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Il pa-dre e la ma-dre. Il fra-têl-lo e la so-rêl-la. Il pa- ExceLSIOR (Birmingham) : Every one know that Walker's Dictionary ! dre è buô-no, la má-dre è buô-na. Il buôn pá-dre, la buo-na thic, standard for pronunciation; as improved by Sinart, it is no doubt má-dre. Il fra-têl-lo è buô-no, la so-rel-la è buô-na. Il thing that breathes; surely, therefore, man is an animal ! - Y una buôn fra-têl-lo, la buô-na so-rêl-la. Mi-o pá-dre; il mi-o CAMBRIAN (Bethesda) is mistaken; he must look again.-Iwond (Lowerby): buôn pá-dre. Mi-a má-dre; la mí-a buô-na má-dre. Mí-o We don't know.-G. Bartos (Lincoln): The Latiu menia tneans bucha

wall and walls.-MATHETRS (Farnley) : To obtain inore particular informas pá-dre è buô-no, mi-a ma-dre è buô-na. Mí-o fra-têl-lo etion relating to the knowledge of chemistry required for Matriculation at mi-a so-rêl-la. Il mi-o buôn fra-têl-lo e la mi-a buô-na so- the University of London, the best way is to write to the Secreta y, H. rêl-la. Mi-o fra-têl-lo è buô-no, mi-a so-rel-la è buô-na. Un Noore, Esq —E. H. (Rothly): We would advise him to attend that college pá-dre, ú-na ma-dre, un fra-têl-lo, ú-na so-rel-la. Un buôn which is nearest to his home; Spring Hill College, Birmingham, seems to be

the nearest of the affiliated colleges which constitute the University of pá-dre, ú-na buô-na ma-dre, un buôn fra-têl-lo, ú.na buô-na London.-H. M. (Herts): With every desire to please, he must really excuse so-rel-la. Mi-o pá-dre è un buôn pá-dre, mía má-dre è ú-na ug for some time; our hands are so full, and some questions are still buô-na ma-dre. "Mi-o fra-têl-lo è un buôn fra-têl-lo, mi-a 80-unane vered, which must be solved first... E.(Binfield): Yes.-A. (Leeds): rêl-la è ú-na buô-na so-rêl-la. Sú o pá-dre è buô.no, mi-o and more danger in it, and really inust decline it. Nothing of any value is pá-dre è an-che buô-no. Sú-a madre è buô-na, mi-a má-dre omitted in the French sections they are published separately. The cone è ân-che buô-na. Sú-o padre ha u-na buô-na so-rêl-la, tú-a traction br, is for brochure, and is beet Englished by stitched. má-dre ha un buôn fra-lêl-lo. Mi-o fra-têl-lo è tú-o pá-dre. R. CRAIG (Cheapside): Dialling will be kept in view.-J. Bexson : The Mi-o pá-dre è án-che tú-o pa-dre, e mi-a ma-dre è an-che article on the " Useless Knowledge Society” is only a quiz.-Evan Jones tú.a má-dre. Il lí-bro è buô-no, la pén-na è buô-na. Il mi-o Bala): A new Magazine is scarcely wanted for ihe benefit of Literary lí-bro è píc-co-lo, la mi-a pén-na è grán-de. Sú-o pá-dre ha monthly and quarterly !-W. H. B. H. (Exeter) Many teachers and un buôn lí-bro, tu-a so-rel-la

ha ú-na buô-na pén-na. Mi-o schoolmasters have adopted our lessons as text-books in their classes : were fra-têl-lo è grán-de, mi-a so-rêl-la è pic-co-la. Il tú-o píc-co- (Dundee): The insertion of the notice would be too late; besides our Jo fra-têl-lo e la tú-a pic-co-la so-rêl-la. Sú-a so-rêl-la ha la journal is not a Newspaper, and we cannot afford room for notices of society mi-a pén-na, e tú-o fra-têl-lo ha il mí-o li-bro. Il tú-o píc-co-, meetings.-G. N. CONRADI (Dover), G. T. w. (Battersea), D. M. KEY lo li-bro è un buôn 11-bro.

(Newington), G. J. (Oxford). ALEXANDER SWINDOX (High Wycombe), G. ARCHBOLD (St. Peters), P. Hax, (Shores wood), Thomas R. (Sutton in Ashfield), E. MAYALL(West Strand). m.

B. (Burnly), Q. PRIKOLE(Glasgow), D. R. D. (Dundee) and others, all right on the boy and app!e question.

A YOUTH OF 17 (Liverpool) is wiser than we are, for his Trial Balance and ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

ours considerably differ.-A STUDENT (Portemouth) must be content with

the Lessons on the pronunciation of Greek given in the P. E.-A SUBSCRIW. HAMMOND (Harborne): Barnes' Commentary on the Gospels should be BRR (Shrewsbury), who wishes to become a reporter in one of the houses of the best, being the latest, the author having had the advantage of consulting Parliament, must

first learn to spell English words.-A. (Hackey) : Wrong. the labours of all his predecessors. The question on John vi. 9, appears -ANNA PRINGLE (age 13) (Durham): Right; we are glad that she beats useless, and we do not see how any difficulty can be made of it.-J. it. C. some of the boys.-QUÆSITOR (Lincoln): The subjects in Mathematics and will not have gone far enough for the next Matriculation at the University Modern Languages for matriculation, are never particularly announced till of London, unless he studies other books than the P. E.; see our articles the day of examination. For the subjects in Classics for 1834, see vol. ii. p. on the subject. Professor de Lolme's " Complete Manual," and " Andrews 215, col. 2. line 34. and Stoddard's Grammar," are by no means the same as those in the P.E., CHEMISTRY.-WILLIAM Fox FORWARD (Plymouth) : (1) A misprint in and we humbly think those in the P. E. are the best, and that the French No. 81, p. 39, col. 1, line 26 from bottom, read" but obtain either metal as a can be learned quickest.

sulphuret, (2) in the same col. line 29 from top, for "ammonia" read “man. J. ELAND (Morpeth): Good poetical ideas, but not sufficiently measured ganese;" (3) 'a "saturated solution" means a liquid fully charged with the as to feet and rhyme.-VERE FOSTER (Brighton): Thanks for his attention, material to be dissolved, and is usually prepared by adding more of any but we have not seen the decision of which he speaks.-H.C. XXV.: The material than the liquid can dissolve. Thus, suppose a saturated aqueous Latin phrases are idioms and not errors. The errors have been corrected. solution of common salt be required, it may be prepared by pouring some The numerical value to which he refers should be so, that is minus infinity.- water into a bottle and adding more salt than it can liquiry. The resulting LAMBDA(Princes-street, and J.J. STILES (Greenwich): Right.-WARIN (East solution is necessarily saturated.-A SUBSCRIBER (Leeds): The machine ot Dereham): Right.-S. G. HUTCHINSON : Received, and under considera- Thilorier is very expensive, from £20 to £50, we believe, according to size. tion.-F. A. SPILLER (Brede): Received, and will be attended to.- We know of no cheap substitute. Our correspondent should address a GEORGIUS (Newcastle-on-Tyne) : The Lessons in Geography will be con- letter to Newman, of Regent-street, Watkins and Hill, of Charing Cross, or tinued under the head of Chorography, beginning with England. Bland and Long, of Fleet-street. OREGOMAI should write to the Secretary of the University of Dublin for information, or buy the Almanack of the sald University: As to the Univer- nient and elegant source of heat, it may frequently be dispensed with ; a

JAMES B SHADRAKE (Barnet): Although the spirit lamp is a very conve. sity of London, see the indexes to vols. ii. and ili. of the P. E.- ALPHA S. Igas flame or a few pieces of well ignited charcoal taking its place. Never XOur maps are far superior to Chapman's penny maps, or to those pao-theless, we can scarcely recommend our correspondent to be without it. lished anywhere else. You cannot have them cheaper and better than in the spirit employed should be either alcohol (rectified spirit of wine), or the P. E. An Atlas will most likely be published in time.- ADOLPHE, and pyroacetic epirit (known in the shops as wood naphtha). The latter is C. RUBENS (Guyzon) : We do not know.-D. R. B.(Dundee) : We cannot Cheaper, measure for measure, but consumes with greater rapidity than insert letters, though they were ever so good, relating to matters of fact, alcchol. We prefer the latter. A laboratory for 16s. cannot be recommended. without knowing the name and address of the authors.-R, READ ABOUT Each student should procure the specific articles which he may require. ST (Pelton Grange) requests H. ULIDIA to fulfil his promise ; and so do we. --BRYAN DALE (Western College Plymouth): A key win be given.-UN Messrs. Bland and Long of Newgate-street, supply all the tests and apparatus AMANT DES LIVRES, can have the P. E. bound at the office as cheaply as anywhere.-W. H. F. (Manchester): Rose's Analytical Chemistry, by water, and of conducting distillation generally, will be described hereafter,

Tuomas Osborne (Camden Town): The method of obtaining distilled Grifin. A STUDENT (Lincoln): Do you ask of what practical use is Geometry? water is concerned, any contrivance enabling the operator to convey steam

At present we shall confine ourselves to the remark that, so far as distilled Alas! look all round you, and see. God laid the foundation of the earth in into a cool veszel, causes the partial condensation of the steam, and yields number, weight and measure; and man has been busy with these ever distilled water. A tea-kettle supplied with water not quite up to the spout, since; that is, with Arithmetic, Algebra, and Geometry !!-T. EDENER : and the corer of which fits closely, will serve the parpose, provided a tube Apply to some member of the Geological Society.-E. BERNARD (Green-1 (say of glass or pewter, not lead) be annexed to the spout and caused to wich) : Eaglish workmen are well appreciated on the Continent. -TYRO Terminate in a large jar, which latter must not be closed.--MAZEPPA (Bosion): The demonstration of the exercise. in Cassell's Euclid will come (London), wishes us to inform him how he can avoid the trouble of piercing commencing. Jan. 1, 1851. Cassell's Classical Library will contain all such corks, adapting tobacco-pipe shanks to them, and making the other forms of books, both in Latin and Greek, as are useful to students: See our Literary | the study of chemistry, which he will never learn if he considers these

apparatus mentioned in our lessons. He can avoid all this by relinquishing Notices.-M. B. (Wigan): There is no sound in English like the French 4; necessary operations a trouble. get some Scotchinan to pronounce the Greek upsilon to you, and you will hear the nearest sound to it. Learn Bell's systein in the P. E.-H. CLIVER

H.GUY (Moorsley): wiaßeopat means to act cautiously, or like those tha: ( Wallace Mill): You can be supplied with all Mr. Cassell's publications by take care; ravteans all-complete, all-perfect, the whole. The contractions applying to Mr. Menzies, Princes-street, Edinburgh; the books you meation are not printed in the modern books; in the order he has written them, have been published for some time, and ought to be readily had.

As to they mean gáp, s, dè, e, et, Tns, Tov, tuv, mv.-NIL DESPERANDUM (Queen others, you should regularly read our Literary Notices and Advertisements. square); In process of time, of course, there will be an Italian Dictionary. J. PULLIPS (St. Katherine Docks) : His request will be attended to as to the - A PRACTICAL MINER will find simple and yet accurate rules or methods

PP. cheap balance. Covers for the P. E. may be had at our office, see adver- of taking the variation of the magnetic neodle, in " Norie's Navigation" tisements on the cover of the monthly parts.-GUS (Birmingham): 206, et seq. The nature of Voltaic batteries will sooner or later be explained. "Norie'Navigation" contains “only the necessary directions for

navigat: The best work on business and trade is Macculloch's Commercial Dice ing

a ship," with rules and tables of various kinds, but no particulars of a tionary; but we certainly have more important work to do than to draw up ship, and no explanation of nautical terms connected there with. In some rules for a Circulating Library !! oll books on Navigation, which may be got at a book-stall for a shilling or J. L. JUNR. (Stirling): Keightley's " Elements of History" are most in two, you will find an engraving of a ship with the names of all the parts, use.-J. PERRY (Erdington): Her translation is under consideration; her an explanation of nautical terms, &c. . We have seen some old editions of inquiries will be answered.- A GERMAN (Manchester): The German Hamilton Moore's Navigation, containing these requisites. There is a work Lessons began in No. XI.,, P: 161, vol. i. We wish that correspondents entitled "Seamanship in Theory and Practice," sold at Wilson's, late putting questions of this kind would save us and themselves trouble by conNorie's, Nautical Warehouse, Leadenhall-street, price 89.6d, which will most sulting the indexes to the volumes of the P. E., which may be bad of the agents likely answer your purpose.

who sell the work.

LESSONS IN MUSIC.--No. XX.

On this plan you perceive, that although the semitones of

the scale are not shown pictorially, yet each note of the scale (Continued from page 185, Vol. III.)

holds always the same place, so that you cannot look at a note

without knowing its key relationship. In the old notation, it We have hitherto concerned ourselves not with the way in is not so. But there is not the slightest hope of improving it which music is represented to the eye, but with the various for a long time to come. It contains, moreover, all the stores effects it produces on the ear. We began at the beginning. of classical music. We must master it as it is. This we shall Ience it is that our former lessons have presented an appearance do the better for seeing, thus clearly, its real difficulty to the 80 different from that which is commonly seen in elementary vocalist. Our first efforts must be directed to overcoming this music books,—where the sign is given before the thing signi- difficulty. We must gain the power of seeing at once, by the aid fied, the name before the idea. Those, however, who have of certain rules of relative position, the key relationship of each patiently followed us in those lessons, will now be well re- note we have to sing. To aid the pupil at first we shall use a warded by discovering that they possess a facility and power square note to represent the key note. The upright "bar" of interpreting the mere notation of music, quite surprising across the staff shows that the stronger accent follows it. to themselves. We now conclude our course of lessons on There are no marks in the old notation for the soft or the vocal music by an introduction to “the old notation." medium accents. Observe, and sing the following.

That way of “noting." or writing music, called the old “notation," was invented by Guido, a monk of Arezzo, in the twelfth century, but it has undergone very many modifications since his time. It uses a ladder of five lines and four spaces, which is called THE STAFF. On this, certain marks are placed which represent the notes. These marks are placed higher or d r m f $ f m 5 d lower on the lines and spaces as the notes are higher or lower in pitch. The Staff.

Notes on the Staff.

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KEY C.

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KEY A.

KEY G.

KEY A.

EXERCISE 1. Write the same phrase, putting the key note The difficulty of the old notation to the singer arises from on the middle line of the staff. Write it again, putting the its not showing him plainly and promptly which is the key key note in the second space reckoning from the lowest. note" (DOH), which is the third of the scale (ME), which is

EXERCISE 2. Write the solfa names under each note in the the fourth (rah), &c.; for on this perception of key relationship the power of the singer depends. When once a

following phrases. pupil, who has passed through our course of vocal exercises, has heard the key note, and knows what place the note before him holds in the key, he can sing it. His knowledge of its proper mental effect gives him confidence and decision. It would be difficult for him to sing wrongly. But until he sees the key relationship of a note, he is at a loss. No information as to its absolute pitch, nor its distance in pitch from the last note sung, apart from key relationship, can supply to him that clear and accurate preconception of the note to be struck, to which he has been accustomed.

Mr. Hickson illustrates this point by showing that for the old notation to exhibit key relationship correctly, it would KEY E. require a staff of eight lines, the third and fourth, and seventh and eighth, being closer together than the others, and the lines alone being used to carry the notes. Such a staff would, of course, be too cumbersome. Mr. Arthur Wallbridge Lunn has thrown out the most practical suggestion we have seen for an improved pictorial notation. But as long as instruments are constructed on the principles of "temperament," we despair of seeing any perfectly successful attempt in this direction. The most valuable point of Mr. Lūnn's invention (called the Sequential Notation) is this : he uses a staff of three lines and four spaces, and places the key note always on the space below the bottom line. He allows another staff or part EXERCISE 3. Write each of the pieces in the last exercise, of a staff to be added either above or below if wanted, with putting the key note on the line or space next above that on this understanding, that between the two there is no line, but which it now stands. Our pupils must not shrink from the that the bottom space of one staff and the top space of the other trouble of writing. It is writing that will most quickly give are in juxtaposition. This secures the same position for the them familiarity with any notation, and perfect familiarity is key note in every octave. It will be a useful exercise for the what they must gain. pupil to try the following phrase. We use the old notes upon Mr. Lunn's staff. Notice that the highest note in the little

EXERCISE 4. Write the following phrases into the old

notation. tune--that which occurs five times, is the octave of the key note, or the upper Don'. It occupies the lowest space of a KEY B. (Put the square note on the middle line.) new staff, of which only a fragment needs to be given in this instance. With these explanations, solfa the piece.

:dlr:mlf:flm:rld:d1t: 1, Hill, it.ld KEY D. A round for four voices.

D.C.

KEY F. (Don in the lowest space.)

: diti :11 It, :d 1 :m lf:8 11 it Moruing bells I lose to hear, ring-ing mor - ri - ly, loud and clear.

Id' :t 11 :1 18 :d lr :m lf :m lr :r la

91 VOL. IV.

KEY F.

KEY G.

Thus far the notes have been all consecutive, except where you rose or fell to the key note. But in the exercises which follow other intervals occur, and the pupil will begin to learn how to recognise a note at sight, without having to repeat the notes between it and the last.

EXERCISE 6. To recognise on the staff me and son, notice and remember, that don, ME, and soł are similarly placed. If Don is on a line, the me and son above are on the adjacent lines. If you is in a space, the two spaces above will be occupied by Me and šok. Keeping this in mind, you will be able to "read" and sing without a moment's hesitation the following pieces. Carefully notice, at the beginning, the places on the staff, of don, ME, and son, and “keep them in your eye throughout the tune. No intervals are introduced but those which rise or fall upon pon, me, or soH.

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EXERCISE 6. Translate the following into the old notation.

KEY X. (Don in the second space.) : m

:8 Id :d Iti mlrd Iti :111s:diti :1, im:m :d lti

im
d lr 11 : 8

id

EXERCISE 9. To recognise ran on the staff, notice, first, that it is the next above ME,- and the places of por, ME, and BOH " are kept in your eye" throughout the tune. Next observe that Fai holds the same relative position to don, which that note holds to the son below it, as you have just learnt. Lower fan, is similarly placed to pow. If on lines, they have one line between them; if in spaces, they have one space between them. When you have verified for yourself these assertions, name at sight the following notes.

KEY B.

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KEY F. (Dou in the first space.)

EXERCISE 10. Write the following into the old notation. id:m:dm:dis:sid:sm:d lr :sa KEY A. (Don in the second space.) EXERCISE 7. To recognise on the staff lower sou, and upper :d lf:

mr:fim:dt:f8:f|m:d 1 f.:8,1a Don', first notice (and verify the assertion) that replicate (or octave) notes are DISSIMILARLY placed. If one is on a line, the

KBY P. (Dou on the middle line.) other is in a space; if one is in a space, the other is on a line. Next, notice the relative position of lower son and Don, and :d|t:8,' d: mf:mld:f, 1 m,:8,18:m|f:8|d that of son and upper Don. You will observe that they are dissimilarly placed. If nou is on a line, the son below it is in a space-not the next space, but the next to the one that poh KEY D. (Dou on the space below the staff.) touches. If don is in a space, the son below it will be found on a line, the next line but one. Be careful to verify all this :d 18:d'It:f/m:8|d':d[r':d'It:8|1:f:d by your own observation; and, without allowing yourself, in any case, to count from note to note, or to receive the prompting of a friend, but always recurring to your rule, learn to name at sight Te) on the staff at sight, you have, first, to perfect yourself in the

EXERCISE 11. To recognise the other notes (RAY, LAH, and the notes of the following pieces. The lines occasionally ready application of the foregoing rules, and then to add to them added to the staff are called ledger Knes.

this obvious otie :-that Thirds (or notes making a third with One a penny

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183 one another and the intervening note) are similarly placed. Read

EXERCISE 14. Copy the following into the old notation. You at sight the following.

may sing the first to the words “Hot cross bung !

buns! One à penny, two a penny,- Hot cross buns !” See it KEY A.

harmonized in Mr. Hickson's “ First Class Tune Book.” Write
it first with a crotchet to correspond with a beat, and then again
with a minim for a beat.
KEY B flat. (Don on the third line).

[. the etaff in the old notation.

| $ :tıld :id:ms:tid':11f:rlt: 8,1t:r|f:1]s:tıld

KEY G. (Dor on the second line.) Take care thoroughly to master these rules and progressive

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exercises before you proceed. If you take each step firmly and
truly for yourself, the path will be easy and clear. If you "slur"
the work of self-teaching, then perplexities and discouragements

If

lo:8

:8 11:8 If :f will multiply upon you.

18 of 1
im if im Irir

im :r RBLATIVE LENGTH OF NOTES, You will remember that in our simple Initiatory Notation, the

The last tune should be sung very quickly to the words “ Doh, relatwe length of notes is indicated pictorially. By the help of Ray, Me, Fah. regularly recurring accent marks we measure out to the eye that

If you music would be reading, proportion of the rhythm which each note occupies. The Old

Much attention 'twill be needing." Notation represents this relative length of notes symbolically as It is a round for four voices, from "Purday's Hundred Rounds." exhibited below.

Write it first with a crotchet to a beat, and then with a quaver I 1191 A BRÈVE-(a note seldom used).

to a beat.

ABSOLUTE LENGTH OF NOTES AND SPEED OF MOVEMENT. A SEMIBREVE-half as long as the Breve.

It is generally understood that when a tune is written with a A MINIM-half as long as the Semibreve.

quaver to each beat, it should be sung much faster than if it were

written with a crotchet or a minim to a beat. But it is not A CROTCHET-half as long as the Minim.

necessarily 80; for there is no absolute length (as so many parts

of a minute) to crotchet, quaver, or minim. It is only relative A QUAVER-half as long as the Crotchet.

length they signify. Nor have these symbols any fixed relation to the beats of the measure. In one tune, a quaver is the "ali

quot " or beat; in another tune, the crotchet; in another, the A SEMIQUAVER-half as long as the Quaver.

minim; and you will constantly find the came tune written in

different ways. The only thing that can fix the absolute length A DEMISRMIQUAVER-half as long as the Semiquaver. of notes is the “Metronome.” The following words are some

times put into the title of a tune to indicate vaguely the rate of

movement. A Dot after a note lengthening it by half.

1st, Grave, which means very slow and solemn; А

2nd. Largo, meaning slow and majestic; 3rd, Adagio, leisurely; second dot would lengthen it three-fourths.

4th, Andante, easy, flowing; 5th, Allegro, very quick. EXERCISE 13. Read at sight and sing " in time" the following

PAUSES OF THE VOICE, pieces. Write them algo into the solia notation. The pen is a thorough teacher.

The following marks are used to indicate the pauses of the voice; KEY F. In the first space.

they are called Rests. The “crotchet rest" requires the voice to pause just so long as it would take the voice to sing a crotchet of the same tune. The “ quaver rest” requires you to pause the time of a quaver in that tune; and so with the rest. In the dia

gram below, you will see the rests placed above the notes to Buy my soles. Buy my live soles. Fine spring wa-ter-cress-es. which they are related : NOTE.—The mark over the word “buy” is called a slur, and shows that those two notes are sung to the same syllable.

t 本 KBY G. Dou on the second line. A round for three voices.

EXERCISE 16. Copy the following into the old notation, first with à crotchet, and afterwards with a quaver for the aliquot or beat.

Take care to insert the proper “rests." The first mend. Mac - ker · el, new

tune is a round for three voices. You may sing it to the words
(from " Training School Song Book"), “ Come sing a round with
me, let all united be; that we may now agree, to sing in plonsant

harmony."
ker -
Old

ny
rags.

KEY F. (Don in the first space.)

Id :- Ir :d :r Im :- ir 10 :Don on the lowest line. A round for four voices.

i'm

:m :f 18 : :f im :

or

For

or

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KBY C.

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Chairs to mend. Old chairs to

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mac

rags,

old

KEY E.

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al : It :1 :t la : Oh! be just. Oh! be true. Be kindand tender-hearted, and mer-ry too.

Note.—Some of the quavers are " tied.” This is a round for im:r :d 18. il, it id : two or four voices, from Mrs. Herschell's "Fireside Harmony."

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D.O.

TIMB SIGNATURES,

The second is a round for six voices, and may be sung to the from the c' tuning-fork, an octave below that which a woman words, “God save the Queen; Long live the Queen; Let the takes from the same fork. This clef is chiefly used on the fourth Queen live; Let the Queen live for ever and ever, Amen.” line, for the tenor (higher man's) voice,--and on the third line,

for the contra-alto (lower woman's, or rarely high men's) voice. KEY F. (Don in the first space.)

It is called the c clef.

EXERCISE 17. Write three of the preceding rounds in the pro1s $: 18 :-.fm : -T:m :

in :- Im :-1

per clef for the tenor voice, putting a square note for Don in the

place proper to its pitch, but not on the lines or spaces before : I: d : -.d1d_:-.11 m : I

mentioned. Write them also in the proper clef for the contra

alto voice. See questions in Curwen's “Grammar of Vocal m -.mm 18 1 : 8 di : 81 Music," p. 165.

A mark, which is said to have been originally made in the shape 1 d' : 8 | : ! 8. :-1-:-10 :-1-:- of a capital G, makes the line on which its lower curve turns, to

represent the G above the “standard c." It is called the o CLEF. It is commonly used on the second line, in which posi.

tion it adapts the staff to the TREBLE or soprano (high women's) The examples bitherto given of the old notation all use the voice. The preceding examples in the old notation are all crotchet as the standard" aliquot.

." You have, therefore, had no written as though they had the G CLEF before them. difficulty in finding what" measure” (Binary, Trinary, Quater.

EXERCISE 18. Write the contra-alto and the tenor "parts" of nary, or Senary) they should be written in. But the crotchet is Brailsford's Chant" given below, into the G cler. Although not thus invariably used as the aliquot except in the books called this mode of writing

them is clearly inaccurate, it is that most “People's Service" and "School Music," and some others. Cer-commonly used at the present day. You will find that the tain marks are, therefore, necessary to show the nature of the measure. These marks are called “ T'ime Signatures,” and are put at of the staff. We recommend you to write it on the lower part,

" contra-alto" can be written either on the upper or the lower part the beginning of a tune. By “time," in this case, is meant" mea- lest it should have the misfortune to be sung above the air. sure"-rhythm--the arrangement of accents. The letter C at the beginning of a staff sometimes indicates the Four-pulse (Quater- A mark like c turned backwards, followed by a dot on each nary) measure, and sometimes the Two.pulse (Binary) measure. It side of the line on which o bends, makes that line represent P is occasionally found with a perpendicular line through it. The below the "standard c.” It is generally placed on the fourth usage of this line or bar is equally dubious, though it appears to line, for the Bass Voice. have originally implied a secondary accent each“ bar," or the

You will often be obliged to listen to a Bass Clep, and copy the following into the solfa notation. quaternary" measure.

EXERCISE 19. Write three of the preceding rounds in the few phrases of the music itself before you can tell what the rhythm really is. The other marks for measure are more definite. The four clefs which are most used are shown in the following Chey are formed by placing two figures one over the other, on the example. It is " Brailsford's Chant” arranged for four voices, commencement of the staff. The upper figure shows how many and written in “ the proper clefs." The first line gives the first "aliquots," or beats, there are in a measure. The lower figure Treble or Soprano part, the second the Contralto, the third the shows what note is used for the aliquot. “Two,” when used as Tenor, and the fourth the Bass. The square note at the begin. the lower figure, stands for the Minim, or that which divides the ning of each staff is used, for the present, to show the place of Semibreve into two parts. “Four” represents the Crotchet, or the key note. They must not be sung. The other notes without that which divides it into four parts. "Eight” represents the stems are the untimed reciting notes of the chant. They may be Quaver, or that which divides it into eight parts. Thus "two" sung as crotchet, minim, or semibreve, according to the number with “four” under it, indicates a "bar," or measure of two beats, of words recited on them. a crotchet to each beat. "Two," with "two" under it, shows that the measure has two beats with a minim to each. They are

Metronome, Crotchet=66. different ways of writing the BINARY, OR TWO-PULSE MEASURE. “Three, two," "Throe, four,” and “Three, eight," represent different appearances of the TRINARY, or THREE-PULSE MEASURE. “Six, four,” and “Six, eight," represent the Senary, or Six PULSE MEASURE. “Nine, four" and Nine, eight,” (nine crotchet, and nine quaver measure) represent a Trinary Measure in which the aliquots frequently have a triplet rhythm. "Twelve, four,'' and "Twelve, eight,” represent two Senary Measures in one " bar.” We have noticed that “Four, two,” and “Four, four," are coming into use for the QUATERNARY MEASURE, and that such doubtful marks as the plain and the barred c are "going out." The following are a few examples of “ Time Signatures.”

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The G Clef on the second line, called the Treble Clef, and the

F Clef on the fourth line, called the Bass Clef, are used almost EXERCISE 16. Put the proper "time signatures" to all the exclusively in popular music books. The position of the “stanpreceding examples from the old notation.

dard scale" in connection with these clefs should therefore be

carefully studied. Let it be noticed that the “standard C” is ABSOLUTE PITCH AND CLEPS.

expressed by the first ledger line below the staff of the Treble The old notation seeks to represent the notes not only in their clef, and by the first ledger line above the staff of the Bass Claf. relative pitch (that is, as compared with the key note), but also in The o' which the tuning fork gives is in the fourth space of th their absolute pitch in the scale of sound. But as the staff of Treble Clef. five lines is not large enough for this, certain marks called CLEFS, are placed at the beginning of each staff, which decide the absolute

STANDARD C. pitch of the line on which they stand, and adapt the compass of the staff to that of the voice or instrument for which it is used. A mark, like an H with two strokes joining its upright bars,

9 makes the line which passes between those two strokes to represent “the standard cori The same sound which a man takes

TUNING FORK 0.

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