the 8 subdivisions of the second kind upon the the rectangle be filled up with oblique or diagonal lines, and 8th parallel will be 8 tenths of a unit; or, lastly, if the four presents the appearance of an oblique

chequer, the last oblique larger divisions be reckoned as only 4 units, then will the first line being drawn from the ninth division of the additional part subdivisions be 7 tenths, and the 8 second subdivisions & on CD, to the right extremity of the same part on Er. In hundredths of a unit. regard to these oblique lines, it is to be very particularly Finally, in reference to fig. 1, in order to construct the remarked that each of them in passing from the additional Diagonal Scale, with the larger divisions equal to only a quarter part on cd to that on E p, crosses the parallel lines between of an inch, we have only to bisect each of the larger divisions CD and x P at a point which is ono tenth more of each of the of the former scale, on & F, and from the points of bisection to subdivisions of that part, in proportion as it descends from the raise perpendiculars to CD; we shall then, omitting the line on, viz., at the points where they intersect each succeeding additional part of the former scale, have 20 equal parts along parallel ; and as each of the subdivisions of the additional part EF. Now, keeping for the additional part of this scale the is one-tenth of each of the larger divisions, so the intersection first division on the left, and marking 1, 2, 3, &c., to 19, we of each of the succeeding parallels with each of the diagonal have the larger divisions of the quarter-inch scale; then, sublines gives an additional one-tenth of each of the preceding dividing as before the additional part on BF and c d into 10 tenths, or an additional one-hundredth of each of the larger equal parts, we have the first subdivisions of this scale; and divisions of the scale. If, therefore, the larger divisions of the drawing diagonal lines as before in the additional part between scale be reckoned units, the first eubdivisions of the additional E F and cd, but reckoning them upwards, instead of downwards part will be tenths of these units, and the second subdivisions, as in the former scale, we have the second subdivisions of this marked by the intersections of the diagonals and the parallels, scale; these second subdivisions are marked at the side runhundredth parts of the same units. Again, if the larger diyi- ning upwards from E to c, at every second point, viz., 2, 4, 6, 8; sions of the scale be reckoned tens, the first subdivisions of the where the second subdivisions of the former scale are marked additional part will be units, and the second tenths; or if the at the side running downwards from D to F, in the same manner. larger divisions of the scale be reckoned hundreds, then will the The reason why all the subdivisions, both first and second, first subdivisions be tens, and the second units, and so on, the from 1 to 10, are not marked on the former scale, is simply value of the subdivisionis always depending on that of the because there is not room to mark all the figures distinctly; larger divisions of the scale,

and the reason why the first subdivisions are not marked at all The reason why each of the subdivisions of the additional on the second scale is, that there is no room to place them part on cd, which are marked at every second division 2, 4, 6, with any, degree of distinctness on this scale; but the 8, from left to right, is one-tenth of each of the larger divisions second subdivisions of this scale are marked similarly to those marked 1, 2, 3, 4, &c., to 10, from right to left, is plainly this, of the former scale, but in a reverse order, as they must be that one-tenth of any part is also one-tenth of each of the parts reckoned from the bottom upwards, while the first subdivisions, that are equal to that part; but the reason that each of the though not marked, must be numbered from right to left, and diagonal lines intersects every successive parallel, at one-tenth the larger divisions, as before observed, from left to right. part more of one of these tenth parts, according as it des- The explanation of fig. 2, which contains the Trigonometrical cends from cd, must be sought for in Prop. IV. Book VI. and other Lines of the Plane Scale, being its obverse side, Cassell's Euclid. Thus, let A BC, fig. 3, be a

must be deferred for want of room till our next Lesson in

Fig. 3. triangle, such as is formed by the perpen

Instrumental Arithmetic. dicular drawn through the right hand extremity of the larger division of the scale marked

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-No. LXVIII. 1, the diagonal line drawn from the same ex

D tremity to the first subdivision on the left of

By John R. BEARD, D.D. the additional part on E , and the first equal

ADVERBS. part on the left of the same EF, where AB represents the first of these lines, AC the

SYNTAX OF THE PREDICATE COMPLETED. second, and b c the third ; then supposing that D E is that part of the first line belów CD which is inter

The sick man drinks copiously. cepted by the perpendicular and the diagonal above mentioned, Copiously is the adverb of the proposition. Instead of an (scarcely perceptible on the scale, fig. 1) we have by the pro- adverb we may have in the proposition an adverbial phrase; as, position of Euclid referred to, this proportion, AB: BO:: AE:ED, and alternately AB:AE::BD:BD; but a r is by construction

The sick man drinks with freedom. one-tenth of A B; therefore e D is, by Prop. D. Book V. Cassell's Euclid, one-tenth of BC. Whence, it follows, that if the point and may be said to hold the place, of an adverb. Phrases which

Whatever affects the affirmation of a sentence performs the ofice, o be one-tenth of a certain distance from the point B, the in some way affect the affirmation are numerous, as they vary with point D will be one-tenth of that one-tenth, or one-hundredth the variations of time, place, and manner : e.g., of that distance from the point 8. This shows why at every successive parallel lower than c), the distance of each diagonal is an additional hundredth part of the unit or of each larger

Time : The sick man {vesterday drank

drank division, farther remote from the perpendicular drawn through

Place: The sick man

drank in his chamber the left extremity of the additional part. By this decimal dia.

drank in his bed gonal scale, therefore, we can lay down or measure lines whose

Manner: The sick man

drank with eagerness lengths are given in numbers consisting of hundreds, tens, and

drank at one draught

A

B

In most sentences having an adverbial phrase, there may also be one); every one includes all, not every one excludes only a part; th an adverb; e. g.,

opposite of every one is no one or none; e. g., The sick man drank in his chamber copiously.

Not every one that saith unto me Lord, Lord, shall enter into

the kingdom."--(Matt. viii. 21.) Instead of an adverb and an adverbial phrase, you may have two adverbs, or even more; e. g.,

“None of those men who were invited shall taste of my

supper."-(Luke xis.21.) The sick man drank water eagerly and copiously.

No one, when employed thus in separation, may be considered an Position of the Adrerb.

indefinite pronoun (not one) of the singular number, and of course The ordinary place for the adverb is immediately before or after requiring the verb to be in the singular. When combined, as in the verb. Euphony, as well as idiom, has an influence in determin- none, the pronoun implies plurality, and has its verb in the plural;

e. Sy ing the position of the adverb. Sometimes an adverb is placed before the verb in order to allow the verb and its object to stand

“How many are come?" "None are come." "What, not one?" together ; e. g.,

“No, not one is come." The sick man copiously drank water.

The word amen may seem to be independent. But it is a The position of the adverb has much to do with the sense. There Hebrew term, signifying so let it be, and forms a part of the preceding is a great difference between these two statements :

sentence or paragraph, and indeed is in itself a sentence expressive

of a wish or a prayer.
Only the man went out.
The man only went out.

There are cases in which the adverb seems to qualify a pre

position; e. g., The first states that the man went out and no one else; the second states that the man did nothing but go out.

“This mode of pronunciation runs considerably beyond ordinary

discourse."--Blair. Agreement of Adverbs.

But the verb consists of the two words runs beyond, beyond being Adverbs, though so called because they are put to verbs, qualify

an uncombined or free affix, here appended to the verbrun, so that the adjectives as well as verbs; e. g., ** Any passion that habitually discomposes our temper, cr untits nunciation runs beyond, &c.

adverb really qualifies the affirmation, which is that this mode of prous for properly discharging the duties of lise, has most certainly gained a very dangerous ascendancy."-Blair

When we say " not all that glitters is gold,” the negative is Adjectives may also be said to qualify participles, but as the par- applied to all, and applied with such effect as to give the idea that ticiple is only a part of the verb, a separate statement of the fact something that glitters is gold, is hardly necessary.

No has sometimes the force of an adjective ; e. 8., There are elliptical forms which seem to make some adverbs in- “There is no flying hence nor tarrying here."--Shakspeare. dependent of any verb. But the independence is only apparent.

In their directions for the use of ever and never in such phrases In reality every adverb on examination will be found to qualify an

as “never so rich," grammarians have varied and blundered. The affirmation.

The words yes and no are exceptions. When I ask a child only way to determine whether you should use ever or never is to “Do you love me?" and the child answers “ Yes," the adverb former employ ever, if the latter employ never. Dr. Blair has been

consider whether the proposition is affirmative or negative; if the yes is only an abbreviated form of the sentence I do love you. No and not are often misused. No is the answer to a question completely correct. The proposition is that we can expect a cer

blamed for saying " seldom or never can we expect,' and yet is he when no other answer is given; not is prefixed to the verb em- tain thing in few instances, nay, perhaps in no instance, that is not ployed in giving the answer; e. g.,

at all, or never. Are you ill? No.

Exception has been taken to sentences constructed like the followAre you ill? I am not ill.

ing, and ever has been substituted for never :Hence in all sentences not should be used; consequently

" Which will not hearken to the yoice of charmers, charming "whether or no" is wrong ; it should be whether or not.

never so wisely." When not is prefixed to the verb, and so affects or negatives the whole affirmation, if a negative is required with a succeeding mem- Never is right; the proposition in the second member is thoug ber, or should be used; but if the not (or neither) negatives only he (the charmer) charm so wisely as none ever before charmed, one word or one phrase, then with the succeeding or corresponding the proposition is therefore negative, and requires never. word or phrase employ nor; e. 8.,

Some adverbs perform the office of adjectives. When adverbs For two months I could not think or speak.

perform the office of adjectives, they may be accounted adjectives ; He allowed me not to speak nor to write.

- To the above remarks."--Camphell. He gave ine neither money nor clothes.

“In his then situation."-Johnson. Observe that neither is properly usad of two only, meaning not

In parsing sentences of this kind it would be the better way to either, that is not one of two. Hence it takes in the second clause describe above, then, &c., as adverbs employed adjectively.

Take care not to mistake an adjective for an adverb. the Double negatives in English make a positive, when they are

phrase, applied to the same affirmation ; e. g.,

“ The arross of calumny fall harmless at the feet of virtue," He is not unlearned ; that is, he is learned.

an ignorant purism has proposed harmlessly as a correction. The positive thus made is not a mere positive ; thus,

Harmless is right, for the word qualifies not fall but arrows, and He is not unlearned means that he is somewhat learned.

the statement is tbat they are " harmless,” that they do no injury to

virtue. A negative may, however, be repeated so as to give force to the

Participle. negation ; e. g., “There is none righteous, no, not one.

."-(Rom. ii. 10.)

Of the predicate in the sentence, It is essential that the two negatives should be in the same pro.

The man drinks a beverage made of wine and water, position, if they are to cancel each other. In the last case the pro- the word made, the word of, and the word and remain to be positions are different, the first being equivalent to "there is none studied. righteous, there is not one righteous.

These words might have stood in the subject. Their position in When it is meant that a proposition should be negative, care either the subject or the predicate is of no importance. The only must be taken lest you make it affirmative, as in the phrase "nor thing of importance is to show that a simple sentence may embrace I neither" (for which read either) in this sentence :

all the parts of speech; for thus you learn that, when you have “He will never consent, not he, no never, nor I neither."- mastered the syntax of a simple sentence, you have mastered the Bolingbroke.

essential doctrines of English grammar. Care must be taken to weigh the force of the negative. There is, The past participle made offers an instance of agreement and or instance, a great difference between not every one, and none (not government united in one word ; for made agrees with beverage, and

e. g.,

nor.

together with beverage is governed by drinks. In general it may Participles in general have the government of the verbs from which be stated that participles admit of concord and dependence.

they come ; consequently the question whether or not a preposition Participles perform other offices besides that which is strictly should be appended to a participle depends on the usage of the their own.

verb; often of is inserted where it is not needed, especially by the The present participle is used as a noun sometimes without, untaught in conversation ; e. g., sometimes with a pronoun, also sometimes with and sometimes Incorrect. They left beating of Paul.”—(Acts xxi. 32.) without an object; e. 8.,

Some verbs take a present participle after them instead of an " Describing a past event as present has a fine effect an lan- infinitive ; e. g., guage."-Kames.

Verbs of desisting. “They have done speaking."-Harris, "My being here, it is, that holds thee hence."-Shakspeare.

Verbs of omitting. “He omits giving an account of them."The present participle may have the force of an infinitive; e. g., 7ooke. “Avoid being ostentatious and affected."-Blair.

Verbs of preventing. “Our sex are prevented from engaging in The present participle has the force of an infinitive also when com

these turbulent scenes."-West. bined with the past participle ; e. 8.,

Verbs of avoiding. He might have avoided treating of the origin " Habits are soon assum'd; but when we strive

of ideas."--Tooke. To strip them off, 'tis being flay'd alive.”- Coroper. After verbs expressive of the operations of the senses the partici. The present participle unites with a verb to complete its signifi- ple or the infinitive may be used, but with a slight difference in mation; e. g.,

the meaning ; the participle describing the act as at the moment "To be left pausing on a word of no meaning is disagrecable.”—actually proceeding; e. g., Murray.

I saw the bird fly. The present participle is used in the way of explanation :

I saw the bird flying. “But ever to do ill our sole delight,

I have spoken of a participle as being used absolutely or indeAs being the contrary to his high will."-Milton. pendently. A word is said to be used absolutely or independently The present participle refers to the subject of the sentence :

when it stands disconnected in construction from what precedes, Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools."— absolute construction may contain two words or more. Take as

and sometims from what follows as well. Instead of one word the (Rom. i. 22.)

examples of this construction, The present participle may agree with the object; e. g.,

He failing, who shall meet success ? “They stoned Stephen, calling upon God and saying."-(Acts

Your fathers where are they?-(Zech. i.5.) vii. 59.)

"Or I only and Barnabas, have not ve power ?"-(1 Cor. ix. 6.) It must be regarded as an inaccuracy when a present participle Nay but, o man, who art thou that repliest against God?"beginning a sentence is not followed by a subject ; e. 8.,

(Rom. ix. 20.) “By admitting such violations of established grammatical

“O rare we!"-Corper. distinctions, confusion would be avoided."-Murray.

“ Miserable they!"-Thomson. Better“ you (or they) would avoid confusion,” for then the The construction in full involves two subjects ; e. g., participle admitting bas a subject, namely you, and the sentence is

The sun rising, the darkness fleeth away. regularly formed.

William being dead, Victoria succeeded. Usage, however, has sanctioned the use of the present participle in an independent manner, or absolutely, that is, as disjoined in

A question has been raised as to what is the absolute case in construction, and expressive of a cause or reason :

English. With the view we have taken of cases, the question bas “I then quit the society; to withdraw and leave them to them- may call the construction in question the absolute construction,

little meaning or importance. For the sake of a name you selves appearing to me a duty.”

and when pronouns are employed in that construction you will A present participle may at the same time have the force and generally find them in the nominative. Yet Milton says me construction of a participle and a noun:

miserable!” “Mr. Dryden makes a very handsome observation on Ovid's The construction is elliptical, and whether the noun (or pronoun) writing a letter from Dido to Æneas."-Spectator.

employed should be subject or object depends on the way in which The construction in this last example deserves study; the pre- the ellipsis is supplied. position on governs writing as a noun; writing as a noun governs Ovid's, and writing as a participle governs letter. When a present participle performs the twofold function of a

SKETCHES FOR YOUNG THINKERS. noun and a participle, beir alike governed and governing, it is said to have a gerundial force, that is the force and construction of

(Continued from page 269, vol. III:) the Latin gerunt, or of the participle ending in dus. With the present participle used gerundially a past participle Two or three observations will suffice our second instance.

We refer to John Milton. Much as this illustrious individual may be united; e. g.,

accomplished as an author and a politician, his name will "Some of these irregularities arise from our having received the always be most prominently associated with “Paradise Lost.” words through a French medium."-Allen.

He was not a wealthy student. His path was an ascent, unThe present participle used as a noun may have a preposition or an even, steep, and rugged. The poet's soul was not daunted adverb in combination with it; e. g.,

with difficulty, and although he feelingly laments that wisdom Their hope shall be as the giving-up of the ghost."-(Job xi. 20.) in light, and that light streamed from him, as the rays from

at one entrance quite shut out,” yet his soul was bathed The two constructions of the participle with a participial force, the meridian sun. He finished his poem. It was ready for and as a noun, must not be placed together in the same sentonce, as the press, and although he had drunk deeply at “ Poverty turns our thoughts too much upon the supplying of our

" Siloa's brook that flow'd wants; and riches, upon enjoying our superfluities."-Addison.

Fast by the oracle of God," Correct. “No mistake can arise from using either form." and “soared above the Aonian mount,” yet "the bard of im

mortal subjects, and immortal fame” offered the copyright of Compare what I have said on the participle as forming the subject of a

“ Paradise Lost" for five pounds! The book over which a preposition,

world has poured its plaudits and which has secured its author

in this,

unseen.

a lofty niche in the temple of fame, offered for this paltry sum! . I. INTELLECTUAL EXCELLENCE brings with it a peculiar The one of three conclusions must be come to. Either the pleasure. It is self rewarding, and makes a man more and author had no adequate conception of the value of his book, more self-dependent. The unlettered and uncultivated mind or literature was less prized then than now, or his circum- must go out of itself, and feed on excitement. Solitude to such stances rendered it imperatively necessary that the money an one is misery; Study is an unmeaning term. In early days should be obtained. Suffice it to know that the last was the case. the mind was allowed to develop without discipline; the shrub Such men as Milton do not appear often. A Milton in a cen- having been neglected, the tree refuses to be trained. The tury is more probable than a Milton in less. The Creator does man of cultured intellect is not dependent on contingencies at intervals suspend, as it were, those lamps from the sky, and for his happiness. He has a fountain within him, supplying men gaze in wonder at their brightness. Far be it from us to what is necessary in the hour of need. He who knows the declare, that all young men or amateur poets may become pleasure of retiring within himself, and depending on his own Miltons, or that all young mathematicians may become New- resources, would not readily forego the enjoyment. Here a tons. Variety would thus become lost in one lofty, though distinction must be made between absence of mind, and the monotonous uniformity. One sun in the sky is sufficient. pleasure of which we are now speaking. We have not much We love to see the moon and stars, no less because there is a faith in "absence of mind.” In a large proportion of instances, sun. Let all those stars blaze with equal intensity as the sun, we have reason to believe it a studied eccentricity. We know and men would be dazzled to blindness, or scorched to death. that some profound thinkers have been so deeply engrossed in Let the orb of day maintain its sphere, the moon shed her soft thought, as to be oblivious of what was proceeding in their effulgence, and the stars sparkle in the lofty dome, and there presence, but we protest against those instances being quoted will be beauty, sublimity, and usefulness; but if the arrange- as apologies for all the rude, boorish, and offensive stupidity in ment be disturbed, there will be disorder and confusion. We the world. We can sympathise with Newton when buried in like the stars in the firmament, and the flowers on the earth, mathematics, with Dwight when absorbed in theology, or and the music in the air; we admire the order, and adore its Johnson when pondering on his ethics, without being comauthor; so must it ever be in the mental creation. There will pelled to subscribe to all the ridiculous tales which are told be sun, moon, and stars there. Let them all shine. Light is regarding the mental absence of many distinguished men. If useful wherever it may arise. Every man should be a centre men are to be absent-minded, let it be real; bona fide, not of light, illuminating every circle, and dispelling the shades of assumed and fictitious. ignorance, error, and vice., It will be observed that it has formed no part of the writer's enjoyment in everything. He discovers

To the intellectual man, all nature is a teacher. He finds design to furnish the biography of the individuals to whom reference has been made. Mere illustration was required, and this is all which will be found. It were easy to fill a

Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,

Sermons in stones, and good in everything." volume with extracts from the lives of the eminent already pub; lished, but the design in the present case, was to work in the The whole world to him is an immense library. It is a living examples simply as illustrations of the sentiments which are source of enjoyment. If his spirit be what it ought, the world here advanced. This will account for the brevity of the will be full of types and symbols concerning the spiritual and notices, and the abruptness and rapidity of some of the transi. tions. We have by no means exhausted the all-but bound, every flower will be suggestive of thought. The planet will

Every star that twinkles will teach hím lessons • less stores of instances illustrative of the theme. Time would remind him of “the bright and morning star;" the flower fail us to tell of Cellini, Matsys, Ibbetson, Kent, Towne, will bring to his remembrance “the rose of Sharon.” This Kirby, Ichiavoni, and Caslon, among the artists of Descartes, may be called fanaticism, or sentimentalism, or rhapsody; To Jonson, Buchanan and Cervantes, among soldiers ; of Dam. call names, however, is not to disprove; if it were so, we should pier, Davis, Drury, Falconer, Giordani, Fransham, Oswald, have every principle in the world overturned at once. Columbus, Cook, Vancouver, and Collingwood, among sailors ; of Homer, Milton, Salinas, Stanly, Scapinelli and Huber, We envy not the man who can walk through the world, and among blind men, and of Lithgow, Niebuhr, Ledyard and see no cause for thankfulness; who regards all things as the Belzoni, among travellers. Biography will unfold this, and to result of accident, and as at the mercy of a blind and capricious the written memoirs of_these distinguished men the reader chance. This must necessarily cast a gloom over the world. must be referred. This Essay is intended rather to whet than The thought insults our common sense, and fills our spirits to satiate the appetite. It is a finger-post pointing along the with revulsion. If there be no God, the world in itself is the road leading to intellectual excellence; or, changing the figure, most mysterious, confounding, and insoluble of problems. it is a guide pointing to the footprints of previous travellers, The intellectual man enjoys the world; it is filled with objects and saying as it points, "this is the way, walk ye in it.” of attraction and instructive interest to him. We have no The temple is at the further end of this

road, no tax will be sympathy with the rant that is always bickering against the required, but labour and patience. These will clear and world. Neither have we esteem for the man who can look smooth the way. Longfellow in his admirable " Psalm of upon it without thankfulness, and as devoid of design. Apart,

e," has well sung," Learn to labour and to wait." This however, from the physical world, the intellectual man has counsel is the secret of success. Some men have learned to sources of enjoyment. He converses with the illustrious dead. “ labours" but have not learned to "wait.” Their impatience He luxuriates amid the sumptuous provisions of literature. has been so overmastering, as to render them disquieted and Though the authors have returned to their kindred dust, their miserable. They have cast in the seed and watered it, but the works remain behind. Their spirits are in their writings ; harvest tarries and they murmur. Desert does not always they thus speak from the grave, and shed light from the sepul. meet with immediate success; the "gem of purest ray serene” chre. Time and space are annihilated by the power of mind. often lies long in the “deep unfathomed caves of ocean," and We go at once thousands of years back, and listen to Moses, as the " flower” often "blushes unseen," for a lengthened period, in strains of sublime simplicity he relates the history of the or perhaps it may waste its sweetness on the desert air.' world's creation. We sit by Homer as he writes his imperishDesert moreover is not always to be measured by success. able lines, and we look with prophets into the events of unMany succeed who are undeserving, but such success is not born time. While the body remains in one place, the mind always to be envied. The clown may assume the manners of traverses the world, and drinks knowledge from fountains a philosopher, but he is a clown after all. The jackdaw may which were opened centuries before its own existence. We be arrayed in the feathers of the peacock, but well will it be have here a velocity which defies the lightning. For the sake for him if a righteous indignation does not strip off the assumed of happiness, then, we urge the acquisition of knowledge. We covering, and expose the delinquent in his native insignifi. cannot see that “ignorance is bliss." If this were the rule,

then the brute creation would enjoy more bliss than man. The There are some general principles deducible from this train mind would be the greatest obstacle to the attainment of hapof illustration. A brief review of these may be of service, as piness. We would have to attend to the necessities of our phy. tending to impress the facts more strongly, and bring the sub- sical nature, cultivate sensual desires, despise knowledge, burn ject to a more practical and successful conclusion,

every book, close every reading-room, proscribe the press, and

cance.

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