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Fig. 14,

longer covered with smoke. Let not the reader undervalue indeed the result described only occurs when the gas is in this seemingly rude apparatus. The writer possesses one of very small proportions as compared with the air; nevertheless, the dimensions indicated, which boils four quarts of water in the heat thus developed is very regular and gentle, and well a common iron kettle at the expiration of a few minutes. adapted for many chemical operations. If the amount of gas be

larger, the natural incandescence does not usually occur, but if the inflammable mixture be ignited, the platinised stone will increase the body and regularity of the flame. It may here be well to remark, that instead of the iron-plate chimney just described, one made by boring a hole in a large piece of pumicestone filed into the shape of a cylinder externally, is equally good, if not preferable. The further consideration of coal-gas as a source of heat, as well as the general principles of distill.z. tion, must be deferred until next week,

LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION.-No. IV.

THE SEMICOLON.

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; The discovery of the method of employing the mixed gas has been a great boon to chemists, enabling them to accomplish 33. The Semicolon is formed by a period placed above a by its means many results for which furnaces had been comma. hitherto required.

34. When you come to a semicolon in reading, you must in Although the flame produced by the method detailed is general make a pause twice as long as you would make at a powerful enough for the generality of purposes, its power comma.

35. Sometimes you must use the falling inflection of the Fig. 15.

voice when you come to a semicolon, and sometimes you must keep your voice suspended, as directed in the case of the comma. Whatever may be the length of the pause, let it be a total cessation of the voice.

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Examples. That God whom you see me daily worship; whom I daily call upon to bless both you and me, and all mankind; whose wondrous acts are recorded in those Scriptures which you constantly read; that God who created the heaven and the earth is your Father and Friend.

My son, as you have been used to look to me in all your actions, and have been afraid to do anything unless you first knew my will ; so let it now be a rule of your life to look up to God in all your actions.

If I have seen any perish for want of clothing, or any poor without covering; if his loins have not blessed me, and it he were not warmed with the fleece of my sheep; if I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, when I saw my help in the gate ; then let mine arm fall from my shoulder blade, and mine arm be broken from the bone.

The stranger did not lodge in the street; but I opened my doors to the traveller.

If my land cry against me, or the furrows thereof complain ; admits of being further increased. A very usual way of if I have eaten the fruits thereof without money, or have accomplishing this consists in superimposing a short chimney caused the owners thereof to lose their life; let thistles grow on the wire gauze top. This chimney affords convenient instead of wheat, and cockles instead of barley. bearing for little triangular supports of platinum or iron wire,

When the fair moon, refulgent lamp of night, o'er heaven's and these in their turn can be used for the support of crucibles, clear azure spreads her sacred light; when not a breath disretorts, &c. In the last diagram, fig. 15, a crucible is repre- turbs the deep serene, and not a cloud o'ercasts the solemn sented thus exposed to the action of the flame.

scene; around her throne the vivid planets roll, and stars Modification of this Flame by Platinised Pumice Stone. -The unnumbered gild the glowing pole ; o'er the dark trees a metal platinum, in the state of minute division, has the remark- yellower verdure shed, and tip with silver every mountain's able property of causing the ignition of inflammable gases. head; then shine the vales, the rocks in prospect rise, a flood Taking advantage of this quality, I have used it with great of glory, bursts from all the skies; the conscious swains, resatisfaction for the purpose of adding power, of modifying and joicing in the sight, eye the blue vault, and bless the useful imparting steadiness to the mixed'gas fame.

light. To this end proceed as follows: Immerse small fragments

When the battle was ended, the stranger disappeared ; and of pumice stone, about the size of hazel nuts, and irregularly no person knew whence he had come, nor whither he had angular, in a solution of chloride of platinum, and ignite the gone. pieces to redness. By this treatment the pumice stone will be

The relief was so timely, so sudden, so unexpected, and so covered and imbued with metallic platinum in the finest state providential; the appearance and the retreat of him who fur. of division. If some pieces of this prepared pumice stone be nished it were so unaccountable; his person was so dignified heated so as to expel all moisture, then laid upon the wire and commanding ; his resolution so superior, and his intergauze platform, and mixed gas passed between, the pieces will ference so decisive, that the inhabitants believed him to be an soon begin to glow like ignited charcoal, and this state of glow- angel, sent by heaven for their preservation. ing will continue as long as the gas is made to pass. Usually 36. Sometimes you must use the falling inflection of the the gas does nut burst into flame under these circumstances; } voice when you come to a semicolon, in reading.

from before whom the veil is removed; to whose eyes are Examples

revealed the glories of heaven? Let your dress be sober, clean, and mudest; not to set off the Why, for so many a year, has the poet and the philosopher beauty of your person, but to declare the sobriety of your mind; wandered amidst the fragments of Athens or of Rome ; and that your outward garb may resemble the inward plainness paused, with strange and kindling feelings, amidst their and simplicity of your heart.

broken columns, their mouldering temples, their deserted In meat and drink, observe the rules of Christian temperance plains ? It is because their day of glory is passed; it is because and sobriety; consider your body only as the servant and their name is obscured; their power is departed; their influence minister of your soul; and only so nourish it, as it may best is lost! perform an humble and obedient service.

Where are they who taught these stones to grieve; where Condescend to all the weaknesses and infirmities of your fel- are the hands that hewed them; and the hearts that reared low-creatures ; cover their frailties ; love their excellences; en- them ? rage their virtues; relieve their wants ; rejoice in their pros- Hope ye by these to avert oblivion's doom; in grief perity, compassionate their distress; receive their friendship; ambitious, and in ashes vain? overlook their unkindness; forgive their malice; be a servant Can no support be offered ; can no source of confidence be of servants; and condescend to do the lowest offices for the named ? lowest of mankind.

Is this the man that made the earth to tremble; that shook Struck with the sight of so fine a tree, he hastened to his the kingdoms; that made the world like a desert; that deown, hoping to find as large a crop upon it; but, to his great stroyed the cities? surprise, he saw scarcely any thing, except branches, covered Falsely luxurious, will not man awake; and, springing from with moss, and a few yellow leaves.

the bed of sloth, enjoy the cool, the fragrant, and the silent In sleep's serene oblivion laid, I've safely passed the silent hour, to meditation due, and sacred song? night; again I see the breaking shade, again behold the morn. But who shall speak before the king when he is troubled ; ing light.

and who shall boast of knowledge when he is distressed by New-born, I bless the waking hour; once more, with awe, doubt? rejoice to be; my conscious soul resumes her power, and soars, Who would in such a gloomy state remain longer than my guardian God, to thee.

nature craves; when every muse and every blooming pleasure That deeper shade shall break away; that deeper sleep shall wait without, to bless the wildly devious morning walk ? leave mine eyes; thy light shall give eternal day; thy love, What a glorious monument of human invention, that has the rapture of the skies.

thus triumphed over wind and wave; has brought the ends of In the sight of our law the African slave trader is a pirate the earth in communion; has established an interchange of and a felon; and in the sight of heaven, an offender far beyond blessings, pouring into the sterile regions of the north all the the ordinary depth of human guilt.

luxuries of the south ; diffused the light of knowledge and What hope of liberty is there remaining, if whatever is their the charities of cultivated life; and has thus bound together pleasure, it is lawful for them to do; if what is lawful those scattered portions of the human race, between which for them to do, they are able to do; if what they are nature seems to have thrown an insurmountable barrier ! able to do, they dare do; if what they dare do, they really Who that bears a human bosom, hath not often felt, how execute; and if what they execute, is in no way offensive to dear are all those ties which bind our race in gentleness you?

together; and how sweet their force, let fortune's wayward It is not the use of the innocent amusements of life which hand the while be kind or cruel ? is dangerous, but the abuse of them; it is not when they are occasionally, but when they are constantly pursued; when the

THE COLON. love of amusement degenerates into a passion; and when, from being an occasional indulgence, it becomes an habitual desire.

: The prevailing colour of the body of a tiger is a deep tawny, or orange yellow; the face, throat, and lower part of the belly

38. The Colon is composed of two periods placed one above are nearly white; and the whole is traversed by numerous

the other. long black stripes.

39. Sometimes the passage ending with a colon is to be read The horse, next to the Hottentot, is the favourite prey of the with the voice suspended; but it should generally be read lion; and the elephant and camel are both highly relished; with the falling inflection of the voice. while the sheep, owing probably to its woolly fleece, is seldom 40. In reading, be careful to let the pause of the colon be a molested.

total cessation of the voice, and three times longer than that The horse is quick-sighted; he can see things in the night indicated by a comma. which his rider cannot perceive ; but when it is too dark for his sight, his sense of smelling is his guide.

Examples. 37. The semicolon is sometimes used as a note of interrogation, within : though folly may laugh, guilt will sting:

The smile of gaiety is often assumed while the heart aches and sometimes as an exclamation.

There is no mortal truly wise and restless at the same time : Examples.

wisdom is the repose of the mind.

Nature felt her inability to extricate herself from the conseHast thou not set at defiance my authority; violated the quences of guilt: the gospel reveals the plan of Divine interpublic peace, and passed thy life in injuring the persons and position and aid. properties of thy fellow-subjects ?

Nature confessed some atonement to be necessary: the gosOh, it was impious; it was unmanly; it was poor and pel discovers that the atonement is made. pitiful!

Law and order are forgotten : violence and rapine are abroad: Have not you too gone about the earth like an evil genius ; the golden cords of society are loosed. blasting the fair fruits of peace and industry; plundering, The temples are profaned : the soldiers curse resounds in the ravaging, killing without law, without justice, merely to gratify house of God: the marble pavement is trampled by iron hoofs : an insatiable lust for dominion ?

horses neigh beside the altar. Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible to feeling as to sight? Blue wreaths of smoke ascend through the trees, and betray Or art thou but a dagger of the mind; a false creation, proceed- the half-hidden cottage: the eye contemplates well-th atched ing from the heat-oppressed brain ?

ricks, and barns bursting with plenty: the peasant laughs at By such apologies shall man insult his Creator ; and shall the approach of winter. he hope to filatter the ear of Omnipotence? Think you that The necessaries of life are few, and industry secures them such excuses will gain new importance in their ascent to the to every man : it is the elegancies of life that empty the purse: Majesty on high; and will you trust the interests of eternity the superfluities of fashion, the gratification of pride, and the in the hands of these superficial advocates ?

indulgence of luxury, make a man poor. And shall not the Christian blush to repine ; the Christian, My dear children, 1 give you these trees : you see that they

are in good condition. They will thrive as much by your care determined to retire, and pass the remainder of their days in as they will decline by your negligence : their fruits will re the country. ward you in proportion to your labour.

Notwithstanding all this care of Cicero, history informs us, A bee among the flowers in spring is one of the most cheerful that Marcus proved a mere blockhead; and that nature (who, objects that can be looked upon. Its life appears to be all en- it seems, was even with the son for her prodigality to the joyment: so busy and so pleased: yet it is only a specimen of father) rendered him incapable of improving, by all the rules insect life, with which, by reason of the animal being half of eloquence, the precepts of philosophy, his own endeavours, domesticated, we happen to be better acquainted.

and the most refined conversation in Athens. 'Tis a picture in memory distinctly defined, with the strong Natural historians observe (for whilst I am in the country I and unperishing colours of mind : a part of my being beyond must fetch my allusions from thence) that only the male birds my control, beheld on that cloud, and transcribed on iny soul. have voices; that their songs begin a little before breeding

Yet such is the destiny of all on earth : so flourishes and time, and end a little after. fades majestic man.

Dr. Clark has observed, that Homer is more perspicuous Let those deplore their doom whose hopes still grovel in this than any other author; but if he is so (which yet may be dark sojourn: but lofty souls, who look beyond the tomb, can questioned), the perspicuity arises from his subject, and not smile at fate, and wonder why they mourn.

from the language itself in which he writes. If for my faded brow thy hand prepare some future wreath, The many letters which come to me from persons of the best let me the gift resign: transfer the rosy garland : let it bloom sense of both sexes (for I may pronounce their characters from around the temples of that friend beloved, on whose maternal their way of writing) do not a little encourage me in the probosom, even now, I lay my aching head.

secution of this my undertaking; Do not flatter yourselves with the hope of perfect happiness : It is this sense which furnishes the imagination with its there is no such thing in the world.

ideas ; so that by the pleasures of the imagination, or fancy But when old age has on your temples shed her silver frost, (terms which I shall use promiscuously), I here mean such as there's no returning sun : swift flies our summer, swift our arise from visible objects. autumn's fled, when youth, and spring, and golden joys, are The stomach (crammed from every dish, a tomb of boiled gone.

and roast, and flesh and fish, where bile, and wind, and phlegm, A divine legislator, uttering his voice from heaven ; an al- and acid, jar, and all the man is one intestine war) remembers mighty governor, stretching forth his arm to punish or reward: oft the school-boy's simple fare, the temperate sleeps, and informing us of perpetual rest prepared hereafter for the spirits light as air. righteous, and of indignation and wrath awaiting the wicked: William Penn was distinguished from his companions by these are the considerations which overawe the world, which wearing a blue sash of silk network (which, it seems, is still support integrity, and check guilt.

preserved by Mr. Kett, of Seething-hall

, near Norwich), and by It is not only in the sacred fane that homage should be paid having in his hand a roll of parchment, on which was engrossed to the Most High: there is a temple, one not made with hands, the confirmation of the treaty of purchase and amity. the vaulted firmament: far in the woods, almost beyond the Again, would your worship a moment suppose (it is a case sound of city-chime, at intervals heard through the breezeless that has happened, and may be again), that the visage or coun. air.

tenance had not a nose, pray who would, or who could, wear As we perceive the shadow to have moved along the dial, spectacles then ? but did not perceive its moving; and it appears that the grass Upon this the dial-plate (if we may credit the fable) changed has grown, though nobody ever saw it grow : 80 the advances countenance with alarm. we make in knowledge, as they consist of such minute steps, To speak of nothing else, the arrival of the English in her are perceivable only by the distance gone over.

father's dominions must have appeared (as indeed it turned out Thou shalt pronounce this parable upon the king of Babylon; to be) a most portentous phenomenon. and shalt say: How hath the oppressor ceased ? .

Surely, in this age of invention, something may be struck

out to obviate the necessity (if such necessity exists) of so taskTHE PARENTHESIS, CROTCHETS, AND BRACKETS. ing the human intellect. 41. A Parenthesis is a sentence, or part of a sentence, en- perhaps) screwed up perpendicularly in the seat of torture,

I compassionate the unfortunates now (at this very moment, closed between two curved lines, thus ( ) 42. The curved lines in which the parenthesis is enclosed and anon into the ink bottle, as if to hook up ideas, and under

having in the right hand a fresh-nibbed patent pen, dipped ever are called Crotchets.

the outspread palm of the left hand a fair sheet of best Bath 43. The parenthesis, with the crotchets which enclose it, is post (ready to receive thoughts yet unhatched), on which their generally inserted between the words of another sentence, and eyes are rivetted with a stare of disconsolate perplexity, infimay be omitted without injuring the sense. 44. The parenthesis should generally be read in a quicker

nitely touching to a feeling mind, and lower tone of voice than the other parts of the sentence in of having only to grind an answer to one of one's dear five

O the unspeakable relief (could such a machine be invented) which it stands.

hundred friends! 45. Sometimes a sentence is enclosed in marks like these [ ], which are cailed Brackets.

Have I not groaned under similar horrors, from the hour 46. Sentences which are included within crotchets or brac- when I was first shut up (under lock and key, I believe) to in. kets, should generally be read in a quicker and lower tone of dite a dutiful epistle to an honoured aunt? voice.

To such unhappy persons, then, I would fain offer a few 47. Although the crotchet and the bracket are sometimes hints (the fruit of long experience) which may prove service

able in the hour of energency. indiscriminately used, the following difference in their use may be noticed :--Crotchets are used to enclose a sentence, or part relics, you may see Tassoni's bucket), stop at a palace near the

If ever you should come to Modena (where, among other of a sentence, which is inserted between the parts of another sentence : brackets are generally used to separate two subjects, or

Reggio gate, dwelt in of old by one of the Donati. to enclose an explanation, note, on observation, standing by the fire with Dr. Slop; and Corporal Trim (a brave and honest

My father and my uncle Toby (clever soul) were sitting by itself

. When a parenthesis occurs within another parenthesis, fellow) was reading a sermon to them.-As the sermon contains brackets enclose the former, and crotchets enclose the latter,

many parentheses, and affords an opportunity also of showing Examples

you a sentence in brackets (you will observe that all the pre

vious parentheses in this lesson are enclosed in crotchets), I I asked my eldest son (a boy who never was guilty of a false- shall insert some parts of it in the following numbers. hood) to give me a correct account of the matter.

To have the fear of God before our eyes, and in our mutual The master told me that the lesson (which was a very diffi- dealings with each other, to govern our actions by the eternal cult one) was recited correctly by every pupil in the class. measures of right and wrong: the first of these will compre

When they were both turned of forty (an age in which, hend the duties of religion; the second those of morality, according to Mr. Cowley, there is no dailying with life), they | which are so inseparably connected together, that you cannot divide these two tables, even in imagination (though the at- | machen, to make :

as, er maďte mich ladjen, he made tempt is often made in practice), without breaking and mutu

me laugh. ally destroying them both. [Here my father observed that nennen, to name :

as, id fann inn nennen, I can name Dr. Slop was fast asleep). I said the attempt is often made;

him. and so it is; there being nothing more common than to see a reiten, to ride :

as, ich reite in aziereil, I ride out for man who has no sense at all of religion, and, indeed, has so

exercise. much honesty as to pretend to none, who would take it as the thun, to do:

as, er thut nichts als schelten, he bitterest affront, should you but hint at a suspicion of his

does nothing but scold. moral character, or imagine he was not conscientiously just

Machen, however, cannot, as in English, be used to signify to and scrupulous to the uttermost mite. I know the banker I deal with, or the physician I usually make him go out, the Germans say, las (not mache) ila hinausgeben.

make or cause by force : thus, to translate the English phrase, call in [There is no need, cried Dr. Slop (waking) to call in any The Infinitive without zu comes after thun, only when nichts als physician in this case), to be neither of them men of much religion.

precedes, in the example above. Experienced schoolmasters may quickly make a grammar of

(2) The Infinitive with zu is employed : boys' natures, and reduce them all (saving some few excep- either by the preposition to with the lufinitive, or by of with a

a. After"nouns and adjectives which, in English, are followed tions) to certain general rules.

Ingenious boys, who are idle, think, with the hare in the participle: as, ich war froh ilin zu sehen, I was glad to see him ; Sic fable, that, running with snails (so they count the rest of their haben auft zu spielen, you have a desire to play; ich bin müte ju school-fellows), they shall come soon enough to the post; Fören, I am tired of hearing it: though sleeping a good while before their starting.

(6) After verbs, to express the end or object of their action : as, ich komme mit Ihnen zu sprechen, I come to (i. e. in order to) speak with you: in which case, also, the particle um often comes

before zu, to render the expression more forcible : as, liebet tie LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. LXXXVI. Tugend, um glüdlich zu sein, love virtue, in order (um) to be happy.

c. After the verbs following and others of like import : $ 146. Rule.

Anfangen, to begin.

Zögern, to delay. The Infinitive mood either with or without the particle qu (to) Aufhören, to cease.

Gewöhnen, to accustom. preceding, is used to represent the being, action or passion, in Befehlen, to command.

Dienen, to serve. a manner unlimited : as,

Bitten, to beg.

Hinreiden, to suffice. Sterben ist Nichts, toch leben und nicht sehen, daß ist ein Ungliid, to die Erwarten, to expect.

Warnen, to warn is nothing, yet to live and not to see, that is a misfortune Hoffen, to hope.

Weigern, to refuge. indeed.

Fürchten, to fear,

Erfennen, to acknowledge. Der Wunsch gelobt zu werden, the wish to be praised.

Drohen, to threaten.

Befennen, to confese.
Sich freuen, to rejoice.

Scheinen, to appear.
Observations.

Sich schämen, to be ashamed. Wünschen, to wish.
Sich rühmen, to boast.

Verlangen, to desire. (1) The Infinitive without zu, (to) appears,

Bereuen, to regret.

Erlauben, to permit. a. When, as a verbal substantive (8 146, 3.), it is made either Pflegen, to be wont.

Oestatten, to allow. the subject or the object of a verb: as, Geben ist seliger als Fortfahren, to proceed.

Verdienen, to deserve. Nehmen, to give is more blessed than to receive; das nennt er ar. Unterlassen, to neglect.

Wagen, to venture. beiten, that he calls working.

Haben, to have.

Wissent, to know. 6. When it stands alone, as in a dictionary: as, loben, to Sein, to be.

Nußen, to be of use. praise ; licben, to love.

Helfen, to help.

Frommen, to avail. C. After the verbs

Vermeiden, to avoid. heißen, to bid : as, id ließ ihn gehen, I bad him go.

Grfennen and bekennen are construed mainly with the prelerit of helfen, to help : as, er hilft mir schreiben, he helps me to write the Infinitive: as, er erfennt, fich geirrt zu haben, he acknowledges lehren, to teach: as, er lehrt das Kind lesen, he teaches the that he has been in error.

child to read

d. After the prepositions ohne (without) and statt or anstatt (in. lernen, to learn : as, wir lernen tanzen, we learn to dance.

stead of ), as, ohne ein Wort zu sagen, without saying a word; an, hören, to hear : as, ich höre fie fingen, I hear them sing.

statt zu schreiben, instead of writing. sehen, , to see : as, ich sehe ihn kommer., I see him tome.

(3) The Infinitive in German, as intimated before, often fühlen, to feel : as, ich fühle den Puls schlagen, 1 feel his pulse performs the office of a verbal substantive. It is then com

beat. finden, to find :

monly preceded by the neuter of the article, and has all the as, ich fand das Buch auf dem Tische liegen, Ivarious cases: as, das Lügen (djatet dem Lügner am meisten, lying

found the book lying on the table. injures the liar most; ich bin del Ochen8 müte, I am scary The verbs Ichren and lernen form exceptions to the observation of walking; zum Reisen bist du nicht geschickt, you are not fit for in the text : admitting, as they do sometimes, the particle zu journeying. between them and an Infinitive succeeding. The student will (4) The Infinitive active, in German, after certain verbs, as, note, also, that the Infinitive after all these verbs, is, in English, rein, lassen, verbieten, befehlen, &c., is not unfrequently employed often best rendered by a participle: as, er fühlte sein Blut gähren, passively: thus, laß ihn rufen, which (literally) means, let him he felt his blood boiling.

call, may, also, signify, let him be called ; es ist keine Zeit zu verlic. d. After the auxiliaries of mood, mögen, fönnen, lassen, dürfen, ren, there is no time to lose, or to be lost. sollen, wollen and müssen, and after werden, when employed as an (6) The Germans often employ the Indicative or Subjunctive, auxiliary in forming the future tense.

preceded by baß, where, in English, the Infinitive, preceded by e. After the verbs following, in certain phrases,

io, is used : as, ich weiß, tas ce ter Mann ist, I know him to be bleiben, to remain : as, er bleibt figen, he continues (literally, I know that he is) the man.

sitting (6) The Infinitive, in English, preceded by the words how, fahren, to go in a carriage: as, ich fahre spazieren, I ride out where, what, when, and the like, after such verbs as, tell, know,

for an airing. say, and teach, cannot be rendered literally into German: the geben, , to go or walk; as, er geht betteln, he goes begging. Germans, in such cases, always using the Indicative or Subjunc. haben, , to have :

as, er þat gut reten, he has easy tive of such verbs as sollen, müssen, fönnen : as, ich weiß, wie ich es

talking, i. e. it is easy for tyun muß, I know how to do it, or (literally) I know how I must him to talk.

do it ; lehren Sie mich, was ich sagen soll, teach me what to say. legen, to lay:

as, ict lege mich schlafen, I lay my. For the use of the Infinitive of mögen, wollen, sollen, &c., in place

self down to sleep. I of the past Participle, See § 74. 3.

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the compound tenses, but may, also, be construed with nouns, $147. THE PARTICIPLES.

after the manner of Adjectives: as, (1) The Participles, in German, are varied by cases, follow

Id habe heute das Buch gelesen, I have read the book to-day. ing the same rules of inflection as the adjectives. Having the Gin geliebtes Kind, a beloved child. nature of adjectives, the Present in a few, and the Preterit in

Der Mann ist gelehrt, the man is learned. many instances, readily

admit the degrees of comparison. (2) The use of the Participle, as such, however, in German,

OBSERVATIONS. is far more restricted than in English. Por, in English, it is

(1) This Participle, in its character as an Adjective, is far commonly used to form a distinct clause of a sentence; and is more frequently employed in German than in English. Indeed, thus made to indicate the time, cause, or means of effecting many Preterites in German, having lost all character as Parti. that which is expressed in the main clause : thus, we say: ciples, are now used exclusively as Adjectives. Walking (that is, by or when walking) uprightly, we walk surely. This mode of expression can rarely, if ever, be adopted in used in an adverbial manner : thus, das Buch ist verloren gegangen,

(2) The Preterit, like the Present Participle, is sometimes German ; into which language, if we desire to translate the the book is lost (literally, gone, lost). above sentence, we must say: wenn wir aufrichtig wandeln, so wan:

(3) This is especially the case with certain Participles em. deln wir sicher, that is, when we walk uprightly, we walk surely.

ployed with the verb fommen; as, er kommt gefahren, he comes (3) So, too, we say in English: Having given him the money, driven, i. e. driving in a carriage; er fimmt geritten, he comes he went away; but since there is nothing in German to corridden, i. e. riding on horseback; er fõmmt geflogen, he comes respond to his English compound Participle, it would be a flying; erkömmt gelaufen, he comes running, &c. gross error to attempt to render the sentence literally Resort

(4) Kindred to this, is its use, when connected with a verb, must be had, as in the other case, to a different structure :

to express the condition or state of the subject: as, jeßt sterb' ich thus, als er ißm tas Geld gegeben hatte, ging er weg, that is, after or beruhigt, now I die content; in seine Tugend gehüllt, troßt er der Ver. when he had given him the money, he went away. In this way leumdung, wrapped in his virtue, he defies calumny. must all similar cases be managed: we must employ a verb in each clause, and connect the two together by means of suitable accusative, is in some phrases employed absolutely: as, tie

(5) The Preterit Participle, usually in connection with the conjunctions; such as, weil, wenn, als, ta and intem.

Augen gen Himmel gerichtet

, his eyes being directed towards heaven; $ 148. RULE.

den Gewinn abgerechynet the profit being deducted; diesen Fall aus,

genommen, this case being excepted. The Present Participle, like an attributive adjective, agrees (6) This Participle is sometimes elliptically used for the Imwith its noun in gender, number, and case; and may, also, perative. (See $ 145. 3.) govern the same case as the verb whence it is derived : as, Der lachende Frühling, the smiling spring.

$ 150. Rule. Kühlendes Getränke, cooling drink.

The Future Participle is used, when the subject is to be reDie alles belebende Sonne, the all animating sun, i. e. the sun presented as a thing that must or ought to take place : as, that animates all.

Eine zu lobende That, a deed to be (i. e. that ought to be) praised. OBSERVATIONS

OBSERVATIONS. (1) This Participle is seldom, if ever, otherwise employed

(1) What is called the Future Participle in German, is prowith a noun than in an attributive sense. Its predicative use is found almost altogether in those words that have so far lost can be formed from transitive verbs only, and is always to be

duced by placing zu before the present participle as above. It character as Participles as to be commonly recognised only as taken in a passive sense. It is chiefly to be found in the case adjectives : as,

of compound verbs: thus, hoczuchrender Herr, the highly-to-be Reigent, charming Drüdend, oppressive.

honoured, i. e. the honourable, Sir. See Section XLII. Kränkend, mortifying.

Fließend, flowing: Ginnehment, captivating. Hinreißend, overpowering.

§ 151. THE ADVERBS. Dringend, pressing.

RULE. Such a combination, therefore, as, I am reading, we are walking, and the like, which is so common in English, is wholly verbs : as,

Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives and other adinadmissible in German; save in the instance of those Parti- Gr jdreibt selten, he writes seldom. ciples that have lost, as just said, their true participial character: &r hat ten Gegenstand vortrefflich behandelt, he has treated the subas, die Nuth ist dringend, the necessity is pressing. (2) The Present Participle, in connection with the article, is

ject admirably. often used substantively, the noun being understood; as 'der Dieses Buch ist sehr gut, this book is very good. Lesente, the reader, (literally) the (one) reading; die Sterbende, Er arbeitet nicht gern, he works unwillingly, the dying (female).

OBSERVATIONS. (3) This Participle, however, cannot in German, as in English, be, by means of an article, turned into an abstract verbal Almost all adjectives in the absolute form are, in German, noun. But in order properly to render such phrases as, the employed as Adverbs. See § 102. 3. For remarks on the reading, the writing, into German, we must use the present of position of Adverbs in sentences, see the section on the arrangethe Infinitive: thus, das Lesen, das Schreiben.

ment of words, $ 158. (4) The Present Participle, as stated in the Rule, may govern the case of its own verb; but it must be noted that the word so

S 152. THE PREPOSITIONS. governed always precedes the Participle: das ung verfolgende Ge.

RULE. schick, the us pursuing fate, i. e. the fate that pursues us. In some instances, the words actually united, forming compounds :

The Prepositions aastatt, außerhalb, dieffeite, &c. (See the List as, chrliebend, honour-loving, that is, ambitious; sefergebend, law. $ 109.) are construed with the genitive. giving, &c.

ODSEAVATIONS. (5) The Present Participle is sometimes used with the of an Adverb; that is, to express some circumstance of manner (1) When the same Preposition governs several nouns in the or condition : thus, weinen! Tyrach er zu mir, weeping (i. e. wee. same construction, it is put before the first only; as, ich bin von piryly) he spoke to me; e sefte sich schweigend nieder, keeping silent meiner Heimath, meinem Vaterlande und meinen Freunten getrennt, from (i. e. silently) he sat down.

my home, my country, and my friends, am I separated.

(2) For the right use and position of some of the Preposi§ 149. Rule.

tions, much attention is required. See the Observations on The Preterit Participle is not only used in the formation of those construed with the genitive: $ 110.

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