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gov. Dat.)

ac.

δεκατον ταγμα, ,

Adjective

con

my father.

English personal pronouns together. _Thus the Greek syw, Anstatt, or fatt, instead. Ilm --- willen, for the sake of. Through the Latin ego, is clearly the English 1 (also the Ger- Qußerhalb, without; out. Ungeachtet, notwithstanding. inan ich and the French je). Look at the Greek accusative pe,

side. Unterhalb below;

on the the Latin me, and the English me. Again compare the Greek | Dieffeit, or dies. on this side.

lower side.

seite, ev, the Latin tu, and the English thou; also the accusatives,

Infern, near;

not far namely ge, te, thee, The < (the e aspirated and so made he) is Halben, or hal on account of.

from. bviously our he.

ber,
lluweit, near;

not far within; inside.

from. Similar remarks may be made with regard to the numerals. Innerhalb

, Obviously in structure, as well as in individual numbers, the Jenseit, or sen., on that side; Vermittelft,or by means of. Greek numeral system is the same as our own.

seits, beyond. mittelst,
Kraft,
by virtue of. Vermöge,

by dint of. The student, if he has well attended to these lessons, may

langs, (also along:

Während, during
Low rejoice in having made some considerable progress ; and
The progress he has made he may in a measure estimate by the

Paut,

according to Wegen, on account of. comparative case with which he has just read passages from

Oberhalb, above. the Greek New Testament.

Tros, (also in spite of. Zufolge, (also in consequence General View of what has been set forth.

gov, Dat.)

gov. Dat.)

of. Noun Substantive used to name objects, as, atpatiwrns,

$ 111. PREPOSITIONS CONSTRUED WITH THE DATIVE. soldier (a soldier).

lue, ,
out; out of. Nach,

after; to; Article used to determine nouns, as ó otpariwrns, the soldier. Außer, without; outside

cording to

of. Nacht, (of quality

next; next to. αγαθος στρατιωτης, ,

good soldier.

Bei,
by; near; with.

Nebft,

together with of number δεκα στρατιωται, ,

ten soldiers.
Binnen, within.

Db, of order

over; at.
tenth legion.

Entgegen,
ουτος ο ανθρωπος,
this man.

towards ; oppo. Sammt, together with ,

site to. Seit,

since. εκεινος ο ανθρωτος, that man. demonstrative και αυτος ανθρωπος,

Gegenüber,

Von,
the same man.
over against

from; of.
Gemäß
the man himself,

conformably Зи,
αυτος ο ανθρωπος

to, at.

with.
ανθρωποι τινες
some men.

Zuwider, against;
which man?

Mit,

with. interrogative τις ανθρωπος,

trary relative ο αμθρωπος ος, the man who. possessive και εμος πατερ,

§ 113. PREPOSITIONS CONSTRUED WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. Tronoun Eyw, I; ou, thou ; ou, of himself.

Durch, through.

Sonder,

apart; without Für, for; the place of. Um,

about; around Gegen or gen towards.

Wider,

against. Dhne

without. LESSONS IN GERMAN-No. LXXXI.

$ 115. PREPOSITIONS CONSTRUED WITH THE DATIVE OR $ 108. TABLE OF THE PREPOSITIONS,

ACCUSATIVE. (1) Prepositions construed with (2) Prepositions construed with An,

on; at; near. Ueber, over; above. Auf, on ; upon.

Unter, under; among Hinter, behind.

Vor,

before. In,

in, or into. Zwischen , betwixt; be. Ansatt, or Oberhalb, 9118,

Nebst,

Neben,
beside.

tween. statt, Troß,

Außer, Mujerhalt, Ilm - willen, Mei,

Db,

§ 116. OBSERVATIONS. Dieleit, or Unfern, Binnen,

These prepositions govern either the accusative or the dative; diesieite, Ungeachtet, Entgegen, Sainit,

but not without a difference of signification : for, when motion Hall, halben, or Unterhalb, Gegenüber,

towards, that is, motion from one point to another, is indicated, Halber, Inweit,

Gemäß,
Seit,

the accusative is required : when, however, motion or rest in Innervall, Vermittelst, or

any given place or condition is signified, the dative is used; Jenseit, or mittelst, Mit,

Von,

thus, der Knabe läuft in den Garten, the boy runs into (motion jenseits, Vermöge,

towards) the garden; der Knabe läuft in dem Garten, the boy runs Kraft, 13 5hrend, Nady, ,

Заt,

in (motion within) the garden. This is the general principle; Lingo, Wegen,

which will be found, with more or less distinctness, everywhere Laut Zufolge. Pichit, Zuwider.

to prevail in the use of the prepositions of this class. (3) Prepositions construed with (4) Prepositions construed with

$ 117. THE CONJUNCTIONS. THE DATIVE OR ACCUSATIVE. (1) Conjunctions are words used in connecting sentences.

As, however, there are various kinds of connections existing Durch, Dane, Un, Ueber,

among sentences, it has been customary to classify the conjuncFür, Sonter, Auf, Unter,

tions according to the nature of the connection which they are Llegen, or Um,

Hinter,
Vor,

employed to indicate. Hence we have (among other classes) gen, Wider. In,

Zwischen the following:
Neben,

Copulatives : as, und, and; auch, also,
$ 109. PREPOSITIONS CONSTRUED WITH THE GENITIVE. Disjunctives : as, entweder, either ; oder, or.

Adversatives : as, aber, but; however; allein, but; doch, yet. We now give again the prepositions governing the several Negatives : as, weder, neither; noch, nor. cases respectively, with their proper definitions : subjoining, Comparatives: as, wie, as; so, so; thus; als, than; gleichwie, just as. also, some few observations on such of them as seem to require Conditionals : as, wenn, if; falle, in case that; wofern, provided further explanation. And first, we mention those construed

that with the genitive.

Carsals : as, denn, for ; well, since, because.

THE GENITIVE.

THE DATIVE.

THE ACCUSATIVE.

Conclusives : as, darum, therefore; daher, hence; deßhalb, there.

fore.

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY-No. XVI. Concessives : as, obwohl, obschon, obgleich, wenn; although. Finals : as, dab, that; auf daß and damit, in order that; um which yield yellow

or white precipitates with hydrosulphuric HAVING finished our preliminary consideration of the metals ju, in order to.

acid, or hydrosulphate of ammonia, I purpose now leaving the (2) We give below a list of the conjunctions that most com- metals for a time, and discussing the chemical properties of monly occur in German : premising only that some of the certain non-metallic elements. Oxygen shall be the subject words here set down as conjunctions are also employed as ad- of discussion and experiment in the present lesson. verbs; for it will of course be kept in mind, that the office When I inform you that oxygen constitutes, at least, threeperformed by a word determines its name and character. For fourths of the crust of the globe and its living inhabitants, numerous examples illustrating their uses, see Sect. C. you will admit that it must be an important element. Oxygen,

by combination with other bodies, may assume the condition Aber, but.

Nachdem, after that.

of solid, liquid, or gas, but obtained separately, it is always Allein, but.

Noch, nor; nor yet.

gaseous ; therefore we shall have to obtain it and examine it Als, as; than; when.

Nun, therefore, then.

under the form of oxygen gas. There are several methods of Also, so then; consequently; also. Nur, but; only.

generating oxygen gas, but only one capable of being followed Auch, also, ever. Db, whether; if.

by a student who is unsupplied with special instruments. Auf daß, in order that.

Obgleich, though ; although. This process I shall describe with a view to its adoption ; Bis, until.

Dbichon, though; although. the others I shall afterwards mention, with the object of Da, since.

Obwohl, though; although. making their theory understood.
Daher, therefore ; hence.
Dder, or.

First, let us begin by deseribing the instruments necessary. Dafern, in case that ; if.

Dhne, without ; except. You will require either a large test tube, about half or threeDaß, that; in order that. Dhngeachtet, notwithstanding. quarters of an inch in diameter, made by preference of Ger. Damit, in order that.

So, thus; therefore; if. man glass, as being more infusible than our own; a bent glass Darum, therefore ; on tha Sondern, but.

tube, and a pneumatic trough, or its substitute, and a receiver. account. Und, and.

You will require, in point of fact, an arrangement like the fola Denn, for; because ; than. Ungeachtet, notwithstanding. lowing: Dennoch, still; nevertheless. Während, whilst.

Fig. No, 1. Deshalb, therefore; on that ac- Wahrend dem, whilst.

count. Wahrenb baß, whilst, than. Defto, the (Sect. 31. 6).

Weder, neither. Doch yet; however ; still. Wenn, if; as. Ghe, before that ; ere.

Weil, because.
Entweder, either.

Wenngleich, although.
Fallo, in case that.
Wenschon, although.

. Folglich, consequently.

Wie, as; when.
Je, — Defto, the-the (S. 31. 6). Wiewohl, though.
Jedoch, yet, nevertheless.

Wo, if.
Intem, while; because ; since. Wofern, if; in case that.
Mithin, consequently.

$ 118. INTERJECTIONS. (1) Interjections, as the name implies, are commonly thrown into a sentence; without, however, changing either its structure or such a substitute for it as your ingenuity, stimulated by or its signification. They are merely the signs of strong, or your necessities, will easily supply. I need scarcely indicate sudden emotion; and may be classified according to the that your distillatory apparatus being small (i.e. the test tube), nature of the emotion which they indicate : some expressing your receiving bottle must be small also. In the present case, soy, some sorrow, some surprise, and so on. The list below ounce or ounce-and-a-half phials will be of sufficient dimencontains those only that most commonly occur.

sions. Scarcely more necessary is it to remark, that the distillaach! alas !

05! o! oh! !

tory apparatus, as indicated above, will require some sort of sup

port not represented in the diagram, and that the regular pneu. ah! ah !

pfui: fy! ei, eigh!

matic trough may be dispensed with, by using a basin instead, vst! hist!

the receiving bottle being prevented slipping by means of some ba! ha!

wehe, wo! alas !

heavy material, such as lead, brick, &c., placed in the basin, he! ho !

heisa! hurrah!

and indicated by the letter B in our sketch. So much then for he ba! ho there.

juchheisa ; huzza !

the apparatus.
halt! hold!

wohlan! well then!
holla! holla!
bui : hoa ! quick!

Fig. No. 2,
huich! hush!

fich! lo ! leider ! alas:

hum! hem. (2) It may be added that other parts of speech, and even whole phrases, are often employed as conjunctions, and in parsing are treated as such,

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Here we elose our Lessons in German in these pages. But

we beg to inform our readers that a continuation of them- The substance we shall require as the oxygen-yielding macomprising a Syntax of the Language, at once popular and terial, is a mixture of two parts by weight of the salt ternied complete may be found in CANSELL'S LESSONS IN GERMAN, chlorate of potash, and one part by weight of peroxide (black Part 11.; a publication which also contains all the lessons circles

, under the simple name “manganese." If the student

oxide) of manganese; the substance procurable in commercial upon Systematic Grammar which have appeared in the should by chance live in a remote place, where old chemical Popular EDUCATOR ; that is to say, those from No. XLIX. terms still dominate, the druggist will inform him that he does to the present.

not keep such a material as chlorate of potash; if the studeni

per; not the

ask for it upder the name of oxymurlato ef potash, he will be (1.) Havitig uncovered a bottle full of the gas, pour into it more successful.

a little transparent lime-water, and agitate; not the slightest The mixture of chlorate of potash and black oxide of man

change results. ganese should be effected, if possible, by rubbing the two to- (2.) Immerse in another bottle a slip of moistened litmus gether in a mortar; mere incorporation, however, with the paper, and another of moistened turmeric biade of a knife will answer sufficiently well

. You will not do slightest discoloration of either slip takes place, thus demonamiss by preparing at least an ounce of this mixture, and pre- strating that oxygen gas is neither acid nor alkaline. serving it properly labelled in a bottle. The operation of gene

(3.) Take a splinter of wood, such as a bit of lath, or a long rating oxygen will frequently be required in the course of brimstone match, ignite the end, wait for a few seconds until future experiments, and students who do not possess a gaso- an incandescent coal has formed; blow out the flame and meter must prepare the gas little by little as it may be re- plunge the glowing though not flaming extremity into a bottle quired.

of oxygen gas. Immediately the wood bursts into flame, thus Pour about a tea-spoonful of the mixture into the test tube, indicating the presence of a gas different from any already replace the cork, arrange the apparatus, and apply heat. Oxy-noticed in these lessons. It is thus proved by this experiment gen gas will come over rapidly, but the first portions being that oxygen gas is a supporter--a very powerful supporterof necessarily contaminated with atmospheric air previously ex-combustion. It is moreover proved by the same experiment isting in the apparatus, must be thrown away; all subsequently that oxygen gas is not a combustible, because, although collected is pure oxygen gas.

causing the stick to burst into flame, itself does not. RememCollect six or seven bottles full of it, and before proceeding ber how diametrically opposed these qualities are to those of to try any experiments, follow

me in discussing the theory of hydrogen. If the mouth of the receiving bottle be large its production, and the nature of gases generally. What, then, enough, the preceding arrangement may be varied as follows. is a gas ? I know of no definition which is logically distinctive. The definition long received was, a permanently elastic

Fig. No. 3. fluid," but it is incorrect. Nevertheless, the expression permanently elastic fluid, although not sufficiently general in its significance to comprehend all gases, indicates the most salient property of so many, and applies so perfectly to the gas under consideration, that we may profitably discuss its meaning. I have therefore to inform you that oxygen gas is permanently elastic; that.is to say, neither cold nor pressure, nor both com. bined, nor, in short, any other agency, has yet succeeded in condensing oxygen gas into a liquid or a solid condition. Now many gases equally transparent and colourless as oxygen have been condensed into liquids, and even solids. I dare say, most people have observed the bubbles which escape from gin. ger-beer, soda-water, champagne, &c. These bubbles are due to the presence of a transparent, colourless gas, named, carbonic-acid ; it has not come under our notice yet, but it speedily will. By the application of intense cold and pressure, this gas may be converted into a solid, having the aspect of snow. A similar result has been accomplished in the instance Instead of a slip of wood use a piece of wax taper, attached, of many other gases; therefore, it follows that the neatly as represented in the accompanying diagram, to a bent piece of turned definition, formerly accepted as characteristic of gases, copper or brass wire. Proceed in other respects exactly as in is no longer admissible. Oxygen gas, however, has resisted the experiment just detailed. every attempt at liquefaction or solidification ; yet analogy leads us to suppose that, if we could apply sufficient cold

Fig. No. 4. and sufficient pressure, a similar result would ensue.

Abandoning.all logical definition of a gas as hopeless, it is still in our power to entertain a good, general appreciation of the leading characteristic of gases, by remembering that persistent elasticity, under common circumstances, is the special feature by which they are contradistinguished from vapours; the latter being readily condensed. For example, steam, or aqueous vapour, is the result of the application of heat to water. We all know that steam is elastic, or else what would be the use of expansion gear in a steam engine ? But it is not permanently elastic under ordinary circumstances, for immediately on coming into contact with the air, or any material sufficiently cold, it condenses into water. When thus condensed, it two bottles full of oxygen, and open them. Place one to

(4.) Perform the following comparative experiment: take fills a position analogous with a liquefied gas; and when, on stand during a few seconds open upon a table—mouth upwards the further application of cold, ice results, we have a condition analogous to that of a solidified gas.

of course. Hold the other for a similar period open, and in.

verted, as represented in the diagram; finally, by means of an Perhaps some such question as this occurs to you. How am ignited stick, test either bottle for the presence of oxygen. I to reconcile the apparently incongruous statements that oxy- The upright bottle will be found still to contain it; from the gen can only be procured as a gas, and that three-fourths of other it will have departed; thus we prove that oxygen gas is the material elements of our globe are composed of it? There specifically, heavier than the atmosphere. Nevertheless, is no contradiction involved in these statements ; as a consti- it is only heavier by a very slight amount; calling atmostuent of the solid and liquid matters of the globe, oxygen is pheric air one or unity, the specific gravity is one and onecombined, and chemical combination, you are well aware, pro- tenth and a little more--how much this little more" may be, duces wonderful changes, Both clay and flint contain a vast chemists are not agreed upon. amount of oxygen, the latter nearly fifty per cent; but the oxygen existing in combination, its solidity is attributable to fame-ignition of the wood, or taper—are sufficient to distin

The experiments just performed-indeed one of them, the that circumstance.

guish oxygen gas from all other gases, save one, the protoxide Experiments with Oxygen Gas. Proceeding to examine syste- of nitrogen, or ** laughing gas.” By observing the character of matically the properties of oxygen gas, attend to the following flame produced, we may, without further trials, distinguish directions.

between these iwo. Oxygen gas yields a flame of exquisite

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.

m

purity, without any halo surrounding it; a reddish halo, how

a +3d
3a--21

170-04 aver, envelopes the flame which is generated under similar 4. From

subtract

Ans. treatment in protoxide of nitrogen, or laughing gas. Moreover,

3

12 oxygen gás is devoid of taste, whereas, protoxide of nitrogen

bd

6 is perceptibly sweet.

by-dytom 5. From subtract

Ans. Although we have succeeded in finding the characteristics

my
which distinguish oxygen from all other gases, it is far too
important an element to be discussed in this one lesson. In my

ato1
chi

amtm-dad subtract

Ans. next I shall describe another series of experiments, having for

dm its object the teaching of the various relations of oxygen to other bodies. This lesson I shall terminate with an examina

3

36-40 tion of the changes which ensue in the mixture of oxide of 7. From subtract

Ang. manganese and chlorate of potash, as causes, concomitants, or

D

ab results of the evolution of oxygen gas.

138. Fractions may also be subtracted, like integers, by First, then, let me remark, that although peroxide of man- setting them down, when the sign of the subtrahend is ganese contains, as its name indicates, a great deal of oxygen ; changed, one after the other, without reducing them to a although it is frequently employed alone as an oxygen-yielding common denominator. material; yet, used as we have used it in combination with chlorate of potash, it does not undergo the slightest change.

h
htd

h
8. From subtract

Ans. There are some instances of chemical decomposition determined

+ y

Y or aided by mere contact with a body that undergoes no change in itself. Chemists designate this sort of action“

139. To subtract an intege: from a fraction, or a fractivo talytic;" they might as well term it " incomprehensible" at from an integer. once. However, not to weary you with mere names, remember that the oxide of manganese determines, we know not why Change the sign of the subtrahend, and write it after the or how, an evolution of oxygen gas from chlorate of potash at minuend; or, put the integer into the form of a fraction, and then a much lower temperature than would otherwise be necessary. proceed according to the general rule for subtraction of fractions. Chlorate of potash, if heated alone, evolves all its oxygen, provided the temperature to which it is exposed be sufficiently

h

h

10. From subtract m. Ans. high : vut it is almost too high for glass to bear ; hence, the

y

y advantage of mixing the chlorate with oxide of manganese. In the following diagram I shall leave out the oxide of man.

h

bitch ganese altogether.

11. From aut subtract 3a

Ans, at d'

cd 5 Oxygen

6 Oxygen 1 1 Chloric =40

(evolved)

b-
c-b

26_-2c Chlorate acid 1 Chlorine

=48 12. From it. subtract of =76 =36

d

d potash

1 Oxygen 124 1 Potash =8

d-b

db
13. From a +3h-

subtract 3a-ht
1 Potassium
=48

1 Chloride
=40
of

57,-511 potassium

Ans. 4h-2at. =76

ca

h--my

-m or

Ans. 1+ 25–26

2

3

6

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ad m

ak

adh
1

1
ke retained, the product will be i

and this reduced to 25. From subtract Ans.

ary
2+1
2+

dh
lower terms, will beoome the same answer as before.

a6-3 26. From 74 subtract 3.1 Ans. 42

ak 11. Multiply

and
together,

Ans, m' 3a

2d 4xy 27. From subtract Ans.

ata my 12, Multiply by

am+ilm

Ans. 292

ah 28. From 1 subtract

Ans.
+y

3r
13. Multiply

amtd h

and h

together.

ба MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS. 140. By the definition of multiplication, to multiply by a

3amr +3dr

Ang. fraction is to take a part of the multiplicand as many times as

бат there are like parts of an unit in the multiplier.

143. To multiply a fraction and an integer together, 3

RULE.--Multiply the numerator of the fraction by the integer, Thus: suppose a is to be multiplied by Ž. Here, a fourth and the product with the same denominator is the answer; or divide

the denominator by the integer, and the quotient with the same

numerator is the answer. part of a is .; and this taken three times is

+ 4 3a

14. Multiply and so of other cases,

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ad a-6
3

3a-d-18ad 9. Multiply

and together. Ans. hy' 2+1 7

7dhy+7hy 142. The multiplication may often be shortened, by rejecting the some factors from the numerators and denominators of the given fraccions.

h 10. Multiply

and

together.

y Here a, being in one of the numerators, and in one of the

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2. Multiply

atx by

art? Ans.

al-ax

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