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Crack

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Karlsbad

Zoniggiat
Eger
Marienbad

Prague
B
Chrudim

Wieliczka
H E M. I А
Milin

Tesche
Bistrita

Olmutz
Tabor

Prosnitz
Ratisbon

Märische gebirge
Budweis

SHraditi
lizuminan ມ Waidhofeng

Trentsin Vaurohet
Ilolitsch

Kronitzo
Freystuché

Tyrnah

Scrumnitz
Vienna seesling
Stockera R

dszerek
L O-WRA

Ipoly Sagh
Stever
Waidhofen

Bruch
Salzbur

Comarni

Waitzat
See

Raal
BTT* Eiseners
Murazischiare

Buda

or Dla pasta araw

Stillveissenburg
H
U

G
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Gratz

Szo tha

Reszketa
Boizen

L. Balaton
TRIC

Egerszeg

or Platten Son
Marling

Holotada
Gilly,
Pettau

Tiaposvar
Trent

Warasdin

Szeged Funtkirden

Theresianu (Palmano Addo fergo

Agram Bellovar
Vicenza

Lombar
Neştüdt

Daruvar

Eszde
Petrinia

S

с L
Neu
4

Vau

Gradisce
Rovijo padrid
Rovi

Brod

Turrwards) Baniglouks

Zabatz Bihach

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Maggiore

L coco
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Bergamo
LOMBARD

Monza
Milan

Castigliori

Vantua

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2. {Upper Austria,

O

А

Tarnop

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Sniatym

Eperics Sdumolnitz nauo

Kuschau Rina fombath Zempling

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BOUNDARIES.
NORTH : Russia and Prussia.
South: Italy and Turkey.
East : Russia in Europe,
West: Germany and Italy.

DIVISIONS.
GERMAN PROVINCES.)
Provinces.

Chief Towns.
, VIENNA.

, Linz. 2. Salzburg,

Balzburg. 3. Styria,

Gratz,
ILLYRIAN PROVINCES.
I i. Carinthia, Klagenfart.

ii. Carniola, Laybach.
jü. Goritz,

Goritz. iv. Gradisca,

New Gradisca v. Istria,

Pola.
vi. Trieste,

Trieste.
The Tyrol,

Innsbruck. 5. The Vorarlberg, Feldkirch, 6. Bohemia,

Prague. 7. Moravia,

Brunn 8. Silesia,

Troppau. (POLISH PROVINCES.)

Lemberg.

Czernowicz, HUNGARIAN PROVINCES. 10. Transylvania,

Kronstadt.

Pesth.
11. Hungary,
12. The Banat,

Temeswar.
Agram.

Peterwaradcin 14. Dalmatia,

Spalatro. 15. Military Frontier, Semlin.

(ITALIAN PROVINCES.) Lombardy,

Milan. 16. Venice,

Venicc. POPULATION. In the following table, the column marked is oontains the numbers of the provinces of Austria according to the numbers in the preceding list.

The column marked B. contains the area of each province in square miles, whether single, double, or inclusive, according to the same numbers.

•The column marked c. contains the population of each province according to the same numbers.

The column marked D. contains the number of inhabitants to every square mile, according to the same numerical arrangement.

Erlau

Spatunay Sziyčili

Nagy-Banya

Suczawa

o. (The Buckowine,

Debreczin Kordezag w

Bizfritz

Yozilah

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KarosVusarhely

18. Sclavonia,

duelyes

Vasarhely

észaunos Uljvar
Grossardcia

Mansouburg
TRANS YSL Y A N I AL

Joira

Va-Varhiely
Buttyen

Aluros Ujvar
Kollurg Medgyes

Befecame
Hamanstadt
Vayda llunyar

M0
t Varpusly
a Bresterek

Karithrobes

Au, Arad

Aluta

Lippar Temeswar

Kronstadt

un

li i

B

a

a

t P

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All notes which differ from the ordinary notes of the key are distinguished in the old notation by flats, sharps, or "naturals,” placed immediately before them, and are known by the common name of “accidentals.” They are not, however, truly accidental,

ti d d' fi 1 s for each one has a distinct musical character and a special purpose,

ti d ds f m r as will appear from the previous sections. It is important, then, that the pupil, when he sees the dumb sign of flat or sharp, should

Key E. be able to discern its meaning, and to tell whether it indicates a transition of the whole music into this or that related key, with such or such a peculiar effect, or merely a chromatic variation without changing the key. The note tu being substituted for pas of the previous key, and

d d' fi 1 being about half a tone above it, is represented by a note in the

d

f m place of PAH, with a sharp before it. It is often called the "sharp fourth.” Thus :

In tunes which have sharps in the signature, a "natural" effects the same purpose as the flat in other cases. It removes the sharp (the last sharp to the right is always on TE), and so changes TE into FI.

Bau, being used instead of fan, and about half a tone above it, tu

is represented, like tu, by a note in the place of Pay, with a sharp, sd" t

or, in flat keys, with a "natural," before it. Some treat it as the same thing as tu. It is commonly called the sharp sixth (reckoning from LAH) of the minor key."

Ne, being used instead of son, and about half a tone above it,

is represented by a note in the place of son, with a sharp, or in f 1 tu ]

keys with three or more flats in the signature, a "natural" before f sd

it. It is commonly called the “sharp seventh (reckoning from ti r

lower LAH) of the minor key.” Thus, In tunes which have flats in the signature, Tu is represented by a note in the place of Pau, with a mark called a "natural" before it, which neutralizes the previous flat (the last flat to the right is always on Fah), and so answers the purpose of a sharp. Thus:

1 m bah ne 1

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ne bah ne N1, being about half a tone above the son of its own key, which corresponds with dou in the original key, is represented by a note in the place of Dou, with sharp or natural before it as the case may require. It is the “sharp seventh of the relative minor

of the subdominant key." It is a note of frequent occurrence. f rm tu, f

ti dg
f

Nu, being about half a tone above the son of its own key,

which corresponds with Ray in the original key, is represented by The “natural” indicates the removal of some previous flat or case may require. It is seldom used.

a note in the place of RAY, with sharp or natural before it as the sharp, and the restoration of the note before which it is placed to its position in the (80-called) "natural" key. It thus sharpens a note previously flat, and flattens a note previously sharp.

The power of the “accidental" sharps, flats, or naturals, extends to any notes similarly placed in the after part of the same

fi 1,

ni measure (or bar), even when the sign is not repeated, but no fur

fi

1,

mi 1 no ther. Hence the necessity for putting a flat before the returning FAH. It would not have been required if there had been a bar between it and the previous TU.

Accidentals are, however, frequently placed before notes where they are not absolutely needed, especially in cases where the composer fears that the singer or player might be in danger of mis.

tu, take. However useful this practice in helping bad players, it is

sd ti d 1, li ne 11 VOL. IV.

94

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