« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
area of the contracted section of the vein is considerably discharge are those now described. Venturi concluded from smaller than that of the orifice, as in discharges which issue his experiments that these ajutages gave an effective discharge from orifices in a thin wall; or, that the velocity at this section 2.4 times greater than that delivered by an orifice in a thin is less than the theoretical velocity, in consequence of the wall having the same diameter as the smaller base, and 1.46 friction of the liquid particles issuing from orifices pierced in a times greater than the theoretical discharge. The ancient thick wall. Thus, in either case, the effective discharge is Romans were acquainted with the value of these ajutages. less than the theoretical discharge; and in order to reduce the The citizens of Rome, who enjoyed the privilege of drawing a latter to the former, it is necessary to multiply it by a certain certain quantity of water from the public reservoirs, found fraction which is called the co-efficient of correction. From that by the use of those ajutages, the quantity permitted by numerous experiments, it has been found that the effective their privilege might be greatly increased ; and the fraud thus discharge is, in general and at a mean, only two-thirds of the practised became so notorions, that a law was passed to pretheoretical discharge.
vent their use. Constant Efflux.—In a great number of hydraulic experiments,
Eflux through Long and Wide Pipes -- When a liquid flows it is necessary that the velocity of eflux should be constant, through a pipe of great length, the efflux takes place either in that is always the same, and this requires that the height of the liquid level above the orifice should be invariable. This consequence of the inclination of the pipe, as on an inclined result may be obtained in several ways. lst, by means of a at the orifice of the pipe. In both these cases, the force being
plane, or in consequence of a pressure which acts on the liquid sluice, which is so regulated that it opens whenever the water constant, the motion ought to be accelerated. Yet at a very in the reservoir tends to rise above the level, and permits it to short distance from the orifice, it is observed that the motion run off by another channel ; 2nd, by means of a siphon or is uniform, which indicates the existence of a force tending to Marriotte's bottle, instruments which will be described in the destroy or counteract the accelerated velocity which the sequel ; 3rd, by means of the float of M. de Prony. The latter liquid would naturally acquire by the force in question. This apparatus, shown at fig. 45, is composed of a reservoir or vessel force is the resistance arising from the cohesion of the liquid Pa full of water, in which are placed two floats F f, connected particles to each other, and their adhesion to the sides of the with each other by an iron rod, which stretches over the pipe. Besides these resisting forces, there are others which reservoir and is bent at both of its lower extremities in order to arise from turns and contractions in the pipes themselves; support a moveable reservoir B, placed under the former. A plate but the former are always by far the most considerable. In A, making part of the wall of the reservoir P Q, is pierced with consequence of these various resistances, the velocity of efflux, orifices of different forms and sizes. A funnel placed under and therefore the discharge through pipes, becomes much le33 these orifices conveys the water which flows from them into than the velocity and discharge through orifices in a thin the reservoir B. According to this arrangement, if one of wall. the orifices of the plate be opened, and if three pounds of water be discharged from it, the weight of the floats is increased
Eflux through Capillary Tubes.The efflux of liquids through by three pounds; therefore, according to the conditions of tubes called capillary (from Lat. capillus, hair) because their equilibrium in Aoating bodies, laid down in a former lesson, bore or diameter is very small and fine, is of considerable these floats will sink and occupy the space of a quantity of importance in a physiological point of view. Dr. Poiseuille has water equal in volume to the water discharged, so that the made numerous experiments on this subject, varying the level in the reservoir P Q remains constant, and therefore the lengths of the tubes, their diameters or degrees of capillarity, velocity of efflux remains the same.
and the pressures which produce the effiux of the liquids
through them. In his experiments on capillary glass tubes, Eflux by Ajutages.—A short pipe or tube, see fig. 46, applied he discovered the three following laws : 1st, in the same tube, to or inserted in the orifice of a reservoir in order to increase the discharge is proportional to the pressure ; 2nd, in tubes of the discharge is called an ajutage (French, from Lat. adjutare, to equal lengths and under equal pressures, the discharge is proassist). The form of an ajutage is generally that of a hollow portional to the fourth powers of their diameters; 3rd, in cylinder, or a truncated hollow cone.
tubes of the same diameter and under the same pressure, the Fig. 46,
discharge is in the inverse ratio of the lengths.
Dr. Poiseuille has observed besides these laws that the velocity of efflux is modified by the nature of the liquid. The nitrate of potassa dissolved in water, causes a more rapid eMux of that liquid. Alcohol, on the contrary, has a retarding effect. The efflux of serum is only half as rapid as that of water ; and when alcohol is added to serum, the velocity of efflux is diminished still more; but if to the mixture we add the nitrate of potassa, the serum resumes its original velocity: These different experiments were made with glass tubes ; and it became important to know whether the results would be the same in the capillary vessels of organised bodies. Now, in
experimenting on dead animals, which were cooled down to When ajutages are applied to an orifice, results of two kinds the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere, it was found present themselves ; either the liquid vein passes through the by injecting serum into the principal artery of an organ, that ajutage without adhering to its sides, and the discharge the nitrate of potassa increased the efflux in the capillary remains the same as before; or the liquid vein adheres, in organs of dead bodies, in the same manner as in glass tubes; consequence of the molecular attraction existing between the and that alcohol, on the contrary, retarded it. These facts sides of the tube and the particles of the liquid, and the con- tend, therefore, to prove that the circulation of the blood tracted portion of the vein being increased by expansion, the in the arteries and the veins follows the same laws as the discharge is likewise increased. The best form of a cylindrical efflux of liquids in capillary tubes. ajutage for increasing the discharge, is that which has its length from two to three times its diameter, The liquid then spout up with force from an orifice in consequence of the
Jets d'Eau, or Spouts of Water.- Streams of water which issues with a full flow, and the discharge is increased by about pressure of a liquid column more or less elevated above that one-third part.
orifice, are called jets d'eau. If the orifice be made in the Conical ajutages converging outwardly from the reservoir upper surface of a horizontal wall or tube below the level in increase the discharge still more than the preceding. They the reservoir, the jet is vertical and upwards; if the wall or tube produce very regular jets, and throw them to a greater distance be inclined to the horizon the jet is inclined, and describes a or to a greater height than the cylindrical. Their effects, as curve, which, abstracting the resistance of the air, would be a to discharge and velocity of projection change with the angle paralola. of convergence, that is, with the angle formed by the produc- According to a principle formerly mentioned, a jet of water tion of two opposite sides of the truncated cone which forms tends to rise to a height equal to that of the level of the water she sintage. Of all ajutages, those which 'give the greatest I in the reservoir ; but this is never exactly the case, as it meets
Hydrochloric acid (Hydrogen
with three resistances : lst, the friction of the water in the of sulphuric acid. Now nine is the precise chemical equiva tubes or pipes, which destroys a part of the velocity; 2nd, the lent of water, and forty the precise chemical equivalent of sulresistance of the air ; 3rd, the resistance which those liquid phuric acid. A few remarks concerning equivalents have alparticles, falling from the highest part of the jet, present to ready been offered ; I do not expect you, however, to underthose which are ascending.
stand this rather abstruse subject perfectly just yet. I must, In order to obtain the maximum height of a jet, the diameters nevertheless, have you to remember, even though you do not of the tubes must increase with their length; the tubes must understand it, the following fact: When I say that our strongbe free from all inequalities and all sudden windings; and, the est English oil of vitriol is a compound of one equivalent of orifice of efflux must be made in a thin wall, and have a slight water and one of real sulphuric acid, I do not mean equal inclination in order to avoid the third resistance just men- weights, but equal equivalents; the equivalent of the one being tioned. Such orifices are those which raise the jet to the forty, and the other nine, as we have seen. The same remark greatest height, and impart to it the greatest regularity and applies to all similar expressions. Well, then, in order to inditransparency, Conical ajutages also produce jets uniform and cate the kind of hydrate which oil of vitriol is, chemists term transparent, but the height is only about eight or nine-tenths it the protohydrate of sulphuric acid, or protohydrated sulof that produced by orifices in a thin wall. Lastly, cylindri- phuric acid. The Greek word opūros means first; that is to cal ajutages produce confused jets, of which the height is only say, this is the first in the ascending scale of many hydrates. about f of that which is produced by orifices in a thin wall. From this digression (a necessary one, however) let us now In order that a jet may take the greatest range horizontally, it return to the materials in our flaskor rather let us investigate, is found by analysis, that when the resistance of the air is by means of a diagram, the changes which have ensued. abstracted from the calculation, the angle which it makes with the horizon must be 45°, or half a right angle; that is, mid-way
The case stands thus :between the horizontal and the vertical directions.
mony | Antimony Chloride of antimony LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-No. XII.
If the resulting liquid be thrown into water, in certain propor. RESUMING the consideration of antimony, I now want the stu- tions, which may be ascertained on trial, a powder (oxide of dent to take a little of the orange or black sulphuret of the antimony) deposits. This powder is, however, readily dislatter : powder it; and having thrown it into a Florence flask, solved by the addition of more hydrochloric, or a sufficient pour upon it some hydrochloric or muriatic acid, known in quantity of tartaric acid, commerce under the name of spirit of salt; applying now to the Aask either the naked flame of a spirit-lamp, or, what is pre-water is the type of an important feature in the demeanour of
The precipitate which occurs on throwing the chloride into ferable, the heat of a sand-bath, sulphuretted hydrogen gas antimony
solutions, most of which are liable to become decomPig. No. 1,
posed from the operation of very slight causes. Tartar emetic is not so prone to be unstable as the others are; it may be mixed with mere water, in any proportions, without throwing down a precipitate; but tea-infusion of galls, or indeed almost any vegetable or animal infusion, throws down, even with it, a copious precipitate. Try these experiments; the results will be found to have an important bearing upon circumstances to be mentioned hereafter. Assume, for example, that a person has taken an injurious dose of tartar emetic, and that the emetic action does not supervene; this is the case sometimes. What would you do? In the first place, propose to yourself the object you would desire to accomplish. There is a general
rule to follow in all these cases-a rule which I have already will be evolved, as you will readily discover by its disagreeable into a solid. Give then--if tartar emetic be the poison under
mentioned. It is this :--Convert the poisonous irritating fluid odour; and if a sufficient amount of hydrosulphuric acid have consideration-give copious draughts of tea; a fluid which, as been added, the whole of the sulphuret will be dissolved. The we have seen, renders tartar emetic insoluble-more insoluble, result of this solution is termed the chloride of antimony, pro- at any rate, than it was originally. curable in commerce under the name of butter of antimony. Let us see what decomposition must have ensued in order to Separation of Antimony from Zinc, Manganese, Cadmium, and furnish us with these results. Sulphuret of antimony is, as its Arsenic. I trust that the student has sufficiently reflected upon name indicates, and as we demonstrated in our preceding les- the properties of these four metals to recognise an indication of son, a compound of sulphur and antimony.
a process by which this might be accomplished. We have not yet demonstrated the composition of hydro
Firstly, It is evident that arsenic and antimony, admit of chloric acid gas; but its name, if analyzed, evidently points to separation from the other metals by the operation of hydrogen, a compound of chlorine and hydrogen, just as the term hydro- which would remove them in the condition of arseniuretted sulphuric points to something which is a compound of sulphur and antimoniuretted hydrogen gases ; and the latter, on comand hydrogen. Remember, therefore, the following general bustion, would deposit the two metals in a mixed crust. Fifact :- Whenever you see the syllabic prefix hydro (before a nally, these metals would be separable from each other by the vowel hydr"), the prefix always means hydrogen-never water, prolonged action of boiling nitric acid, which, as we have seen, the presence of which is expressed, not by the syllabic prefix reduces the antimony to the condition of an insoluble white hydro or hydr’, but by the full word, hydrated, or hydrate. powder, and changes the arsenic to soluble arsenic acid. The Thus, for instance, hydro-sulphuric acid is synonymous with latter proposition has not been demonstrated. Nitrate of potsulphuretted hydrogen, indicating the compound of sulphur ash produces this result, as I have explained (p. 42). Nitric and hydrogen; but hydrated sulphuric acid, or hydrate of sul- acid has the same effect; indeed, nitre acts by virtue of its conphuric acid, is a compound of sulphuric acid with water. tained nitric acid. Several other analytical processes suggest Practically we call oil of vitriol sulphuric acid ; really it is hy: themselves from combinations of agencies already discussed; the drated sulphuric acid-or a compound of true sulphuric acid most evident process, however, is that which I have given ; and (which is a solid) with water. But you will say-If I take oil my object not being to write a systematic course of analysis, I of vitriol and add more water to it, 'I get a liquid which is no need not detail the others. onger oil of vitriol, but it is still hydrated sulphuric acid. Before concluding my remarks on this interesting metal, I Truly-the remark is just; hence has arisen the necessity for will mention a curious fact. Two sulphurets of antimony have certain precise terms. "The strongest oil of vitriol which we in been spoken of: there exist others; one an orange-coloured England obtain by our process of manufacture is composed of sulphuret, generated artificially; the other a black substance, nine parts by weight of water united with forty parts by weight I usually sold as antimony by druggists. Now, different thoug
the two are in general appearance, their chemical composition and hard, the new substance, allotropic sulphur, is black, is precisely the same. Chemistry furnishes us with many ductile, soft ; a substance capable of receiving the most exquisimilar examples, all of which are comprehended under the site impressions ; indeed it is used in practice very advan. general term allotropism, from the two Greek words allos, tageously for the purpose of copying the impressions of another, and openw, I turn. Thus the diamond, coke, charcoal, medals, coins, &c. and plumbago (the latterly commonly known as black-lead), Judging from the appearance of this body, one might at first have all a composition which is exactly similar. Chemists, imagine it to besomething else than sulphur; chemical analysis, indeed, have succeeded in changing the diamond to coke; but however, proves them to be the same. In making the latter the other change, far more interesting than the last, remains assertion, I am aware it must be taken with some qualificato be accomplished. The substance phosphorus, again, the in- tions. The truth is, the contemplation of allotropism leads us flammable nature of which, in its ordinary state, is so remark. into the metaphysics of chemistry; the very term allotropism able, may be converted into a second state, in which it is no meaning another state is expressive of a change; a change in longer combustible, andi n which it is totally devoid of smell ; appearance you have had pointed out to you, but this is not nay, what is still more extraordinary, this allotropic phos- all, there is a change of medical properties, a change as to phorus is totally devoid of all poisonous agency, although com- solubility in certain fluids : yet when we come to common phosphorus is a violent poison ; its mere vapours rapidly bine this allotropic sulphur with other bodies, we obtain destroying the jaw-bones of the workmen exposed to their in- exactly the same results that we should have obtained with fluence, and causing a frightful death. Perhaps the question sulphur in the ordinary state. will occur to you of this sort-What can be the use of this allotropic phosphorus, a substance which, you tell us, is not
Fig. No. 3, inflammable? True, allotropic phosphorus is not inflammable; but, if heated beyond a certain temperature, this curious sube stance changes into the ordinary form. Now the mere friction of a phosphorus match is sufficient to generate this amount of heat; so, practically, allotropic phosphorus may be employed for the purpose of making matches. In England these matches of allotropic phosphorus have not as yet come much into use ; but on the continent, especially in Prussia, they are common enough.
Whilst on the subject of allotropism, I will furnish you with another example as afforded by sulphur. Take some common sulphur (brimstone), put it into a Florence flask, and apply heat either by means of a spirit-lamp, or, what is preferable in this case, by a flowerpot charcoal furnace already described in a previous lesson, and here represented, No. 2. The sulphur fuses, giving rise to a limpid fluid, which retains this character Pig. No. 2.
The most elegant way of demonstrating the characteristics of allotropic sulphur, consists in pouring it in a small con. tinuous stream into a basin of water, which contains a funnel, and around the latter in this way a thread of the substance may be obtained, in appearance very much ike a thread of india-rubber, No. 3.
The various phenomena of allotropism are directly at variance with the chemical doctrine long accepted, that identity of composition must necessarily accompany identity of chemical effects ; and, curiously enough, these same phenomena are favourable to the idea of metallic transmutation, that longcherished hope of the alchemists.
LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.–No. XI.
By CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D., of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the German and Italian
Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School,
The proper use of the words di, a, da, in, con, per, su, só-pra, until every portion of th.e sulphur becomes melted. Keeping shall devote this section to an elementary explanation of some
fra, and tra, is of such primary importance in Italian, that I your eye on the flask, observe the period at which this perfect of their peculiarities. fusion of the sulphur takes place : being accomplished, remove
Di. the flask, and pour a little of the fused contents into water. The melted sulphur solidifies as a matter of course, and you get The use of this word very frequently coincides with the use a result identical in every respect with the sulphur before it of the case-sign, or preposition of, in English grammar:was fused; that is to say, the result is brittle-is yellow; I. When the questions of whom? of which ? of what? physically and chemically similar in point of fact. Replace whose? what kind or sort of require the genitive also in now the sulphur over the source of heat, and remark the English ; e. 8. L' a-mó-re del pd-dre, the love of the father ; changes which ensue. You will first observe a change of i paé-si del prín-ci-pe, the countries of the prince : la cle-mêncolour: the Auid becomes dark, almost black. You will next za di Di-o, the clemency of God; la gran-déz-za del-la cit-ta, observe a change of aggregation, the material becomes thick, the greatness of the town; il li-bro di Giá-co-mo, the book of thicker still, and in a few instants a solid. By dexterous James. management it is possible to remove the flask whilst its contents II. When geographical or other proper names indicating are thus solid. Try to do so.
possession, domain, authorship, &c., or merely for the purpose Replace the flask once more, and observe the result; the of defining them, are joined to other nouns ; e. g. la cit-tà di dark solid liquifies once more, and the liquid still remains Ve-ne-zia, the city of Venice; il ré-gno di Spa-gna, the kingblack; pour some of this liquid into water, and a curious result dom of Spain ; il iné-se di Lú-glio, the month of July; il no-me will be obtained. Instead of ordinary sulphur, yellow, brittle, I di Fran-cé-sco, the name of Francis ; l' 6-so la di Cor-fü, the island of Corfu; la re-gi-na d' In-ghil-tér-ra, the Queen of Eng. Adıurbs of place or time before, nouns or even adjectives land ; il Ré di Prús-sia, the king of Prussia ; l' im-pe-ra-tó-re of this class, frequently, also, are translated by the genitive d'Au-stria, the emperor of Austria ; l' as-sé-dio di Mán-to-va, case ; e. g. the back door or room, la pôr-ta la, stán-za di dié-tro the siege of Mantua; lo stret-to di Gi-bil-têr-ra, the straits of(the door or room of behind); the hind-feet, i piê-di di diê-tro Gibraltar ; l' im-pê-ro di Rús-sia, the empire of Russia; le tra- (the feet of behind); the following day, il giór-no di do-md-ni gé-die di Al-fie-ri, the tragedies of Alfieri; le com-mê.die di Gole (the day of to-morrow); the present age, il mon-do d' og-gi-di dó-ni, the comedies of Goldoni.
(the world of now-a-days); after the present fashion or style, III. When words expressing quantity, weight, or any kind of al mô-do d'og-gi-di (after the fashion of now-a-days); the whole measure are joined to other nouns ; e. g. ú-na quan-ti-tà di pê- last night, la not-ta-ta di jê-ri (the whole night of yesterday); co-re, a quantity of sheep; ú-na lib-bra di car-ne, a pound of yesterday, il giór-no di jê-ri (the day of yesterday). meat; un cen-ti-nd-jo di fê-no, a hundred-weight of hay; ú-na Whenever the infinitive mood of any verb explains and dedoz-zi-na di cuc-chid-ji, di guán-ti, dub-ra, a dozen of spoons, fines another word, the preposition di must be placed before gloves, eggs ; un brác-cio di pán-no, a yard of cloth ; ú-na bot- I it (just as the preposition of with the present participle of ti-glia di vi-no, a bottle of wine; 'ú-na ca-raf-fa ď' d-cqua, a : English grammar in such cases); e. g. Ha ú-na gran vô-glia di decanter of water ; un' ón-cia di caf-fè (kahf-fè), an ounce of | viag-gia-re, he has a great desire to travel or of travelling; è coffee; vi-no di diê-ci án-ni, wine of ten years.
têm-po di an-dá-re, it is time to go or of going; ra-gió-ne di For the sake of elegance, the preposition di is, however, di re-dér-vi, the honour to see you or of seeing you; li-cên-za
la-men-tár-si, right to complain or of complaining; l' o-nó-re sometimes omitted after the words ca-sa, house; pa-láz-zo, di par-tir-si
, permission to go away or of going
away. palace; pidz-za, place, square; vil-la, villa; gal-le-ri-a, gal
Di is also placed after the words quan-to, how much, or great, lery; fa-mi-glia, family; pôr-ta, gate, entry, and some others, when they are followed by the name of the owner or of the or long; al-quin-to, something, a little, some ; tan-to, so much, person after which they are called ; e. g. in ca-sa Al-tiê-ri, at
or great, or long; al-tret-tan-to, just as much, equal ; pô-co, the Altieri-house ; vi-ci-no al pa láz-20 Bor-ghe-se, near the little, few; mól-to
, much, a great deal; niên-te, nothing; più, Borghese-palace; súl-la pidz-za Bar-be-ri-ni, on the Barberini- more ; mérno, less; tróp-po, too much, &c.; e. g. quán-tó di square ; per la vil-la Pan-fí-li, for the villa Panfili; nél-la gal" nô-ja sa-réb-be per me, how a great a nuisance would it be for ls-ri-a Do-ria, in the Doria-gallery; dél-la fa-mi-glia Co-lon-na, me; dó-po al-quan-to di têm-po, after some time; tán-to di vi-no of the Colonna family; la pôr-ta di San Gio-van-ni, St. John. ed al-tret-tan-to d' a-cqua, so much wine and just as mucb gate or entry; a cá-sa'í si-o instead of a cd-sa del ži-o), at the water; pô-co di ú-ti-vê ne ri-ca-ve-ré-te, you will derive from house of the uncle ; 6-ra a ca-sa qué-sto, 6-ra a ca-sa quell ál- this little advantage; mól-to di md-le ne po-trêb-be se-gui-re, a tro (instead of di qué-sto, di quell ál-tro), now at the house
of great deal of evil might be the consequence of it. this one, then at the house of the other.
In these two phrases, la Di-o mer-cé ! thank God! and la
Di-o grd-zia, the grace of God, the word di is understood, English compound nouns, or combinations of nouns, for the and in full they run thus : la di Di-o mer-cè, and la di Di-o grdgreatest part must be decomposed by the genitive
case with cia. When, however, Di-o is placed after the words mer-cè the case-sign di, especially when one of the nouns merely de- and grd-zia,'the case-sign di cannot be omitted ; e. g. la mercè fines and qualifies the other, which is the principal word di Di-o, and la grd-zia di Di-o.t conveying the principal idea ; e. g. garden-door, pôr. ta di giar.
The word di is sometimes a mere expletive ; e. g. é-gli di-ce di-no (door of the garden); stone-quarry, cd-va di piê-tra di si, ed i-o di-co di nô, he says yes, and I say no ; qué-sto diá(quarry of stone); autumn fruits, frúl-ti d'au-tún-no (fruits of vo-lo di qué-sta fém-mi-na, that devil of a woman ; quel po-ve-riautumn); a music amateur, un di-let-tun-te di mú-si-ca (anno di mi-o fra-tel-lo, that poor brother of mine. amateur of music) ; Leipzig fair, fiê-ra di Li-psia (fair of Leip- As a last remark on the use of the case-sign di for the zig); ox-tongue, lin-gua di bô-ve (tongue of an ox); horse's.
present, I shall state that this word, among all the prepositions head, tê-sta di ca-vál-io (head of a horse); felt-hat, cap-pêl-lo di of the Italian language, is of by far the most extensive use. fél-tro (hat of felt) ; sugar-box, cás-sa di zuc-che-ro (box of The reason of this is, that di, properly and philosophically sugar). Whenever it is necessary with greater precision to define notions, while da indicates a real separation of objects, which
speaking, merely expresses the mental separation of ideas or the noun in the genitive case so as to distinguish it from other distinction constitutes the principal and fundamental differobjects of the same class, the article, according to its peculiar ence between these two important words di and da. The mere function of particularising that which is general, must be mental separation of ideas or notions may, however, serve any joined to the case-sign di.
connexion and relation between words, ever so loose and geneThe disregard of this rule will not unfrequently cause ral, and no reader, bearing this truth in mind, henceforth need ambiguity; e. g. il pa-dró-ne dél-la cd-sa dó-ve a-bi-tid-mo, the be surprised at meeting, in Italian books and conversations, master of the house where we live (il pa-dró-ne di cd-sa, is the with frequent substitutions of the case-sign di for many other master of the house in general); un boc-cd-le del vi-no che bév- prepositions; e. g. for a : 1'-schia è u-na 1-so-la as-sa-i vi-ci-na vi l' al-tra sé-ra, a measure (= about two pints) of the wine di Nd-po-li, Ischia is an island close to Naples ; for da : u-sciwhich I drank the other evening (un boc-ca-le di vi-no, 18 a re del-la pri-gio-ne, to go out of or from prison ; é-gli di pri-giómeasure of wine in general); il mer-cd-to dei ca-vál-li, the horse- ne il trds-se, he took him from prison; for con : di gran-dis-simarket (il mer-cd-to
, is merely a place where horses ma för-za si com-bat-te-a da cia-scu-na par-te, they fought with are sold); il mer-cd-to dél-la sel-vag-gi-na, the game-market; the greatest energy on each side ; for in : i-o l' uc-ci-si di led-le il ma-gaz-zi-no dél-la pa-glia, the straw-magazine (ma-gaz-zi-no bat-ta-glia, I killed him in fair fight; for per : e-gli pia.gné-a e di pd-glia, is merely a magazine full of straw); il ma-gaz-zi-no di gran pie-tà non po-te-a mót-to fá-re, he wept, and on account dél-le le-gna, the wood-magazine.
of his great emotion he could not utter a word. English adjectives, indicating the material or stuff from
It is evident that the variable nature of di will admit of which anything is manufactured, or denoting qualities attri- many translations into English; e. g. by with : só-no con-tên-to buted or derived from proper names of countries, nations, or di te, I am satisfied with thee; by at : mi ri-do di lui, I laugh at towns, for the greatest part will be best translated into Italian him; by of: mo-rir di fá-me, to die of hunger; by as : ser-vir by means of nouns in the genitive case ; e. g. a gold watch, di rê-go-la, to serve as a rude; by for: pre-gá-ré ú-no di ú-na un o-ro-lô-gio d' 6-ro (a watch of gold); a marble statue, u-na cô.sa, to request one for something ; by than : più di du-e-mi-la stá-tua di mar-mo (a statue of marble); a wooden table, ú-na scu-di, more than two thousand crowns. tá-vo-la di lé-gno (a table of wood); an iron gate, u-na pôr-ta di
In some instances, the peculiarities in the use of di may, fër-ro (a gate of iron); a silver spoon, un cuc-chia-jo d' ar-gén- without difficulty or twisting, be explained by ellipsis, parto (a spoon of silver); a meritorious soldier, un sol-da-to di méri-to (a soldier of merit); a spirited or talented youth, un gió- * Which special class of verbs, nouns, and adjectives, requires va-ne di spirito, di ta-lên-to (a youth of spirit, of talent); Italian the preposition di before the infinitive 'mood governed by them, silk, sé-ta d' l-td-lia (silk of Italy); Viennese citizens, cit-ta-di- will be explained hereafter. For the present, the above-stated ni di Viên-na (citizens of Vienna).' It is, however, quite allow. merely general rule will be, I think, sufficient. able to say: std-tua mar-mô-rea, sol-de-to me-ri-tê-to-le, gió-va- + Some other important omissions of the case-sign di will be ne spi-ri-tó-so, cit-ta-di-ni Vien-ne-si.
ticularly when it denotes descent or children ; e. g. Gian-nuól
Exercises.-ITALIAN-ENGLISH. di Se-de-ri-no, Céc-co di Mes-sé-re An-giu-liê-ri, in Boccaccio, where fi-gliuô-lo, child or son, is understood.
La me-mo-ria. Dél-la ciê-ra. Al-la col-li-na. Dal-la EXERCISES.- ENGLISH-ITALIAN.*
spia-na-ta. Le bec-che-ri-e. Dél-le lo-cán-de. Alle pôr.
te. Dal-le strá-de. In fac-cia. Nél-la ví-gna. Nél-le fo-rêThe rising of the sun. The dawn of the day. The return ste. Con pá-glia. Cól-la ví-te.. Cól-le pén-ne: . Per disof spring. The warmth of the air. Tne beauty of the flower. gra-zia. Per la vál-le. Per le scioc-chez-ze. Súl-la car-rôzThe darkness of the night. The abyss of error. The fertility za. Súl-le rú-pi. L'au-rô-ra. Dell' al-le-gréz-za. All'oof the fields. The colours of the rainbow. The senses of man. pi-nió-ne. Dall'o-ste-ri-a. Le i-de-e. Dell' êr-be. Al-le The faults of young men. Money is the soul of commerce. Jár-ti. Dál-le cit-tà. In i-slít-te. Nell' im-ma-gi-na-zió-ne. Usage is the legislator of languages. The master of the garden Nél-le a-ni-me. Con á-cqua. Coll' ún-ghia. Col-le in-séis not here. The palace belongs to the prince. Here are the gne. Per a-mi-cí-zia. Per l' as-si-cu-ra-zió-ne. Per le arooms of the uncle. The dresses belong to the cousin and not zió-ni. Sull’in-sa-la-ta. Súl-le in-fer-riá-te. Un fan-ciúl. to the aunt. The brother tells the sister the will of the lo. U-no stól-to. Un a-ni-ma-le. U-na set-ti-ma-na. D'un father. The children must always obey the parents. The fiú-me. Ad ú-no schiop-pet-tiê-re. Da ú-na bal-le-rí-na. physicians say: the disorder shortens life. Exercise is useful In ú-na chiê-sa. Con un ba-sto-ne. Per ú-no sco-la-re. Su to the body and to the mind. The countenance is the mirror d' un sas-80, 86-pra un sás-so. of the soul. Tranquillity of mind is the highest degree of
VOCABULARY. happiness. Temperance is the treasure of the wise man. The true ornament of the soldier is courage. The practice leads Memoria, memory.
Osteria, public house, tavern. to perfection. Interest, pleasure, and glory, are the three ciera, mien, look, air of the Idea, idea, notion. motives of the actions and of the behaviour of men.
Spianata, plain, esplanade.
Città, town, city (no change
Beccheria, slaughter-house, in the pl.)
Slitta, sledge. Dawn, spun-tár, m.
Child, fan-ciúl-lo, m.
Locanda, inn, hotel.
Immaginazione, imagination. Day, giór-no, m.
Anima; mind, soul. Return, ri-tór-no, ni,
Strada, street, road.
Faccia, face (di-re in fác-cia, Unghia, nail.
to tell one to one's face). Insegna, sign, arms, colours. Air, d-ria, f. Says, di-ce
Assicurazione (ts), security, inDarkness, 0-SCU-ri-tà, f. Shortens, ac-cór-cia
Per, for, through, on account Fanciullo, child.
grace (per dis-gra-zia, unfor- Settimana, week.
Carrozza (ts), carriage, coach. Ballerina (f.), dancer.
Su, sopra, upon.
Wise man, sd-vio, m.
LESSONS IN GEONETRY.-No. XXIV.
LECTURES ON EUCLID.
(Contiuued from page 50). Palace, pa-láz-20 (ts), m. Practice, es-er-ci-sio, m.
BOOK 1.-PROPOSITION XIX.-THEOREM.
The greater angle of every triangle is subtended by the greater side
(that is, has the greater side opposite to it).
In fig. 19, let A B C be a triangle have
BCA; then, the side ac opposite the
angle A B C, is greater than the side AB Cousin, cu-gi-na, f.
Three motives, tre mo-ti-vi, pl. opposite the angle Bca.
For if the side A c be not greater than
the side A B, it must be either equal to
or less than the side AB. First, the side Tells, di-ce
Man, rô-mo, m.; pl. gli uo- Ac is not equal to the side a B; for, if so, the angle A B C is Sister, so-rel-la, f.
equal to the angle A CB, by Prop. V., which is contrary to the
hypothesis ; therefore, the side A c is not equal to the side A B. * The pupil himself must examine whether he is to use before second, the side A c is not less than the side A B; for, if so, any noun or adjective the article or not, the prepositions di, a, and the angle A B C is less than the angle ACB, by Prop. XVIII., dz, only being occasionally employed to denote the genitive, dative, which is also contrary to the hypothesis ; therefore, the side and ablative. It is, moreover, to be noted, that the words are placed in the order in which they are to be translated into
Italian. A c is not less than the side AB; and it has been proved that
Wherefore, the greater angle tion of the zor zz. I have done so by placing after such words in Ac is greater than the side AB. porenthesis ts, thus (ts), when the pronunciation of the ~ or zz is to of every triangle, &c., Q. E. D. be the charp, hissing one; and ds, thus (ds), when the pronuncia- Corollary 1.-One side of a triangle is greater than, equal tion of the zor zz is to be the soft one.
to, or less than another, according as the angle opposite to the
, the side the side