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participates with the boat in the double motion of rotation | forces mutually neutralise each other's effects, and that conand translation in space, to which our globe is continually sequently the original state of the body is not affected. The subjected.. In nature it appears, then, that we only recog-term equilibrium is used to designate this state of condition nise conditions of relative motion or relative rest.

in a body. Care must be taken not to confound the two Inertia.-Inertia is a purely negative quality of matter, and states of equilibrium and rest. In the former state a body is constitutes the well-known inability of matter to pass of itself submitted to the action of several mutually destructive forces ; from the state of rest to that of motion, or to modify the kind in the second a body is not acted on by any force. Nevertheof motion with which it may have been impressed.

less, it is a question whether there be any body actually at If occasionally objects fall when left

to themselves, this rest in the material universe. To this question we would result is dependent upon the exercise of an attractive force, answer in the negative. which draws them towards the centre of the earth, and not Characters, Unit, and Representation of Forca.-Every force upon their own self-agency. If the velocity of a billiard ball is characterised-first, by. its point of application, that is to on the table gradually diminishes, this result is attributable say, the point at which it immediately exerts its power ; partly to the resistance of the atmospheric air, and partly to second, by its direction, that is to say, the straight line which friction against the cover. It would be incorrect, then, 10 it tends to describe at its point of application ; third, by assume that the billiard ball holds within itself a tendency to its intensity, or, in other words, its relation to some other rest rather than to continuance in motion, as certain philo- force considered as unity. sophers of antiquity were in the habit of propounding, when The force chosen as unity in any particular question is they compared the natural tendency of matter to a lazy indi, altogether arbitrary; but whatever may be the amount of vidual. In all cases where there is no resistance, continued traction or pressure developed by a force, inasmuch as a cermotion proceeds without alteration, as we find exemplified in tain weight may be made or considered to produce the same the course of the planets in their orbits around the sun. effect, it is customary to refer forces to some unit of weight,

Application of the Preceding Deductions.--A great number of and in this country the pound weight, or some multiple of it, phenomena are explicable by the doctrine of the inertia of is generally the unit. Thus a force is said to be equal to 20 matter. For example, when one is desirous of leaping across a pounds, if the pressure of_20 pounds can be substituted ditch, he takes a preliminary run, in order that at the instant for the action of the force. From a study of the characters by when the spring is made the impetus generated by running which a force is determined, the force itself is completely may be superadded to that resulting from the spring itself. known when its point of application, its direction, and its

A person who alights from a carriage in motion participates intensity are given. In order to represent the different in the motion of the carriage, and if the individual thus alight- elements of a force, we draw an indefinite straight line ing does not take care to give his body an impression contrary through its point of application, and in the direction along in direction to that imparted by the carriage, he falls on touch which it is exerted. Then upon this line some arbitrary unit ing the ground in the direction of the carriage. It is the of length is marked, commencing from the point of applicaquality of inertia which renders so terrible the accidents from tion, and extending in the direction of the force. This unit concussion on railways. In fact, if the locomotive itself of length is then repeated as often as the given force contains should be brought suddenly to a pause, all the train would the unit of force. As the consequence of this arrangement, continue its progress by reason of the force already acquired, we have a straight line which completely determines the and the carriages would be boken by striking against each force. In order to distinguish forces froni each other, they other.

may be represented by letters, such as P, Q, R, placed upon Hammers, pestles, pile-drivers, &c., are all so many app!i- the line indicating their several directions. In order to faci. cations and illustrations of the principles of inertia ; 50 in litate the understanding of many physical phenomena, it will like manner are the fly-wheels of steam-engines, and the be necessary to refer to certain principles which are demon. regulators of the motions of machinery.

strated in mathematical treatises on natural philosophy.

These principles will be cited in the next and subsequent PRELIMINARY Notions CONCERNING FORCE AND MOTION. articles.

Forces. By the term Force, is understood any cause capable of producing motion, or modifying motion when once produced. Thus, the muscular action of animals, weight,

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-No. XLII. magnetic attraction and repulsion, and the tension of vapours, are all forces. In general the term powers is applied to

By Thomas W. JENKYN, D.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., &c. designate those forces which tend to produce a certain effect;

CHAPTER III. and the term resistance, to those forces opposed to the production of such effects. The former in consequence of their ON THE INFLUENCE OF ATMOSPHERIC AGENTS ON THE tendency to accelerate motion at each instant are called accele

EARTH'S CRUST. rating forces, whilst the general expression of retarding forces is applied to the latter ; yet the same force may be considered as

SECTION VIII.-ON ICEBERGS. a continually accelerating force at one time, and a continually $ ii. ON THE TRANSPORTING POWER OF DRIFTING ICEBERGS. retarding force at another time: for example, when a stone is allowed to fall from a state of rest, at some elevation above In the lessons which were given you on the formation and the ground, the action of gravity with which the earth, and agency of glaciers, you have learnt that all the rocky fragindeed all matter, is endowed begins to affect the stone, and ments, which glaciers brought down from the lofty ridges of continuing to do so during the whole period of its fall, it the Alps, were deposited in a terminal moraine, and that, at reaches the ground with acceleratod force; but if a stone be some earlier epoch, they had left behind them on the sides and projected perpendicularly upwards from a place on the ground, ledges of the mountain, at a much higher elevation than they its motion upwards will be continually retarded by the action reach in our day, enormous blocks of stone called boulders. of gravity during the whole period of its ascent, until it come For illustrations of this process, consult the diagrams in the to a momentary state of rest, and its progress upwards will be Lessons on Glaciers. stopped. Gravity, when it acts in the manner described in Boulders, like those on the flanks of hills in the Alps, are the latter of these cases, is called a continually retarding force. found in very extensive districts all over the north of Europe

Instantaneous and Continued Forces.--Forces are capable of act- and America. Some of the blocks are waterworn, others are ing upon bodies in one of two ways. First, during a very rugged and angular. They consist of fragments derived from short period, as, for instance, that consequent on the shock or rocks of all kinds and of all ages, primitive, volcanic, and fosexplosion of gunpowder; and second, those which continue to siliferous. Many of them are of enormous dimensions, varying act during the whole duration of the motion, as gravity, and from three feet to several yards in diameter. the traction of animals. The former are termed instantaneous, In some cases, such a boulder deposit consists of blocks that and the latter continued forces.

have been severed and torn from the rock that lies imme. Equilibrium.-When many forces are simultaneously operat- diately beneath them. In such circumstances the boulders are ing upon one and the same body, it may so happen that tho of the colour and lithological character of the underlying strata

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red in a district of red sandstone, grey in one of shales, black now 100 feet above the level of the sea, in the Gulf of in one of coal, and white in one of chalk. Boulders of this Bothnia. On the summit of this ridge lie scattered numerous description are easily accounted for. But all over Russia, | large boulders of gneiss, in size from nine to sixteen feet in

Poland, Germany, Holland, England, Ireland, Canada and diameter. The sand on which the boulders rest is full of shells • North America, broad plains and the sides of mountains have which now inhabit the Baltic sea. Hence, the boulders were

boulders strewed over them, for which there is ng parent brought thither after the Baltic was formed, and were transrock within scores and even hundreds of miles.

ported across the waters of that sea. Boulders and stony fragments of this description abound in In Scotland, the Grampian Hills are from 3,000 to 4,000 feet England. They are frequently met with, in fields, half buried high. To the south of these mountains lies the deep and wide in the soil, and are often turned up by excavations in road- valley of Strathmore. To the south of Strathmore are the making and railway cutting. Whenever you see a boulder, it | Sidlaw Hills, composed of sandstone and shales. On the flanks suggests to you two questions: first, where has it come from? of these hills, at an elevation of 1,500 feet above the sea, are found and secondly, what brought it to the place it now occupies ? large

blocks of mica schist, some of them three, some of them Geologists have examined these two questions with much fifteen feet, in diameter. Blocks of precisely the same characattention and skill, but they could find no satisfactory answers, ter are strewed in the intervening valley of Strathmore, all of before they adopted the hypothesis of the transporting power which have come from the Grampians, fifteen miles from the of drifting icebergs and packed ice.

Sidlaws. To the South of the Sidlaws are the Pentland Hills, To interest you in the solution of these two questions, it is about 1,100 feet above the sea. On one side of these hills necessary to mention some of the most remarkable facts con- there is a huge block of mica schist, from eight to ten tons in nected with this boulder deposit, or, as it has been called, the weight, which must have come from the Grampians fifty miles NORTHERN DRIFT.

off, and which must have been borne over the Sidlaws about 1. There can be no doubt that all the_boulders have come thirty miles distant. from the north; for their course, both in Europe and America, 3. The fragments which form these boulders have been is found to be either due north and south, or varying a few removed to an immense distance from their parent rocks, or degrees to north-west and south-east. The immense plains of what geologists call rocks in situ. In the southern parts of Russia and Poland are covered with thousands of blocks of Russia and Germany many of these boulders are found at the granite, all of which agree in mineralogical character with the distance of 800 miles, and some even 1,000 miles, from the mountains of Lapland and Finland. In Denmark, Holstein, nearest rocks from which they could have been dislodged.

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and Pomerania, the sandy flats have, scattered over their whole | Boulders from Scandinavia are found on the declivities of the extent, fragments of syenite, gneiss, and trap, exactly of the Alps. Instances of similar extent of transportation abound same description as the rocks of Sweden and Norway.

among the boulders scattered over the northern districts of Boulders, containing specimens of almost all known rocks, the United States of America. have been transported to the eastern counties of England. In 4. The most remarkable and the most puzzling circumstance Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Herts, Mid- in this formation, is the fact, that some of these boulders have dlesex, Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk have been found fragments evidently been transported from a lower to a higher level. from Silurian rocks, carboniferous series, lias, polite, chalk, Near Kirby Lonsdale, there are many large blocks of trap, granite, and other crystalline rocks. Some of these boul- grauwacke scattered over the mountain limestone at an elevaders could have come only from Norway and Sweden, for Sir tion of from 50 to 100 feet above the parent rock, and even CHARLES Lyell traced them from those two countries to almost to the top of the Fell, 500 feet above their original posiDenmark across the Elbe, through Westphalia, to the borders tion. In that district there is another case in which boulders of Holland. “We need not,” he says, “ be surprised to find have been transported from the Vale of Eden, where the parent them reappear on our eastern coast, between the Tweed and rock is 500 feet above the sea, to and over the pass of Stainthe Thames,-regions not half so remote from Norway as are moor, at the height of 1,400 feet, so that these-boulders lie now many Russian erratics from the source whence they came." 900 feet above the level of the rock in situ. Similar facts are

On the western coast, and in the midland counties of Eng. found on Ben Erin on the western side of Glen Roy, on land, similar facts are met with. On the coasts, in the plains, Arthur's Seat near Edinburgh, in the Isle of Man, and in North and on the sides of the hills, of Lancashire and Cheshire, and America. through Shropshire, Staffordshire, and Worcestershire, im- One of the most singular facts connected with the elevated mense deposits of pebbles and a vast number of boulders are position of boulders occurs in North Wales. As the traveller found scattered, which must have been transported thither journeys westward on the Holyhead Road, he comes to Llyn from Cumberland and Dumfriesshire in Scotland.

Ogwen, and on his left rises å precipitous mountain called 2. Boulders have been transported across seas and lakes and Moel Tryfaen, which attains the height of 1,392 feet above the plains, and over the ridges of high hills and mountains, Near level of the sea. On the summit of this rock are found chalk Upsala, in Sweden, there is a ridge of sand and gravel thac is Mints associate! rith brilders of various kinds. There is

good reason to believe that the chalk Aints were transported denly. This is proved from the general absence of organia from Ireland, and therefore from a considerably lower level. remains in the clays and sands, which are found to cover the Facts of this description form one class of the difficulties which formation of the drift boulders, and from the complete preserpress upon the theory of icebergs as the agents of transporta- vation of the flesh and the hair of the elephants which were tion; for no floating ice could possibly transport boulders from discovered in the frozen mud of Siberia. a lower to a higher level. Mr. Darwin ascribes these results 4. This great and sudden reduction of the temp ure to the joint action of floating icebergs and of packed coast ice. would fill the glens of the Polar mountains with immense He shows that on Moel Tryfaen the well-rounded pebbles of glaciers, which, as explained in our last lesson, would stretch chalk flints and other boulders were, in all probability, trans- far into the waters of the Northern Sea. Even at the present ported by coast ice, though it is at the same time evident, from day, many of the glaciers that descend the ravines of Spiztberthe extraordinary manner in which the laminæ of the slate gen project several hundred feet from the coast into the sea. rocks have there been shattered, that icebergs have also been Indeed, at this epoch, called the glacial period, it is probable driven against them when under water ; so that both actions that northern mountains of comparatively moderate height seem to have concurred in that neighbourhood.

would have their valleys filled with glaciers, and that vast You have now been informed of the remarkable positions of sheets of ice would stretch eastward, and westward, and southdistance and elevation in which boulders are discovered. Our ward, as far as the phenomena of boulders have been observed. next business is to try to answer the question,-how they 5. In other circumstances the icebergs detached from these came there? The most skilful geologists found it almost impos- glaciers that protruded into the Polar seas, would take up, and sible to account for the position of boulders, before they adopted convey to a distance huge masses of rock, which water alone, the glacial, or rather the iceberg theory, called also the glacio- however impetuous, could never have moved, and would aqueous.

transport them hundreds of miles without wearing off the anguAt first all inquirers were misled by the assumption that larity oftheir edges. the boulders had been transported and deposited by the deluge 6. As the lower surface of the icebergs would either be of Noah, on which account they gare to this formation the abraded by the action of the sea, or melted by the increased name of Diluvium. Others, and some of them very distin. temperature in the south, the masses of clays, sands, gravels, guished geologists, like Mr. Hopkins of Cambridge, ascribed and boulders, which they had brought down as glaciers, or their removal to a series of diluvial waves that swept over the imbedded as coast-ice, would drop down and we grattered at land.

random over the bottom of the sea. Though the iceberg theory has its difficulties, and does not 7. The bottom of this sea might be extensive plains, or high fully meet all the phenomena of the case, yet it seeme to come ridges of hills. When you consider that seven parts out of

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nearest to the vera causa, or the real agency that produced the eight of a high iceberg are under water, it is obvious that such result.

a deep body of ice, in moving southward, would strike against 1. It is certain that all the boulders come from the north. the crests or the flanks of these submarine ridges, and there deAll the rocks, of which boulders are specimens, are in situ posit its clays and boulders. These submarine hills became, at towards the north. All the shells which are frequently found another geological period, elevated, by volcanic action, to an in the clays associated with the boulders indicate a northern elevation much higher than the sea, and bearing on their climate. There seems also an intimate connexion between a ridges or sides the boulders that had been imbedded in their .very cold or extreme northern climate, and the various geolo- surface of clay or sand. gical appearances which have been called glacial.

8. The application of the iceberg theory to the elucidation of 2. In the neighbourhood of the Baltic, the course of the boulder phenomena is in full harmony with all that science erratic blocks, and the grooving and the smoothing of rocks, has taught us about glaciers. What we know of terminal have been traced from the level of the sea shore to elevations moraines corresponds with the accumulations of clay and gravel of above 3,000 feet. Nothing of this kind has been found which are called the Drift, and which are found associated either on the shores or on the sides of the rocks above the with the blocks or boulders. It also accounts for the smoothMediterranean, nor in the equatorial parts of Asia, Africa, and ing and grooving of rocks, for the parallelisms in the markings America.

or striæ on the surface of rocks, and for the high and precipi. 3. It can be proved that at an earlier age the history of tous ledges on which the boulders have been lodged. our globe, at the close of the tertiary period, the northern Boulder phenomena, however, present three difficulties hemisphere was considerably colder than it is at present, and which the iceberg hypothesis does not seem to obviate. First, that this diminution in the temperature took place very sud- boulders are frequently found water-worn and rounded at the


-a result which would not be produced by transportal Now, imagine such a coast, so covered with boulders, to be in icebergs. Secondly, the size of the boulders, as a general subsiding. As it gradually subsides, the coast-ice would, by rule, diminishes as their course is traced southward, whereas the first powerful gale, be driven still higher up, and thus, as an iceberg would easily have carried a block of twenty tons as the subsidence continued and the gales repeated, the boulders far as a boulder of twenty pounds. Thirdly, floating icebergs would be impelled onwards and upwards. When this land could not have placed boulders on elevations many hundred would again emerge and appear above the waves, the boulders feet higher than the rocks from which they are derived. To on its sides or ledges would lię far above the neighbouring enable the iceberg hypothesis to meet these difficulties, Mr. rock from which they were derived. Darwin has brought to its aid the agency of coast-ice, and Sir RODERIO MURCHISON, in his “Geology of Russia,'' has especially the action which is called the packing of the ice, as thrown considerable light upon the boulder and drift deposits. witnessed in high latitudes.

He thinks that when the granitic rocks of Norway and Sweden, 1. It is possible that such boulders might have been worn &c., were emerging from the ocean, their rugged pinnacles and rounded while they were in charge of glaciers in polar were shattered into huge fragments by the expansive power of valleys, and worn in their progress towards the coast, before the severe frost of the period. Glaciers carried these enormous they came far enough to form the constituents of an iceberg. masses to the sea-coast, whence they were taken up by icefioes, The coast-ice, however, that is formed on shallow shores, even which, by the force of subaqueous currents, transported them where no glaciers protrude, will take up and enclose the stones hundreds of miles to the south, and then deposited them and pebbles that lie along the coast. When the ice melts, on the sea bottom. These submarine deposits were, in a they drop, and the next winter's ice takes them up again. Or subsequent period, upheaved above the ocean to form the disthe coast-ice that imbeds them may strand them with violence tricts which are now called Russia and Germany, where the on a different part of the shore ; and such ice may become boulders deposited by icebergs are the monuments of the detached icefloes, which carry these fragments over rocky change by which the bottom of the sea became dry land. shoals, and thus wear and polish them. As such coast-ice is not very thick, it is likely to be landed in shallow places : then, by the action called the packing of the ice, the pebbles and LESSONS IN FRENCH.--No. LXXIX. boulders imbedded in it will be driven up the beach, and will eventually be left perched on ledges of rock. On the sup

By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D. position that such a coast would become submerged and again rise above the sea, it might be expected that boulders, which $ 182--VERBS REQUIRING THE PREPOSITION de before an had thus been buoyed up by coast-ice during long-continued

INFINITIVE. ages, would be well rounded. 2.' The gradual decrease in the size of the boulders, the Accuser (s"). to accuse one's self

Abstenir (s'), to abstain

Désoler (se), to grieve further we proceed from the parent-rocks, does not always hold Achever, to finish

Détourner, to dissuade

Différer, to put off good. Mr. Darwin says, that on the plains of Patagonia, Affecter, to affect

Dire, to say, tell the two largest boulders that he saw were near the outskirts of Affliger (s"), to grieve

Discon venir, to deny the deposit. When boulders are transported in sheets of ice, Agir (8'), unip., to be the question Discontinuer, to discontinue or fragments of coast-ice, called icefloes, the buoying and Applaudir (s"), to rejoice

Dispenser, to dispense transporting agent is not of disproportionate power to its burden. Appréhender, to apprehend Dispenser (se), to forbear As the icefloe decays, the heaviest fragments would naturally Avertir, to warn

Disculper (se), to apologise

Dissuader, to dissuade be apt to drop out first. The accounts of navigators intimate Aviser (s"), to bethink one's self that the larger boulders taken up by coast-ice are, during

Avoir besoin, to want

Douter, to doubt some winters, not moved at all, while the smaller ones are Avoir dessein, lo intend

Avoir coutume, to be accustomed Efforcer (s'), to endeavour drifting onwards. Hence the boulders that have travelled Avoir envie, to wish

Effrayer (s'), to be frightened

Empêcher, to prevent farthest, would, from having been repeatedly stranded every Avoir gardo, to take care

Empresser (s"), to hasten summer, be most worn, and therefore would be smaller than Avoir honte, to be ashamed Epouvanter (s'), to be frightened those which had travelled a shorter distance.

Avoir intention, to intend

Entreprendre, to undertake The iceberg theory is itself almost sufficient to account for Avoir le temps, to have time Enrager, to be vexed this sorting of the boulders. Icebergs Roat in a sea of variable Avoir le courage, to hare courage Etonner (s'), to wonder depth. The heavier boulders require larger icebergs to buoy Avoir peur, to be afraid

Eviter, to avoid them up. The greater the volume of the iceberg, the sooner

Avoir raison, to be right

Excuser (s”), to eccuse one's sely would it, in its southward course, strike against the shallower Avoir regret, to regret

Féliciter, to congratulate

Feindre, to feign parts of the sea bottom, and deposit its clays and blocks; but Avoir tort, to be wrong the smaller and lighter icefloes, laden with finer gravel and Avoir soin, to take care

Avoir sujet, to have reason Flatter (se), to flatter one's self smaller boulders, would pass over to a much greater dis- Blâmer, to blame

Frémir, to shulder

Garder (se), to take care
Brûler, to wish ardently

Gérnir, lo lament 3. As to the transportal of boulders from a lower to a higher Censurer, to censure

Glorifier (se), to pride one's self level, it is not supposed that this takes place universally, but Cesser, to cease

Hasarder (se), to venture only in certain favourable situations, and which nay be Chagriner (se), to grieve one's self Håter (se), to hasten accounted for by the action called the “packing" of icefloes. Charger, to desire, to intrust Imputer, to impute Voyagers who have navigated polar regions have stated that Charger (se), to take on one's self Túdigner (s'); to be indignant the pack-ice frequently piles up and leaves blocks of stone at Choisir, to choose

Ingérer (@'), to take into one's head the height of thirty feet above high water-mark.

Commander, to command

Inspirer, to inspire.
Conjurer, lo beseech

Jurer, to swear
In accounting for the erratic boulders and grooved rocks of Conseiller, to advise

Manquer, to fail Canada and North America, Sir CHARLES LYELL supposes that contenter (se), to be satisfied. Méditer, to think, to intend the land thus circumstanced first subsided gredually into the Convaincre, to convince

Mêler (se), to meddle sea, and then, by an agency from below, emerged and attained Convenir, to become, suit

Menacer, to threaten a higher level than before. While it was in the process of Corriger, to correct

Mériter, to deserve sinking, the sea that then bordered it was covered with ice. Craindre, to fear

Moquer (se), to laugh at bergs floating from the north. As these bergs grounded on Décourager; to discourage Mourir (tigu.), to long the shallow bottoms, or the sides of ridges in the sea, the force Dédaigner, to disdain

Négliger, to naylect that propelled them pushed along also materials of sand, Défendre (se), to derline

Nier, to deny gravel, and pebbles, which then lay at the bottom of the sea. Défier, to challenge, to dare

Pardonner, to excuse

Parler, to speak By the combined forces of the current and of the iceberg, the Dépêcher (se), to kasten Passer (se), to do without rugged and angular blocks which were embedded in the lower Désaccoutumer

Permettre, io permit surface of the iceberg, and which projected out of it, would

(se), have the power of marking or grooving the underlaying rocks, Déshabituer

to leave of

Persuader, to persuade

Piquer (2c), to take pride in by which action the blocks themselves would become worn (se),

Plaindre, to pity and rounded,

espérer, to despair

Plaindre (se), to complain

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Nous aimons, nous instruisons, praise our children.

Prendre garde, to take care, heed Reprendre, to censure

(4.) The participle past, having avoir for an auxiliary, Prendre soin, to take care

Réprimander, to reprimand agrees with its direct regimen, when that regimen precedes the Prescrire, to prescribe Reprocher (se), to reproach one's

participle : Presser, to urge

Résoudre, to resolve

[se's Presser (se), to hasten

Ressouvenir (se), to remember La lettre que vous avez écrile. The latter which you have written. Présumer, to presume Rire, to laugh

Pédro, qu'as tu fait de nos mon. Pedro, what hast thou done with Prier, to desire Rougir, to blush

tures ?-Seigneur, je les ai attachées our horses? My lord, I have fastPromettre, to promise Scandaliser (se), to take offence

à la grille.

LE Sace. ened them to the grate,
Proposer, to propose
Seoir (unip.), to become, suit

Les meilleures harangues sont The best addresses are those tokich
Proposer (se), to intend
Sommer, to summon

celles que le cæur a dictées. the heart has dictated.
Protester, to protest
Soupçonner, to suspect

Punir, to punish
Souvenir (se), to remember

Je les ai cherchés dans tous les I have sought them in every corner,
Rebuter (se), to be reary
Suffire (unip ), to suffice

coins, et je ne les ai pas trouvés. but have not found them. Recommander, to recommend Suggérer, to suggest

Refuser, to refuse

Supplier, to beseech
Regretter, to regret
Tenter, to attempt

(6.) But, if the direct regimen is placed after the participle, Réjouir (se), to rejoice Trembler, to tremble

this participle remains invariable :-Remercier, to thank Vanter (se), to boast

J'ai reçu votre lettre. Repentir (se), to repent

I have received your letter.

C'est la vérité elle-même qui lui It is truth itself which has dictated Il vaut mieux hasarder de saurer It is better to run the risk of a dicté ces belles paroles.

to him those fine words. un coupable que de condamner un | sparing a guilty person, than to cm

BOSSUET. innocent. VOLTAIRE. demn an innocent one.

Les dioux ont attaché presque The gods have attached almost as Le monde se vante de faire des The world boasts that it can render autant de malheurs à la liberté, many misfortunes to liberty, as lo heurenx. MASSILLON, men happy

qu'à la servitude.


MONTESQUIEU. § 133.-RULE. (1.) Two or more verbs may govern the same object, pro. vided they require the same regimen :

CORRESPONDENCE. We love, noe instruct, and we et nous louons nos enfants.

(We insert the following remarks “ On Bathing when heated,"

because we think them well worthy the attention of those of our This sentence is correct, because aimer, instruire, and louer: readers who are fond of this exercise. Of course, we do not combeing active verbs, govern one and the same case, the direct

mit ourselves entirely to the accuracy of every point, because we regimen,

have not had sufficient personal experience ; but we co i sider that (2.) But when the verbs require different regimens, they there is much truth in what our correspondent says.) cannot govern one and the same noun; and therefore another form must be given to the sentence. We could not say in

ON BATHING WHEN HEATED. French, -Un grande nombre de vaisseaux entrent et sortent de oe port tous les mois, -A great numéer of vessels enter and go out Sir,-At the end of the article on Physical Education which has of ihis port erery month, because the verb entrer reaches its regi- reference to bathing in your No. for August 27th, you place certain men by means of the preposition dans, and sortier by means of rules to be attended to by the bather before going into the water.

I am well aware that it has been long a popular as well as profes. the preposition de. We should say :-.

sional axiom that sudden vicissitudes of temperature are dangerous, Un grand nombre de vaisseaux A large number of vessels enter that a previous hot state of body augments the hurtful effects of cold entrent dans ce port et en sortent this port and leare it every month. however applied; but the proposition thus broadly stated is not tous les mois.

universally true. The inhabitants of Russia are in the habit, while

reeking from vapour baths, of immediately rolling in the saow, or See § 92, (1.) (2.), also note, and § 140.

plunging into cold water without suffering from the change. Cap.

iain Scoresby, while in the Arctic Regions, often passed from his § 134.—THE PARTICIPLE Past.

room where the temperature was from 55° to 60° to the mast head,

where it was only 10°, without receiving any injury or sinconve(1.) We have seen ($ 66, (3.)] that the participle past, not nience; and other instances may be brought forward. Thus it is accompanied by an auxiliary, assumes the gender and number plain that the proposition which assigns danger to extreme vicissi. of the noun which it qualifies :

tudes of temperature requires some limitation; the effect of a sudLes inimitiés gourdes et cachees Quiet and concealed enmity is den descent from one point to another in the scale of temperature, sont plus à craindre que les haines more to be feared than open and de- varies according to the state of the body at the time. Man, to ouvertes et déclarées. Noël. clared hatred.

gether with the warm-blooded animals, you are aware, by the faculty

of evolving heat, maintain the same degree of inward temperature (2.) The participle past accompanied by the auxiliary étre, under very different degrees of outward temperature. Now if this agrees in gender and number with the subject of the verb, power of evolving heat be entire, active and persistent, no peril whether the subject be placed before or after it. (See $ need attend even violent alterations of external temperature. 135, (1.))

Unusual heat of the body at the time when the cold is applied, so

far from implying danger, is really the condition of safety, provided Le fer est émoussé ; les bûchers The sword is blunted; the piles that heat is steady and permanent; but if a person be exhausted sont éteints VOLTAIRE. are extinguished,

and weakened by exercise, rapidly parting with his heat, if he La vertu obscure est souvent Humble virtue is often despised. remains at rest after and during the application of cold, then it is méprisée. MASSILLON.

highly perilous, and likely to produce mischief. Thas cold is Les Grecs étaient persuadés, que The Greeks were persuaded, that dangerous not when the body is hot, but when the body is cooling. l'âme est immortelle. the soul is immortal.

after having been heated. Thus those whose business it is to BARTHÉLEMY,

advise, may caution the public against the common mistake which Quant il vit l'urne où étaient When he perceived the urn in has had its origin in the unqualified credit given to the maxim, renfermées les cendres d'Hippias, il which were enclosed the ashes of that sudden vicissitudes of external temperature and exposure to versa un torrent de larmes.

Hippias, he shed a torrent of tears. cold while the body is hot are dangerous, whereas they are only FénéLON

dangerous under certain circumstances. Thus wet seet or a wet (3.) The participle past, having avoir as its auxiliary, never tinued ; but when that exercise ends, then it is that a change of

skin need cause no apprehension, so that active exercise is conagrees with the nominative :

clothes and a further avoidance of the application of cold is impor. Vous riez? Ecrivez qu'elle a ri. You laugh! Put down that she tant. You may safely tell the bather, that after walking on a hot RACINE. laughed.

day to the river's side, he had better not wait to cool himself a little Mes amis ont parlé; leurs cæurs ily friends have spoken; their before he plunges into the stream. The point to be remembered sont attendris. VOLTAIRE. hearts are moved.

is that the heat which is preternaturally accumulated by exercise is Mes cousines ont lu.

My cousins have read.

held with little tenacity, is dissipated by profuse perspiration, and BESCHERELLE,

is speedi'y lost when to this perspiration is added a state of rest

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