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μιας

Ν. τρεις α. τριών D. τρισι Α. τρεις

200 σ' διακοσιοι, αι, α διακοσιοστος, η, ον

EXERCISES.-ENGLISH-GREEK. 300 τ' τριακοσιοι, αι, α τριακοσιοστος, η, ον 400 ν' τετρακοσιοι, αι, α τετρακοσιοστος, η, ον

Ευφρατης ποταμος εστι το ευρος τετταρων σταδιων. Το δε στα. 500 φ' πεντακοσιοι, αι, α πεντακοσιοστος, η, ον

διον εχει παρα τους Ρωμαιοις πεντε και εικοοσι και εκατονβηματα, 600 x' εξακοσιοι, αι, α εξακοσιοστος, η, ον

η πεντε και εικοσι και εξακοσιους ποδας. Κυρω παρησαν αι εκ 700 ψ' επτακοσιοι, αι, α επτακοσιοστος, η, ον

Πελοποννησου νηες τριακοντα πεντε. Του Σαρου, Κιλικιας 800 ω' οκτακοσιοι, αι, α

Το δε πλεθρον εχει οκτακοσιοστος, η, ον

ποταμου, το ευρος ην τρια πλεθρα. 900 Λ' εννακοσιοι, αι, α

εκατον ποδας. Κυδνος, Κιλικιας ποταμος, ευρος εστι δυο πλεθ

εννακοσιοστος, η, ον 1000 α χιλιοι, αι, α

χιλιοστος, η, ον

ρων. Του Μαιανδρου, φρυγιας ποταμου, το ευρος εστιν εικοσι 2000 β διςχιλιοι, αι, α διςχιλιοστος, η, ον

πεντε ποδων. Ο παρασάγγης, Περσικον μετρον, εχει τριακοντα 3000 γ τριςχιλιοι, αι, α τριςχιλιοστος, η, ον

σταδια η πεντηκοντα και επτακοσιους και οκτακισχιλιους και 4000 δ τετρακιςχιλιοι, αι, α τετρακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον μυριους ποδας. Αριθμος συμπασης της οδου της αναβασεως 5000ε πεντακιςχιλιοι, αι, α πεντακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον και καταβασεως, ή υπο Ξενοφωντος συγγραφεται, ησαν σταθμοι 6000 5 εξακιςχλιοι, αι, α εξακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον

διακοσιοι δεκα πεντε, παρασαγγαι χιλιοι έκατον πεντηκοντα 7000 ζ επτακιςχιλιοι, αι, α επτακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον

πεντε, σταδια τρισμυρια τετρακισχιλια εξακοσια πεντηκοντα, 8000 η οκτακιςχιλιοι, αι, α οκτακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον

χρονου πληθος της αναβασεως και καταβασεως ενιαυτος και 9000 9 εννακιςχιλιοι, αι, α εννακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον τρεις μηνες. Eνος φιλια συνετου κρειττων εστιν ασυνετων 10,000 ι μυριοι, αι, α μυριοστος, η, ον

Του Κυρου στρατευματος ην αριθμος των με, 20,000 κ διςμυριοι, αι, α διςμυριοστος, η, ον

“Ελληνων οπλιται μυριοι και τετρακοσιοι, πελτασται δε δισχιλιοι 100,000 ρ δεκακεςμυριοι, αι, α δεκακιςμυριοστος, η, ον.

και πεντακοσιοι, των δε μετα Kυρου Βαρβαρων δεκα μυριάδες In forming compound numbers you may put the smaller και άρματα δρεπανηφορα αμφι τα εικοσιυ. Arst and the larger second, interposing kai and, as TEVTE KAI ELKOOIV, fwe and twenty; or you may reverse the order, still

GREEK-ENGLISH. however keeping the conjunction, as εικοσι και πεντε, twenty and tre, 25. Thus, 345 will be either πεντε και τετταρακοντα

It is better to have one intelligent friend than many uninται τριακοσιοι, Or τριακοσιοι και τετταρακονα και πεντε.

telligent ones. Seventy years produce about (αμφι and acc.)

25,555 days. The sum total of the way from the battle at (ev) Declension of the four first Numerals.

Babylon to (ELS) Cotyora, of the retreat, which Xenophon Namely, είς, one ; δυο, two; τρεις, three ; τετταρες, four. describes, is 122 stages, 620 parasangs, 18,600 stadia, the Ν. είς


μια
δυο

length of the time eight months. The number of the army is G. ενος ενος δυουν

39,850. (There) are four generals of the army, each of the D. ένι

ένι
μια
δυοιν

four of (that is, commanding) 30,990 soldiers. In the battle Α. ένα

μιαν
έν
δυο

(there) were present 96,650 soldiers and 150 scythe-bearing

chariots. . τρια Τετταρες τετταρα

τετταρων

τετταρσι
τρια τετταρας τετταρα.

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-No. XV. Like εις decline its compounds ουδεις and μηδεις, no one, thus, ουδεις, ουδεμια, ουδεν; g. ουδενος, ουδεμιας, &c. Plural, IPURPOSE beginning this lesson with a consideration of the disουδενες, ουδεμιαι, ουδενα, ουδεμων, ουδεσι, &c. ; the δ is tinctive properties of persalts of tin in solution. It was meneuphonic.

tioned in the course of the preceding lesson, that our protochloride Avo is often used as an indeclinable word for all cases. The of tin required to be well protected against the atmosphere, othernumeral auow, both, has, like dvo in the genitive and dative wise it rapidly became converted into perchloride; nevertheless, olv, thus, aupolv; the accusative is the same as the nomina- it being now our object to prepare a perchloride of tin unmixed tive; like dvo, auow is sometimes used as an indeclinable. with protochloride, we must adopt some more ready means of imVOCABULARY.

parting oxygen than that of mere exposure to atmospheric air. Κιλικια, ας, o, Cilicia.

101 feet English, or } of a

Nitric acid, or some of its compounds, are the bodies most comΦρυγια, ας, η, Phrygia.

stadium.

monly had recourse to by the chemist for imparting oxygen. You Ευφρατης, ου, ο, the river Eu- Σταδιον, ου, τo, a stadium=60o have already seen that nitric acid, when added to solid antimony phrates.

Greek or 606 English feet.

and solid tin, is decomposed, with the evolution of orange-coloured Πελτη, ης, ή, a small light Κοτύωρα, ων, τα, Cotydra, a fumes, and a white powder in either case results: and here I may

offer a remark which is of universal application. Whenever you shield.

town in Pontas. Πελταστης, ου, ο, 8 shield- Μυριας, αδος, ή, the number add nitric acid to any body, no matter what, and observe that the bearer, targeteer.

10,000.

peculiar orange-coloured gas to which your attention has been

more than once directed escapes, rest assured that the portion of “Οπλιτης, ου, o, a heavy-armed Βαβυλων, ωνος, s, Babylon.! soldier.

Tlous, Toởos, , (L'at. pes) a foot. the nitric acid has delivered up its oxygen to the substance opeΠαρασαγγης, ου, o, a parasang, Αναβάσις, εως, ή, a going up comprehensible than any mere words :

rated upon. The following diagram will render this change more a Persian measure of length an expedition. =30 stadia, Καταβάσις, εως, ή, a going

Nitrogen

Binoxide of Nitrogen Αριθμος, ου, o, a number. down, retreat.

Nitric acid Βαρβαρος, ο,

Oxygen a barbarian, “Αρμα, αρμάτος, τo, a carriage.

Oxygen

Oxygen. every one not a Greek, Βημα, άτος, τo, a step, stride.

Tin-

Peroxide of Tin
Ενιαυτος, ου, o, a year. Στρατευμα, ατος, τo, an army.
Κυδνος, ου, ο, the Cydnus. Ευρος, ους, τo, breadth.

From an examination of this diagram, it appears that nitric acid Πελοποννησος, ου, η, Pelopon- πληθος, ους, τo, a multitude, is composed of nitrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is represented

Συνετος, η, ον, intelligent. in our diagram as divided into two portions, such being the result Περσικος, η, ον, Persian. Δρεπανηφορος, ον, 8cythe-bear-of decomposition. One of these portions goes to the tin, with Ρωμαιος, ου, o, a Roman.

ing.

which it combines, giving rise to oxide of tin; the other unites Σαρος, ου, ο, the Sarus.

Συμπας, ασα, αν, all, all toge-] with the nitrogen, and forming the gas, binoxide of nitrogen, Σταθμος, ου, o, a station, a ther, total.

escapes. As regards this gas, you have already been informed that day's march, stage = 5 pa- Evyypapw, I describe (ypaow, if collected without contact of atmospheric air, it is not orange • rasangs or leagues.

engrave, write).

coloured, but altogether colourless. This circumstance, however, Πλεθρον, ου, τo, a plethrens Παρειμι, I am present. does not in any degreo affect the practical truth of my remark,

nesus.

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of oxygen

80

=146

that whenever you see an orange-coloured gas escape after you | tion of the precipitate sulphuret by excess of reagent. Your athave brought nitric acid in contact with any substance, the ap- tention was directed to this point whilst we were engaged on pearance is a proof that the nitric acid has been busy in giving arsenic; I now direct your attention to the same in respect of oxygen. In order to render the preceding diagrain more simple tin, the sulphuret of which does not fall completely, so long as the than it otherwise could have been, I have avoided the appending liquor which should deposit it contains an excess of hydrosulphuric to it of proportional numbers. You may, however, add them, if acid, easily recognisable by the smell. Chemists, well aware of you please, making the statement as follows :

tais fact always submit a solution, through which hydrosulphuric 2 equivalents of nitric acid

= 108

acid as a precipitant has been passed, to a process of heating, in 2 of tin

order to get rid of the excess of hydrosulphuric acid. In some

= 116
2
of nitrogen

= 28

cases this process of heating is carried on to the extent of ebulli. 10

tion ; in others, the liquid is merely put to stand in a warm place 2 of binoxide of nitrogen 60

for the space of a few hours. Practice and extended knowledge of 2 of peroxide of tin

the nature of the bodies operated upon can alone determine which

process is the better of the two: in the case pow under consider. In order to effect the conversion of protochloride into perchlo-ation, the process of continuous gentle heating should be adopted. ride of tin, take about half a wineglassful of the solution, add to it about a teaspoonful (not measured in a teaspoon, however) of Separation of Tin from Antimony. We have already seen that strong nitric acid ; pour the mixture into an evaporating-dish ortin and antimony admit of being separated from all the metals Florence flask, and boil ; continue the boiling operation until all which have hitherto come under our notice by the agency of nitric the liquid has been expelled by evaporation, and your protochlo- acid ; which converts tin and antimony into insoluble oxides, the ride will have become converted into the perchloride of tin. other metals being dissolved. I shall now describe one of several

methods which might be adopted for effecting the separation of Fig. No. 1.

these two metals.

In the first place, the two insoluble oxides must be rendered soluble, which is accomplished by fusing them with carbonate of soda or potash. The process of rendering bodies soluble by fusion with alkalis, or their carbonates, will come fully under our notice when we arrive at the chemical examination of silica or Aint. On the present occasion I shall not detail the process, being convinced that the descriptions involved would be rather too difficult for performance. Instead, therefore, of assuming that you are endeavouring to separate tin and antimony from each other, both existing in the condition of oxide, let us assume the problem to be the separation of tån from antimony, both existing in the metallic state.

The first step in this operation will consist in obtaining both metals dissolved ; and hydrochloric or muriatic acid (spirit of salt) is the best of all solvents that can be employed. Prepare, therefore, an alloy of antimony and tin, by fusing the two metals together in an iron spoon or the bowl of a tobacco-pipe. When prepared, break it into small fragments and throw the latter into a Florence flask. Pour hydrochloric acid into the flask, and apply heat, by which treatment the two metals will be caused to dissolve. Inasmuch as the treatment about to be adopted necessitates the existence of tin as a peroxide, it is well to add, towards the end of the

operation, a little nitric acid. Divide the liquid result into two In conducting this evaporation, as well as all others which result

portions. in the liberation of corrosive vapours, care must be taken to make some provision for their escape. In laboratories special contri

Separation of the Antimony.--If into one portion of the liquid vances are adopted; but private operators cannot do better than thus prepared and containing an excess of hydrochloric acid (that to conduct such evaporations under an open chimney. As regards is essential) a piece of pure tin be immersed, and the whole our present evaporation, it may be advantageously conducted by warmed on a sand-bath, the antimony contained in the soplacing the Florence flask in a bed of hot sand: for the purpose of lution is thrown down in the form of a black powder, tin being holding the latter, an iron ladle or fryingpan, as depicted in fig. dissolved from the bar to supply its place. By this simple method No. 1, may be used.

we obtain all the antimony originally present; and were our anaHaving evaporated all the liquid, and allowed the flask, ladle, mony by collecting, drying, and finally weighing it.

lysis quantitative, we might learn the exact amount of the antisand, and all to cool, add water to the result and dissolve it out. Pour now a little into a test-glass, wine-glass, or any other con

Separation of the Tin.-If into the other portion of the liquid a venient vessel, and try the effect of testing with hydrosulphuric piece of zinc be immersed, with the same precautions before obacid and hydrosulphate of ammonia. If the conversion of proto- served as regards acidity and temperature, the whole of the conchloride into perchloride has been complete, you will obtain a tained tin will be precipitated in the state of fine powder, but yellow precipitate; if incomplete, the precipitate will be more or perfectly metallic. Were we engaged in performing a quantitaless black in direct proportion to the amount of protochloride still tive analysis, it is evident we could ascertain the exact amount of remaining untouched.

tin by collecting, washing, drying, and weighing the result. We

must not discard the metal tin without taking some cognisance of In this case of incomplete conversion you will have to add a its peculiar effect on glass, which it renders white and opaque. mixture of nitric and muriatic acid, and repeat the evaporative For this purpose, powder a little flint glass; mix it with a little operation.

borax, in order to increase its fusibility, and dipping the looped General Remarks concerning the Formation of Sulphurets by Hy- platinum wire, previously rendered adhesive by moisture, into it, drcsulphuric Acid Gas and Hydresulphate of Ammonia.-Remem- take up a portion and fuse it into a bead. This bead you will find bering the general rule, that whenever it is merely desired to test to be beautifully transparent; but if you now moisten the bead the presence of a metal by the agency of hydrosulphuric acid, this again, and attach to it a little oxide of tin (produced by the action test may be employed in the state of aqueous solution--but that, of nitric acid on tin), and fuse the whole together in the outer or whenever it is desired to separate the whole of a metal contained oxidizing portion of the blow-pipe flame, the bead becomes white, in a liquid by hydrosulphuric acid, then the test should be used enamel-like, and opaque ; under certain circumstances, arsenic in the form of a gas-let me now direct your attention to a phe- produces a similar effect, but no other metal. All the milk-whix nomenon noticeable in either case; as alki when hydrogulphate of glass, so frequently met with in commerce, owes its peculiar * amrzonia is applied. The henomesna da is the resolu- 9 sance either to the presence of arsenic or tin.

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A sort of white fusible glass, chiefly composed of oxide of tin, $ 99. Verbs COMPOUNDED WITH NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. and technically known as tin-glaze, is very celebrated in the higtory of pottery.

il) A variety of compounds is produced by the union of You are perhaps aware that the ancient Greeks and Romans had verbs with nouns and adjectives. These follow the same general

laws which govern those prodused by means of prefixes. Some no pottery similar to our own. The Samian pottery-and at a later period the Etruscan-although beautiful in many respects, of them, accordingly, are separabb, as, was restrained as to its improvement within very narrow limits.

Fehlschlagen, to miscarry ; frs and schlagen. The ware itself was red, and the utmost power of chromatic

Freisprechen, to acquit;

sprechen. adornment was restricted to the imprinting of black. Beyond this

Gleichkommen, to equal;

gleich the ornamental ceramic art of Greece and Rome did not go.

fommen. Losreißen, to tear away;

reißen. Now it will at once be seen that, even had the ancient Greeks

Stattfinden, to take place;

statt Finden. and Romans pusgessed enamel colours, they could not have given effect to them on a red ground. Before this chromatic ornamenta- (2) Some are inseparable ; as, tion could have been adopted, one of two things must have taken place : either the use of a pottery material so pure that the result- Frobloden, to exult;

from froh and loden. ing ware would be white throughout, or the employment of a Frühstüden, to breakfast;

früh Auden. white enamel, as an envelope to hide the imperfections of coloured Fuchsschwänzen, to fawn;

fuche schwänzen. clay. The first plan had been adopted by the Chinese from time Handhaben, to handle;

hand haben. immemorial; the second plan was introduced into Europe by the Liebäugeln, to ogle;

lieb

augeln. Arabs of Spain. This ingenious people covered inferior pottery Liebfosen, to caress;

lich Esfom with a glaze of oxide of tin, and on this enamelled coloured Muthmaßen, to suspect;

muth maßen. figures. The first European factory of this ware was established Vollzieben, to perform;

voll ziehen. in Majorca; hence the material is known as Majolica ware. The Willfahren, to gratify;

will Fahren. ornamental slabs still existing in the Alhambra— beautiful as

Weisagen, to foretell;

weis sagen. when they were first made-are of Majolica ware. The most curious fact remains to be told : although the Greeks and Romans

(3) These verbs take the augment syllable ge in the perfect were totally ignorant of the use of tin enamel, the Assyrians and participle: except vollziehen, which has vollzogen. In some cases Babylonians were so thoroughly conversant with this substance however, verbs compounded with voll, also, take the augment and its glazing properties, that they even employed it for the pur- as vollgegossen, from vollgießen, to pour full. pose of enamelling ornamental bricks, as specimens lately brought to light attest.

$ 100. THE ADVERBS. This discovery renders it doubtful whether the Saracens were 80 much the inventors of tin-glaze as the media for handing down dify the signification of verbs, participles, adjectives and, often,

(1) Adverbs in German, as in other languages, serve to moa process which had been followed in Babylonia and Assyria, and also that of one another: denoting, for the most part, certain which perhaps had never ceased to be followed in some obscure limitations of time, place, degree and manner. · Hence are they locality.

usually classified according to their meaning.

(2) They are indeclinable; and formed, either by derivation

or composition, from almost every other part of speech : of some, LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. LXXX. however, the origin is wholly unknown. :

Arranged according to derivation, adverbs are divisible into $ 98. PREFIXES SEPARABLE AND INSEPARABLE. the following classes : (1) The Prefixes of this class, when separable, are always

$ 101. ADVERBS FORMED FROM NOUNS. under the full accent; when inseparable, the ascent falls upon the radical,

Adverbs are formed from nouns by affixing the letter &. This (2) Their effect, when separable, is, in union with radicals, to termination & is nothing more than the sign of the genitive sinproduce certain intransitive compounds, in which each of the gular; which case, not only of nouns, but also of adjectives, parts (prefix and radical) has its own peculiar and natural sig- participles, &c., is often made to perform the office of an ad nification.

verb. Examples : There are, however, some compounds of burch and um, in

Morgens, in the morning; from ver Morgen, morning. which, though these particles are separable, the verbs are, ne

Abends, in the evening;

der Abend, evening. vertheless, transitive. Still, it will be found, that in such cases

Tags, in the day;

ter Tag, day. the signification of the compound is figurative; as, umbringen,

Theils, in part, or partly; from der Theil, part. to bring about (one's death); i.e. to kill.

Fluge, swiftly;

der Flug, flight. (3) Their effect, when inseparable, is, in connection with Durchgehende, generally;

durchgehend, passing the radicals, to form certain transitive compounds; which, for

through the most part, are used in a figuraive or metaphorical sense. Zusehends, visibly;

zusehend, looking at. (4) We subjoin a list of the prefixes of this class ; illus

$ 102. ADVERBS FORMED FROM ADJECTIVES. trating each by a couple of examples; the first being one in which the prefix is separable; the second one in which it is

(1) Adverbs are formed from adjectives by the addition of inseparable.

the suffixes li ch, haft and ling8; which, except the last, are also Durch, through ; Durch'dringen, to press or force through ;

regular adjective terminations. These endings are chiefly exDurchdrin'gen, to penetrate;

pressive of manner; and may be translated sometimes by a corHinter, behind; Hin'tergehen, to go behind;

responding suffix (as the English ly or ishly), and sometimes by Hinterge'hen, to deceive;

some equivalent phrase. Examples :
S Ueberseßen, to set or put over;
Ueber, over;

Wahrlich, truly; verily; from wahr, true.
Uebersep'en, to translate ;

Boshaft, maliciously;

böse, evil; wicked. s um'gehen, to go around; lim, around;

Weislich, wisely;

weise, wise. | Umgch'en, to evade ;

Freilich, sure ; to be sure ;

frei, free; sure. Un’terschieben, to shove or push under ; linter, under;

Blindlings, blindly;

blind, blind. Unterschie'ben, to defer; also, to substitute. Wieder, again; ( Wiederholen, to fetch'or bring back;

(2) The letter $, also, as above stated, added to adjectives, back; | Wiederholen, to repeat;

gives rise to a class of adverbs : thus,

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.

Rechts, on the right; from recht, right.

Daber, from there hither, i. e. Dahin, from thither (to) there, links, on the left;

linf, left.
thence.

i. e. thither.
Anders, otherwise;

ander, other.

Woher, from which place hither, Wohin, from which place thither
Bereits, already;

bereit, ready.
i. e. whence.

i. e. whither.
Besonders, particularly ;

besonder, particular. Stets, continually,

stet, continual.

(4) We have no words in English, corresponding exactly in

use and force with her and hin; and therefore, though everyThe letter & is, also, sometimes affixed to adverbs ending in where in German their force may be felt, it cannot always be mal; as, vormals, formerly; damals, at the time; vielmals, many expressed by single words in translation,

Hence are they times. For numeral adverbs ending in mal, lei

, &c., see the often treated as expletives. Section on Numerals

S 104. ADVERBS FORMED FROM VERBS. (3) Here note, also, that almost all German adjectives, in the absolute form, that is, in the simple form without the terminations

(1) Adverbs are formed from verbs by suffixing to the radical of declension, are employed as adverbs : thus, er rennt schnell, he part the termination lich. All adverbs so formed, however, are runs rapidly; er handelt ehrlich, he acts honestly.

equally employed as adjectives: thus,

Glaublich (from glaubten, to believe), credibly. $ 103. ADVERB FORMED FROM PRONOUNS.

Sterblich (from sterb+en, to die), mortally.

Kläglich (from klagten, to lament), lamentably. (1) These are, chiefly, ba, there; from der, die, das, this or that ;

Merklich (from mert ten, to note ; perceive), perceptible wo, where; from wer, was, who, what; her, hither, and þin, thither ; from some corresponding demonstrative pronoun no longer

$ 105, ADVERBS FORMED BY COMPOSITION. found. (2) The pronominal adverbs in combination with other words, verbs in German is produced by the union of various parts of

(1) Besides the classes given above, a numerous list of adgive rise to a number of compounds. Thus ba and wo, united with prepositions, serve often instead of the dative and accusative nouns, form a class of adverbs employed chiefly in specifying

speech. Thus, the word Weise (mode, manner), combined with (neuter) of the pronouns ber, wer and welcher, respectively. It will things individually or separately: thus, ichrittweise, step by step: be noticed, that when the other word begins with a vowel or theilweise, part by part ; tropfenweise

, drop by drop; wogenweise

, with the letter n, da and wo are written dar and wor; that is, that wave by wave; like waves. Weise is also added to adjectives ; r is inserted for the sake of euphony. The following are com

as, diebischerweise, thievishly; glücklicherweise, fortunately. dounds of ba and wo :

(2) Sometimes an adverb and a preposition are united; exDabei, thereby, Wobei, whereby,

amples of which may be found above under the head of adverbs i. e. by this or that.

i. e. by which

formed from pronouns. Dafür, therefore, Wofür, wherefore,

(3) Sometimes adverbs are formed by the union or the repe. i. e. for this or that.

i. e. for which. Damit, therewith, Womit wherewith,

tition of prepositions: as, durchaus, throughout; thoroughly; i. e, with this or thaí.

i. e. with which.

durch und durch, through and through. Darin, therein, Worin, wherein,

(4) Sometimes a noun and a pronoun joined together serve i. e. in this or that.

i. e. in which

as an adverb ; as, meinerseits, on my side ;. riefseits, on this side; Darunter, thereunder or among, Worunter, whereunder, among, allerdings, by all means. i. e. under this or that.

i e. under this or that. (5) Sometimes one adverb is formed from another by the Darum, there about or therefore, Worum, whereabout,

addition of a suffix; as, růdlings, backwards : sometimes by the i.e. for this or that; therefore. i. e. about or for which ; union of another adverb; as, nimmermehr, nevermore.

wherefore, why. Daran, thereon, Woran, whereto,

(6) Sometimes the several words composing a phrase are, by i. e. on this or that,

i. e. to which,

being brought into union, made to perform the office of an adDarauf, thereupon, Worauf, whereupon,

verb: thus, fürwahr (for für wahr), verily; sonst (for the o solete i. e. upon this or that.

i e. upon which

ro ne ist, if it is not), otherwise ; else. Daraus, therefrom,

Woraus, wherefrom, i. e. from this or that, i e. from which.

$ 106. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. Davon, thereof, Wovon, whereof,

(1) Many adverbs, chiefly, however, those expressive of i. e. of this or that.

i. e. of which.

manner, are susceptible of the degrees of comparison. The Dazu, thereto, Wozu, whereto,

forms for these are the same in adverbs as in adjectives. i. e. tu this or that.

i. e, to which Daturd, there-througb or Wodurch, whereby,

(2) It must be observed, however, that, when a comparison, thereby, i. e. through or by i. e. by or through which. strictly speaking, is intended, the form of the superlative prothis or that.

duced by prefixing a m (See Obs. $ 38.) should always be em

ployed; as, er schreibt am schönsten, he writes the most beautiful (3) In like manner her and hin appear, also combined with Cof all). other words. Between these two particles à distinction exists, wherever they are used, whether alone or in composition with viduals one with another, but merely to denote extreme excel

(3) If, on the other hand, we purpose, not to compare indi. other words, which should be well understood and always remem- lence or eminence, there are three ways in which it may probered. They are, in signification, exact opposites : her indicating perly be done : first, by using the simple or absolute form of motion or direction towards the speaker; bin implying motion the superlative ; as, er grüßt freundlichst

, he greets or salutes in a or direction away from the speaker. The following are examples:

manner very friendly, very cordially; secondly, by employing

aufs (auf +098) with the accusative, or zum (zutdem) with the Scrab, down hither (i. e. where Hinas, down thither; (i. e. aray friendly; zum schönsten, in' a manner very beautiful ; lastly, by

dative, of the superlative; as, aufs freundlichste, in a manner very the speaker is).

from the speaker). Herauf, up hither. Hinauf, up thither.

adding to the simple form of the superlative the termination Heraus, out hither. Hinaus, out thither.

en 8; bestens, the best or in the best manner; höchfteng, at the Verein, in hither; into this place. Hinein, into that place.

highest or at the most. Hierher, or hicher, hither here; Hierhin, thither; this way for.

$ 107. THE PREPOSITION.

ward. Herüber, over hither. Hinüber, over thither.

(1) The prepositions in German, that is, the words employed Yerunter, under hither. Hinunter, under there.

merely to denote the relations of things, are commonly classified

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this way.

according to the cases with which they are construed. Some of scription, six penny stamps, which we have sent to the Rev. Mr. them are construed with the genitive only; some with the Curwen, of Plaistow, in Essex, who wrote the appeal on the lady's dative only; some with the accusative only; and some either behalf, and who alone is in communication with her, is a sufficient with the dative or accusative, according to circumstances.

proof that the letter and the transaction which it so simply, yet

beautifully, describes, are real and not fictitious.] (2) They may also, on a different principle, be divided into two general classes : the Primitive and the Derivative. The primitive prepositions always govern either the dative or the

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. accusative: the derivative prepositions are found, for the most part, in connection with the genitive only.

UN INGENIERO CIVIL: Try Nesbitt's Land Surveying or old Croker ELITERA should apply to the minister or curate of his parish.

T.H. (Workington) must apply at the Herald's office; we can't assist

him.-A TYPO (Darlington): Yes.-ELEMENTARY (Newcastle) must look CORRESPONDENCE.

more narrowly at our later numbers.

OLD SUBSCRIBER (Limehouse) will find it necessary to buy blank books INDUSTRY AND CHARITY.

for bookkeeping, cheap, as he says, and rule them himself.

UN ETUDIANT FRANÇAIS (Guernsey): The sections referred to in the

French were omitted as useless.-E. WHEREAT (Bristol) and J. E. S. A.: “This poor widow hath cast more in, than all they who have cast into the Their kind suggestions will be kept in view.-R. M. H. Vols. i., ti., and treasury."-Mark xii. 43.

iii. of the P. E. are bound separately, and the cheapest may be had for

38. 6d. each. SIR, -This evening we received our weekly allowance of mental H. GUY (Moorsley): His “Remarks on the Study of Grammar" are very food in the shape of the POPULAR EDUCATOR, with one or two well written. Let him persevere, and he will greatly improve.-J. P. minor publications, which we use as sauce for goose and gander; (Shepwyke): We should be very glad to oblige him, but the lines ho wishes or, rather, to amuse us in the evenings, after the study of the to be inserted are an advertisement.-J. Hall (Hyde): See Errata, p. 164. English, Latin, and other lessons, that the P. E. provides for us.

“ When two volumes of pure hydrogen gas are mixed with one volume of Well, sir, I have said that we obtained your paper this evening, electric spark, the gases totally disappear, and the interior of the vessel is

pure oxygen gas, and the mixture infamed in a proper apparatus by the and, as is generally the case, whilst my wife is busily engaged in covered with drops of pure water, equal in weight to that of the gases conclearing the tea-things from the table, I take the EDUCATOR and sumed."—Brande's Chemistry. look down the outside columns of it, so as not to lose one morsel 5. CLARB (Ashton-under-Lyne) : His remarks on the asymptotic paradox of the knowledge which is often elicited from you by some question. are very excellent, and we would insert them if we had room.-W. WARD ing correspondent who has been kind enough to ask for the very (Stepney) and W. B. Hudson (Lincoln): The questions are very old, and thing I wanted. I have learnt some good precepts, some useful Received. - R. T. 8. o. (Bromley) should study English belore Book

not well put.-NAVIGO (Newton) will be answered.-D. JARVIS (Glasgow): hints, in this manner, without in my way of thinking) losing keeping. time.

E. T. B. P. (Liverpool): We have made no errors in the Map of France; You must know, sir, that my boys attend the day-school in our for we consider the Chief Towns as those which have the largest population, village, where, amongst other things, English grammar and com- and not those which are appointed so by any government whatever!!-OLD position are taught. These are favourite studies with my boys; so

BOB (Queenshead) is too technical for us. that you will suppose I (who never knew English grammar before JOHN CUNNINGHAM (Liverpool): In our lesson on the impressions of I studied the P. E.) am obliged to make the most of my time to rain-drops on the surface of sandstone, we ascribed the discovery of these keep pace with them; for I like not the idea of my boys learning he who first observed these impressions, and that it was he who first called that of which I (their father) know nothing. On scanning the Dr. Buckland's attention to them. He does us the justice to say that we column of Correspondence, I saw your kind-hearted appeal to us, robbed him of this honour " unintentionally.” We are, therefore, happy in behalf of an unfortunate lady who is behind-hand with the in having this opportunity of correcting our error, and of giving to him P.E. I immediately proposed the following question :-“Who the palm which he has so well deserved. will vote for the selling of the P. E. for the purpose of getting together, one hour an evening, and you will get on.-J. ROBINS should study

ENRICE L. FILLIPE (Stamford-street): Study Italian and English some plum-cake at Christmas ?" Not a voice! better for us, to have plum-cake or the POPULAR EDUCATOR?

" our lessons in Penmanship and English Grammar, and his difficulties wiń

disappear. “EDUCATOR," cried three voices at once. Well, then, said I, a

L. FERNANDEZ (Oldham) wants to know our opinion of an exceedingly poor lady is in want of some help, so that she may be enabled to

bad sentence in English, and whether there be any treatises on woollen purchase the remaining numbers which she has not in her pos- cloth and on ventriloquism

!!–J. B. (Manchester)? You are learning session. I then proposed this resolution: that we make a sub- the very system that the American minister recommends, viz., Ollenscription of one penny each, to send to the editor, for the benefit dorf's. of this poor lady.

JAMES RUSSELL (44, Meadowside, Dundee) very kindly offers to give The boys went each one for his saving-box; I think, sir, you in his neighbourhood, in Cassell's Arithmetic, Algebra, and Euclid, between

assistance gratis to the students of the PoPoLAB EDUCATOR who reside would have smiled to see their alacrity; the penny each was placed the hours of 5 and 7 P.M., or 9 and 10 P.M. Wo feel assured that many of on the table, my penny with theirs. My wife gently hinted the our readors in Dundee will most gladly avail themselves of this generous impracticability of sending pence, and proposed the making up of offer. the sum to sixpence, which could go in a note; for, said she, Mrs. SLIPSLOP (Aberfeldy): We thank her for the loan of her spectacles, though we have enough to do to make both ends meet, we are not they are better than ours; whether the printer's pair or ours were in fault, unwilling to give to a good cause. She is willing, I'assure you. it is now too late to determine; but we are glad to make the necessary I heard her say, not long since, she would make a half-pound of 21., viz., one in v. 22 and 23, and another in v. 26, 27, and 29; the one was sugar serve us for a week, rather than that her husband should go the father of Terah, and the other his son ; the former

has been, by some without the P. E.

unaccountable mistake, omitted in our table, p. 3, vol. i. We hope the unfortunate, but well-deserving object of your ap- E. BYBT (Shepton Mallet): Yes.---ROBERT HUMBLE (Hartlepool): The peal will succeed in her praiseworthy exertions; and by some laws of the resistance of the air to falling bodies will hereafter be conmeans be placed above the necessity of studying 'at such a dissidered. The rule for finding the height of a tower, as usually given, is, of

course, not strictly correct. advantage. She will surely thank you for your kind-hearted hint, which we hope will be met by as kind a sympathy by very many of Charlotte-square, Edinburgh.-Tue Pencil (Paddington): We are just

G. ASPINALL (Liverpool): Apply to Mr. Bell, 13, South Charlotte-street, our fellow-Christians. We would that ours was a larger sum; thinking of the students of the pencil, and mean to do something soon... but, sir, we give a little and wait. If we hear from you again-as J. R. M. (Glasgow): See col. 1, p. 376, vol. iii.—AMATOR SCIENTIX (Dundee): my boys are saving their money for an Easter holiday-we will ruise We prefer Bell's system to Pitman's.-H. HALES (Southwark): 'We doubt another subscription. I beg you to look down from your learned much whether he would succeed in the business of making cheap apparatus eminence, and spare, or gentiy point out, the

errors of your pupil, and selling it himself. He had better apply to our friend Mr. J. Griffin, of who is

A DAILY LABOURER.

Finsbury-square, and see what can be done there.

ISAAC NEWTON (Sheffield): Our friend with this glorious nom de guerre P.S.-My boys are longing to see the letter which, say has not so sustained the credit of the name as to admit of the insertion of they, father is writing to the editor of the POPULAR EDUCATOR. his solution of the boy and apple question !!-W. E. WILLIAMS (Pentre December 7th, 1853.

bach): The lessons in English are closed for the present; as soon as possible

Elocution will be taken up:--G. S.(Cupar): We know of no such book as a [We hope that our readers will be as much pleased with this treatise on Greek pronunciation.-W. WALLIS (81. Ninian's): Mr. Bell did letter as we have been. It does much credit both to the head and not say that his " Vocabulary of Syllabic Logograms” was to be inserted in the heart of the writer, as well as to those of his amiable family. the P. E.; you have, therefore, no right to expect them in our pages.

Several correspondents have committed this error. We can assure the most critical of our readers that it is a genuine production, and not got up for the sake of puffing the P. E.-a

ERRATUM. thing of which we have been inost unjustly accused. We have not Tol. iv., p. 155, col, 1, line 10 from bottom, for insolubility read the most remote idea of the author or of his locality; but the sub-1 shilitu.

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