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the consonants b, d, g, l, m, n, r, v; as, for example, sbarra, / are just so written in Italian. They are nevertheless propronounced zbáhrr-rah, bar, barrier; sdire, zdée-rai, to retract; nounced as if they were written Santippe and Santo. (The sgrarda, zgwáhrr-do, look; slontanare, zlon-tah-náh-rai, to latter word has retained the x principally that it might not be remove; smania, zmáh-neeah, madness; snervare, znerr-váh- confounded in writing with the word Santo, saint). rai, to unnerve; sradicare, zrah-dee-káh-rai, to eradicate;

The letter y is always replaced in Italian by i ; as, for svello, zvél-to, lively, clever, nimble, easy. I have stated that the particles dis and mis before consonants have the sharp, his- example, for physics (physical science), the Italians say fisica ;

for stygian, stigio. sing sound. There is no deviation from this rule, and these particles retain the sharp, hissing sound even before the last

SECOND PRONOUNCING TABLE, meniioned consonants ; for example, disbandire, pronounced dis-bahn-dée-rai, to banish; disdire, dis-dee-rai, to retract; dis- SHOWING THE COMBINATION OF VOWELS WITH SEMI-VOWELS gombrare, dis-gom-bráh-rai, to empty; disleale, dis-laiah-lai,

IN NATURAL ORDER. disloyal; dismettere, dis-mét-tai-rai, to dislocate an arm, to dismiss (an affair); disnervare, dis-nerr-váh-rai, to unnerve; Italian,


English. disradicare, dis-rah-dee-kah-rai, to eradicate; disvenire, dis-vai- Fere


Beasts, fairs née-rai, to swoon; misgradito, mis-grah-dée-to, disagreeable; Refe


Thread misloale, mis-laiáh-lai, disloyal; misvenire, mis-vai-née-rai, to Foce



tchê-fo Swoon,

A monkey. When ss is between two vowels, it does not follow the rule Fugo


I put to flight of the single s, but must be sounded with a sharp, hissing Gufo


A horned owl sound; as, for example, fosso, pronounced fôs-so, a ditch, a Lago

Lake canal; rosso, rós-so, red; posso, pós-so, I can.



I have not yet spoken of the letter H. It is named in the Leso


Sun alphabet acca (pronounced ah'k-kah). According to its alpha

lée-tchai betical sound, and because its two syllables are substantially Lice

It is permitted Celi tchè-lee

The heavens one, only, placed inversely, it might be classed as a semi-vowel;


Praise but as it is only an auxiliary letter to modify the sounds of c


Delus and g, as I shall have occasion to explain fully hereafter, it is a


Light mere soundless, written sign, not a letter. It also serves to dis- Lumo


Mules tinguish the words ho, I have, from o, or ; hai, thou hast, from Mule


Wild basil ai, dative plural of the article; ha, ne has, from a, the preposition Maro


Rome to ; and hanno, they have, from anno, the year. This distinction Roma


Month is, however, only for the eye, for in pronouncing, the h is quite Mese


Seed mute; and some purists, headed by Metastasio, instead of an h, Seme


The sight in artilput the grave accent in those first four words.

lery, aim The Italian has no aspirates, which essentially distinguishes


Brariches it from the leading languages of Europe. Only in the middle,


Manner, mode and at the end of some few interjections, a kind of aspiration


Tamed is heard, which is only produced by the prolongation of the


Wall sound of the vowel, or of the transition of the voice from one


I reconsider vowel to another, principally, however, by a more emphatic


Ship emotion by which such interjections are thrown out;

as, for Nare

Vein example, ah! ahi! deh! ahimè! eh ! oh! ehi! ohi! ohime!


Negress doh!


Frogs In the early period of the language, the Italians wrote all Rane


Berenice, a woman's words manifestly of Latin origin with an initial h; as, for Nice example, habile, now abile; hinno, now inno; hora, now ora ;


Thou suppest historia, now istoria. This insignificance of the h has given


Name « Questa cosa non vale

nó-mai rise to some proverbial expressions : as,

mái-no un' acca,


Meno "this is not worth an h; or, as an Englishman

Nuca Non m'im

noo-kah would say,

Nape of the neck “not worth a fig or a farthing ;


Cradle porta un'acca," "I don't care an h for it;' or, as an Englishman


Thin, rare
Non ne saper
would say, "I don't care a straw for it;

w' acca,
not to know an h of something;


Surrenders (of said in England, “ an iota of it.” When an Italian has to pro

towns) nounce the h in another language, it is only with the greatest


Mr., Master difficulty he can master it.


I laugh
To complete my remarks on the alphabet, I must now say


Thou gildest something of the letters K, W, X, and Y, important letters in Dori


tô-bah English, but which do not occur in Italian.

Property, victuals,

merchandise, robe Instead of k, the Italians use before consonants and before


A cheat the vowels a, e, and u, the letter c; and before the vowels e and Baro


Rude in ch. For example, instead of Kalend, the Italians write


dóo-rai Calende.


sáh-rah The English letter w does not occur at all in Italian.


The letter X, which represents properly speaking a com-


With himself pound sound (ks), is unknown in pure Italian words, and the Seco English sound is never heard. În words of foreign origin, which would have this sound in English, the Italians place an

* That my pupil readers may thoroughly exercise themselves in 8 or 8s, or c; for the word example (from the Latin pronunciation, in order to give a complete illustration of the exemplum), the Italians write esempio ; for extreme (from junction of vowels and semi-vowels, in natural order, I have Latin extremus), they write estremo; for Xenophon, Senofonte ; selected words of two syllables, in which the first syllable of the for Xerxes, Serse; for Alexander, Alessandro. The letter (first word is the same as the concluding syllable of the second. replaces the x in words which are the compounds of the prefix + The vowel u in Italian, as a final letter, is only to be found in ex, when c follows it; for example, for excellent, they write monosyllables ; as, tu, thou ; fu, was; or in those words that have eccellente; for excess, eccesso, &c. Custom has, however, the grave accent on the last syllable; as, virtù, virtre; Corjü, sanctioned the use of the x in a few words of Greek origin, Corfu. I am therefore compelled, by the use of the word gufo, and for Xarippe and Xanto (Xanthus, the river in Asia Minor) others to follow, to depart from the strict system.



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Earnest money


inches long, which he had found would together burn for four-

and-twenty hours. Having marked the inches on them there-

Formerly Sir, now fore, he ordered that they should be lighted in succession, and

each three inches that were consumed he considered as record.

ing the flight of an hour. But finding that the candles burned Soma sô-mah Burden

away more quickly at one time than at another, on account of Maso mah-zo Tom

the rushing violence of the winds, which sometimes would Beffare bef-fáh-rai To scoff

blow night and day without intermission through the doors Offeso of-fái-zo Offended

and windows, the numerous chinks in the walls, or the slender Soffice

s6f-fee-tchai Soft, flexible, supple covering of the tents, he bethought him how he might preSoffoco 56f-fo-ko I suffocate

vent this inconvenience; and having contrived artfully and Suffuso soof-f60-20 Wetted

wisely, he ordered that a lanthorn should be fairly fashioned Corails ko-rah-lo Coral

of wood and horn, for white horn, when scraped thin, allows Vitello vee-têl-lo Calf

the light to pass through even like glass. The candle, thereCavillo kah-vil-lo I annoy, quibble

fore, being placed in the lanthorn thus wonderfully constructed, Satollo sah-tól-lo Satisfied, satiated,

as we have said, of wood and horn, was both protected from tired

the wind and shone during the night as luminously without as Catullo kah-tool-lo Catullus

within.". This is a simple record, but contains a great fact Cenammo tchai-nahm-mo We supped

and a wise principle. Alfred loved literature for its own sake; Dilemma dee-lêm-mah Dilemma (logical)

he sucked the flower for the honey, and on account of his hav. Enimma ai-nim-mah Enigma

ing united a virtuous disposition with a well disciplined mind, Sommommo som-môm-mo A blow with the fist posterity remembers him as a wise, amiable, and exemplary on the under-chin

king. Of the Emperor Julian it is also recorded, that he spent Affummo ahf-foom-mo I smoke (meat)

much of his time in the acquisition of knowledge. We are far Inganno in-gáhn-no Deceit

from justifying all the deeds of this valorous warrior and disAntenna ahn-tên-nah Yard (of a ship)

tinguished monarch, but it is sufficient for present purposes Erinni ai-rin-nee The Furies

to say, that during his campaigns he was accustomed to spend Aronne ah-ron-nai Aaron

many hours in literary pursuits, and that he has given to posAlunno

terity several learned Greek works, as the result of his perseah-loon-no

Alumnus, pupil Caparra

verance in mental cultivation.
I knock down

Other noble and wealthy literati might be named, such as

Democritus, Anaxagoras, Charlemagne, James I. of Scotland,
I recur

Elizabeth, Alphonso, Peter the Great, and John Napier. We
A curro

have made this brief reference to these men of wealth, as illus.

trative of the sentiment, that intellectual pursuit is not incom-'

Demoniac, bored,patible with the possession of wealth, and as showing that

mental excellence is independent of social position. In con-

sidering the case of the wealthy, it is but just to remember,

About, upon one's that they have allurements and temptations to which poor

students are not exposed, and it redounds greatly to their
con-koos-so Moved, shaken, con- honour, and proves their magnanimity, inasmuch as they have

risen superior to all dissipating influences, and resisted the
force of the most powerful temptations, that they might increase

in knowledge, and cultivate an acquaintance with the sages,

philosophers, poets, and historians, whose works survive their

writers and form the text-books of admiring successors. (Continued from page 18.)

II. Intellectual excellence is opposed to proud, pedantie,

and undue self-satisfaction. The more knowledge a man Money brings pleasure; so do fame, power, and position; but possesses, the more does he see his own ignorance. This canthe pleasure of these is not to be compared with the refined, not be better exemplified than in the memorable words of Sir exalted, and exquisite enjoyment of intellectual excellence. Isaac Newton when on his death-bed :-"I know not how No wise man despises money, or denies that it brings a certain others may regard me, but to myself I appear as a little child amount of pleasure with it. The world, in an important sense, who has been amusing himself in gathering a few pebbles on would be paralysed for want of money; " money answereth all the shore, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered things,"and he is a happy man who understands its real value, before me.” This is humility; it is a philosopher speaking as and has a heart to appropriate it to honourable purposes. We a child, and in that hour he appears as great, is not greater, avoid equally the extreme of avarice, and that of affecting con- than in any other hour of his long and laborious life. True tempt for money. The intellectual man, in his poverty, has a greatness looks more at what remains to be done, than at what source of enjoyment unknown to the unlettered Dives who ro's is already accomplished. Learning tends to simplify, and not in luxury and wealth. The two however, are by no means to bewilder and confound. Two or three examples may here incompatible. Biography has embalmed the memory of be inserted as illustrations. In June, 1790, the Rev. John many who have had this world's wealth in abundance, and Wesley preached at Lincoln ; his text was Luke x. 42: "One have added the riches of a well cultivated and powerful intel. thing is needful.” When the congregation were returning lect. Alfred the Great was a royal student, and has exhibited from the chapel, a lady exclaimed, in a tone of great surprise, an example worthy of the imitation of all his kingly succes- “Is that the great Mr. Wesley of whom we hear so much in sors. Although the son of a monarch, and possessor of all the present day? Why the poorest might have understood that was necessary to complete his worldly' happiness, he him. The gentleman to whom this remark was made replied, devoted himself to literature with a zeal but rarely surpassed. In this, madam, he displayed his greatness; that while the He was pre-eminently an economist of time, as the following poorest can understand him, the most learned are edified and interesting quotation will abundantly testify:

cannot be offended." The following is of the same class and Having made his chaplains procure the necessary quantity equally striking :--The late Dr. C. Evans, of Bristol, having of wax, he ordered six candles to be prepared, each of twelve once to travel from home, wrote to a poor congregation to say

# This is the plural of cosa, thing, pronounced kó-sah, one of that he should have occasion to stay a night in their village, those exceptional words where the s'must be pronounced with a and that if it were agreeable to thom he would give them a sharp, hissing sound, though it is placed between two vowels. sermon. The poor people hesitated for some time, but at This exception should be imprinted on the reader's memory, be length permitted him to preach. After sermon he found them cause, as is obvious from its meaning, the word is of the most in a far happier mood than when he first came among them, frequent occurrence,

and could not forbear inquiring into the reason of all this,

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* Why, sir, to tell you the truth," said one of them, “knowing nihil sumis tuis ?") "Simonides takest thou nothing out of that you were a very learned man, and that you were a teacher thy riches''? to which question the poet thus eurtly replied : of young ministers, we were much afraid we should not "Mecum mea sunt cuneta") "With myself are all my things." understand you; but you have been quite as plain as any Plunderers attack the ship, carry off the booty, and leave the minister we ever hear." “Ay, ay," the Doctor replied, “you hapless voyagers to console each other under their several entirely misunderstood the nature of learning, my friend : its misfortunes. Simonides had nothing, and lost nothing, and design is to make things so plain that they cannot be mis- omitted not the opportunity of sending a moral home to every understood." The next is somewhat different, but contains a understanding. Mind is more precious than money. Let this severe and humiliating rebuke. Let all whom it may concern one sentence be believed and acted upon, and in myriads of ponder the principle contained in it, and beware of the error instances the grasp of the miser will relax, and scatter blesswhich is so justly exposed : -Some persons in the Rev. Mr. ings with a bounteous hand. He who has a mind, has a treasure Romaine's congregation, thinking his style of preaching too more priceless than gold, more adorning than a diadem, more plain and common, had requested him to exhibit a little more enduring than the stars of the firmament! That mind was learning in the pulpit ; accordingly, on a certain occasion he not bestowed for no purpose. Its history-for minds have read his text in Hebrew. “Now," said he, “I suppose histories--is recorded, and we believe that one day that mind scarcely one in the congregation understands that." He then will have the power of taking the most minute retrospect of read it'in Greek, and added : “Perhaps there may be one or itself, and will either rise to ineffable glory, or be covered two that understand me now! I will next read it in Latin." with everlasting shame and confusion! Opportunity and He did so, and said: “Possibly a few more may comprehend exertion, advantages and performances, will be compared; the me, but the number is still very limited." He last of all balance will be struck by an unerring hand, and the irreverrepeated the text in English: "There,” he continued, “ now sible judgment pronounced by the voice of Eternal Truth, in you all understand it; which do you think is best? I hope accents more sweet than the songs of morning, or in tones always so to preach as that the meanest person in the congre- more terrible than the thunders of midnight! Thrice happy gration may comprehend me." These, out of an abundance of the man who has multiplied his talents, and is ready to sursimilar examples, are presented as containing the true principle render an account of his stewardship. of the use of learning. The most learned man is the most

(To be continued.) unpretending. Solomon has well said : “Seest thou a man wise in his own eyes ? There is more hope of a fool than of him.” Such a man deems himself above learning, or probably imagines that “wisdom was born with him," and that he

LESSONS IN GREEK.-No. X. dignifies wisdom rather than himself being dignified by what

By John R. BEARD, D.D. little he does possess. There is more hope of instructing a man who is conscious of his own ignorance, than of training I NEXT take up words in ws, (gen, wos); and in ws and w (gen. him who is “wise in his own eyes." All pedantry is supremely Os=ovs). The terminating o belongs to the stem. And, first, contemptible. It leads the unlearned to false conclusions. ws (g. wos), e.g., ò, Hus, a jackal, and o vpws, a hero. It raises expectation, and then leaves it unfulfilled. Simplicity always attends and recommends true learning. We need not

Singular. Plural. further elaborate this division ; it contains one practical lesson, s. N. θως

Ow-EC ήρως ήρω-ές which, if well studied and carried out in actual life, will prove


now-wv eminently useful to the learner.


06-01 nowe ηρω-σι III. That intellectual excellence is independent of social A. θω-α Ow-as ήρω-α & ηρω ηρω-ας & ήρως position, is a strong proof of the Creator's benevolence. He


θω-ες ήρως ήρω-ες has not bestowed wealth and its concomitant influence upon D. N.A.V. Ow-G.&D. Ow-olv mpw-

ήρω-οιν all, but he has given to the great majority of men minds capable of indefinite expansion and the highest cultivation. I also give specimens of nouns in wc and w, (gen. oog=ovs). This thought no doubt led the poet to write,

These are all feminine. The ending wc, in ordinary speech, is “ A mind is a balance for thousands a-year."

preserved only in the substantive aidws, modesty, sense of Some men by their birth inherit riches and grandeur of shame; the dual and plural are formed according to the termievery description, but this is merely an accident, in the logical Here follow the forms of ij aờws, modesty, respect, and ý nxe, sense of that term. It does not necessarily imply that they

echo. are either the wisest, best, or happiest of men. Hence Watts


Singular. Plural. wisely says, “ Milo, forbear to call him blest

Ν. αιδως
αιδοι ηχω

ηχοι Who only boasts a large estate.".

G. (αιδο-ος)αιδούς αιδων (ηχο-ος)ηχούς ήχων
D. (αιδο-i)αιδοί αιδοις (nxo-i)nxoi

ηχοις The Scotch poet, Allan Ramsay, also ingeniously remarks, in

A. (αιδο-α)αιδώ αιδους (ηχο α)ηχώ

ήχους his beautiful Scotch pastoral the “Gentle Shepherd,"

V. (αιδο-t)αιδοί αιδοι (nxoi)nxoi

ηχοι “ He that has just enough can soundly sleep,

Dual, N.A.V. αιδω; G.D. αιδουν ηχώ ηχοιν
The o'ercome only fashes folk to keep."

Large estates_bring annoyance, vexation, and anxiety along
with them. The labouring man is too prone to imagine that Auws, ó, a slave.

Ιστοριογραφος, ου, o, an histhey are sure to bring unalloyed happiness, and to shield their liarpus, o, an uncle on the torian. owners from many, if not from “all the ills that flesh is heir father's side.

KITOS, ou, ó, a garden. to." There is an old proverb which truly says, "He who has ropyw, ý, the Gorgon. IIpoowrov, ov, to, a face, coun. little to lose, is safer than the rich ;” and Phædrus has well Kiew, ý, the Muse Clio. proved this in his fable, “The two Mules and the Robbers," Epatw, 1, Erato, one of the Avanpos, a, ov, sad. which the youthful reader will do well to ponder. The Creator Muses.

Λυρικος, η, ον, lyric. has bestowed the greater, if he has withheld the less, and in this ITw, , power of persuasion. Βλεπω, I see. distribution of mind he has given one of the most convincing EveOtw, , good condition. II poobletw, I look at. proofs of his loving-kindness and beneficence. The poor man seßas, to (only with the nom. Vevow, I lie, deceive. may carry all his possessions about with him, but if he has a and acc.), reverence. TIpogeu, I am present, I am well-stored mind he has a spring of thought and feeling which Avolas, ov, ó, Lysias.

near, at, belong to. will supply him with refined enjoyment under all circumstances. Simonides, in the Shipwreck, has supplied a good

EXERCISES.--GREEK-ENGLISH, illustration of this. He took no property with him; his fellow voyagers brought their possessions to the vessel, and one more

"Ομηρος αδει πολλους ήρωας (or ηρως). Την των ηρωων inquisitive than the rest inquired: (“Simonide, tu ex opibus apetny Bavua Souev. Oi duwes Brov Avanpov ayovoiv. 'O rov




Ν.Α.V. γενος

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πατρωος κηπος καλος εστιν. Ορεγου, ω παι, της αιδους. Αιδως passed into o: e.g., το γενος, Latin, genus, race; το κλεος,
αγαθοις ανδρασιν έπεται. Λυσιαν επι τη πειθοί και χαριτι fame, glory.
θαυμαζομεν. Τη αιδοι προσεστι το σεβας. Μη προσβλεπε το | Sin.

κλεος Γοργούς προσωπον. Ω Ηχοι, ψευδεις πολλακις τους ανθρωπους.

G. (γενε-ος) γένους (κλεε-ος) κλεους

D. Παντες ορεγονται ευεστους. Πρεπει παιδι και νεανια αιδώ

(γενε-ϊ) γενει (κλεε-i) κλεει Plur. Ν.Α.V. (γενε-α)


(ελεε-α) κλεά εχειν. κλειω και Ερατω Μουσαι εισιν. Την μεν Κλειω θερα

G. (γενε-ων) γενών (ελεε-ων) κλεών πευουσιν οι ιστοριοσραφοι, την δε Ερατω οι λυρικοι ποιηται.


Dμαι Ν.Α.V. (γενε-ε)


(κλεε-ε) κλεη ENGLISH-GREEK.

G. & D. (γενε-οιν) γενζιν (κλεε-οιν) κλεοίν Homer sings (of) the hero Achilles. The hero Achilles is

VOCABULARY. sung by Honier. The bravery of the hero is wonderful. We Avôos. To, a flower.

Γη, γης, ή, the earth. admire the bravery of heroes. Slaves have (say, to the slaves is) Eidos, to, a form.

Ζημια, ας, ή, disgrace, punish. a sad life. The uncle bas (say, to the uncie is) a fine garden. Baltos, To, warmth.

ment. All rejoice at their (the) good condition. Αdmire, O youth, Ψυχος, το, cold.

Χαλκος, ου, ο, brass. with (μετα and gen.) modesty the deeds of good men. By Κερδος, τo, gain, in the plural. θνητος, η, ον, mortal, deadly. (dat the echo we are often deceived.

Κλεος, τo, fame, glory; in the | Πονηρος, α, ον, wicked. Nouns in as, aos, are declined as follows. Only a few plural, honourable deeds. Ασφαλης, ες, frm, sure. neuters belong to this head. The terminating o belongs to Mykos, ro, length.

Κρινω (Lat. cerno) I separate,

I the stem : το σελας, α sun-bcam και το κρεας, flesh.

Υψος, τo, height.

'decide, judge. Ψευδος, τo, a lie.

Αλλα, but. S. Ν. Α.Υ. σελας


Εαρ, εαρος, τo, the spring. G. σελα-ος

(κρεα-ος) κρεως D. σελα-ϊ and σελα (κρεα-ι)


κρέα Ρ. Ν. Α.Υ. σελα-α and σελά (κρεα-α) κρεα

“Η γη καλοις ανθεσίν θαλλει. Μη απεχου ψυχους και G. σελα-ων (κρεα-ων κρεών

θαλπους. D.

Το καλον ου μηκει χρονου κρινομεν αλλα αρετη. σελα-σι

(κρεα-σι) D. Ν. Α.Υ. σελα

(κρεα-ε) κρεα

Ουκ ασφαλες παν υψος εν θνητώ γενειsc. εστιν). Μη ψευδη G.D. σελα οιν (κρεα- οιν) κρεων


Απεχου πονηρων κερδων. Κερδη πονηρα ζημιαν αει After σελας decline το δεπας, gloss or golet; after κρέας ανθρωποι κλεους ορεγονται.

φερει. Κατοπτρον ειδους αλκος, οινος δε νού (sc. εστιν). Οι decline to yopas, old age, and to yepas, a present. With these

Οι ανδρες κλεει χαιρoυσιν. Οι two last may be connected two nouns whose stem ends in τ, | ανδρειοι κλεών ορεγονται. θαυμαζομεν τα των ανδρων κλεα. namely to repas, a prodigy, and to kepas, a horn, since after dropping the 7 they may be contracted in the same manner;

ENGLISH GREEK. κερας follows κρεας throughout, but with the contracted forms.

Keep from (abstain) wicked gains. Good men keep from It has also regular forms with r : thus kepas, reparos, and wicked gains. Good men desire honourable deeds. Do not, Kepws; kepatu and kepą, &c.; repas, however, has the two O young man, keep from heat and cold, but from wicked men. forms only in the plural, the contracted are the more common, Punishment follows a (the) lie. We admire the Greeks on thus τερά, τερών.

account of their (the) honourable deeds. We avoid wicked VOCABULARY.

gains. The soldiers rejoice in honourable deeds (dat). Ανδρεια, ας, ή, bravery. Σαλπιγξ, ιγγος, ή, a trumpet. Διατροφη, ης, ή, nourishment. Δυσκολος, ον, dissatisted,

Our next class of words ends in ις, υς, ι, υ.

Of these we Ευεξια (ευ and εχω) ας, ή, well

ό grumbling, hard.

take first those words in is, ūs, namely • KIS, 8. kloos, the corn being, weal. Πεμπω, I send.

weevil, η συς, (Lat. sus.) α σου, ο ιχθυς, « fish. Ελαφος, ου, ή, a stag. Προτρεπω, I turn towards, S. Ν. κίς


ιχθυς Προβατον, ου, τo, a sheep. exhort, encourage.


ιχθυ-ος θεμελιον, ου, τo, a foundation. Σημαινω, I give a sign (σημα,


ιχθυ-i Φαρμακον, (whence pharmacy), a sign), I signify.


Α. κίν


ιχθυν ου, τo, medicine, means of ! Υπαρχω, Ιexist.

V. κι


ιχθυ healing.

Ρ. Ν.


ιχθυ-ες G. κι -ων




ιχθυ-σι Α.


ιχθυ-ας Οι θεοι τοις ανθρωποις τερα πεμπουσιν. Των εν γηρα κακων



ιχθυ-ες, ιχθύς φαρμακον ο θανατος εστιν. Τα γερα τους στρατιωτας εις

D. Ν.Α.Υ.

ιχθυε ανδρειαν προτρεπει. Εξ αιγων και προβατων γαλα και κρεα προς

G.D. κι-οίν

συ-οίν ιχθυ-οιν διατροφην υπαρχει. Κερασι και σαλπιγξιν οι στρατιωται

VOCABULARY, σημαινουσιν. Ποικιλων κρεών γευομεθα. Καλου γηρως θεμελιον εν παισιν εστιν ή του σωματος ευεξια.

Αι ελαφοι κερα

Βοτρυς, υος, o, a bunch of | Βατραχος, ου, o, a frog. εχουσιν. Δυσκολος ο εν γηρα βιος (sc. εστιν).


Συρος, ου, o, a Syrian.

Μυς, μυος, o, a mouse, (Lat. | Αγκιςτρον, ου, τo, a hook.


Αγριος, α, ον, wild.

Νεκυς, υος, o, a dead body, | Ισος, η, ον, equal. Prodigies are sent by (úto with g.) the gods to men. corpse.

Aypevw, I calch. Soldiers are delighted with horns and trumpets. We taste Eraxvs, vos, ó, an ear of corn. Ανακυπτω, I emerge.

I milk and fesh. Death puts an end to (απολυει) the evils ofί Παγις, ιδος, ή, a trap. Βασιλευω, ίg.) I am king, I old age. The king sends presents to the soldiers. Presents | Αμπελος, ου, o, a vine.

reign. encourage soldiers. Soldiers are encouraged by (dat.) presents.

EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH. We pursue our task in the third declension, and offer models

Οι ιχθυες εκ του ποταμου ανακυπτουσιν. Οι θηρευται τας of nouns in oς, 3. εος, contracted into oυς. The substantives | αγριας συνας αγρευουσιν. Παντες ισοι νεκυες Ψυχων δε θεος of this class are exclusively neuter, and the terminating σ βασίλευει. Η αμπελος φερει βοτρύς. Η γη φερει σταχυς και belongs to the stem. In the nominative, the stem-Towel ε has Γβοτρυς. Τοις μυσι μαχη ποτε ην προς τους βατραχους. Οι

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μυες παγισιν αγνευοται. Οι Συροι σεβονται τους ιχθύς ως θεους.

Page 8, col. 2, vol. III.-LATIN-ENGLI8H. Αγκιστρoις ενεδρευομεν τους ιχθύς.

An effeminate education unstrings the nerves of both body and ENGLISH-GREEK.

mind; too much sleep is useful to neither mind nor body; the

winds bring now rain, now sunshine; he who blends the useful We catch fish with hooks. Fish are caught with hooks. our life, and always declares that to-morrow things will be better ;

with the agreeable is approved by all; credulous hope nourishes The hunter lies in wait for wild boars. The bunches of grapes Viriathus had carried on war against the Romans for fourteen and ears of corn are beautiful. The vine bears grapes. The years ; placability and clemency are more praiseworthy than anger; frogs had (to the frogs there was) once a battle with (against) | a great part of our men were wounded or slain ; Gaul takes special the mice. We look on corpses. The earth bears many vines. pleasure in beasts of burden, and procures them at a great cost; God reigns over fishes and frogs.

the husband and the father shouted out; the Senate and the Roman people sanctioned the peace; the Senate and C. Fabricius

surrendered the deserter to Pyrrhus; let religion and fidelity be A KEY TO THE EXERCISES IN THE Iphicrates in Thrace, Timotheus at Lesbos, Chares at Sigeum; nor

preferred to friendship; Conon lived (vixit) very much in Cyprus, LATIN LESSONS.

has either (aut) Brutus or (aut) Cassius now for the first time

judged the safety and the liberty of their country the most sacred By John R. BEARD, D.D.

Page 8, col. 2, vol. III.-ENGLISH-LATIN. (Continued from page 387, Vol. III.)

Magna telorum vis vulnera dabunt; rex cum aliquibus duci. Page 383, col. 2, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

bus capti sunt; divitiis et paupertate et morte omnes moventur; Æsop, a famous writer, was hump-backed ; the Scythians, war- alii rus petebant; corporis nervi sranguntur molli educatione; cre.

jus et injuria sunt dissimilia ; caetera turba fugerunt; alii urbem, like men, were terrible; thc Phoenicians were very skilful sailors; dula spe alitur nostra vita ; civitatis juvenes bellum parant; Greece was the country of many illustrious men; the conscious- jumenta magno parantur impenso; senatus Populi Romani pacem ness of a well-spent life (vitae) is pleasant; the Greek language is comprobabit; religio et fides amicitiae antepositae sunt; religio more difficult than the Roman ; the goose, the sheep, and the ass, et fides anteponendae sunt omnibus; Brutus et Cassius salutem seem to be very senseless beasts; every animal is mortal; we are reipublicae sanctissimam legem judicabunt; reipublicae salus friends [insert a comma after amici], you are enemies ;, how great is sanctissima est legum omnium. your imbecility! grammar and music were formerly united; pity and pertidy are beloved in him; three thousand two hundred of the

Page 18, col. 2, vol. III.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Samnites were cut to pieces; folly, rashness, injustice, and intem. perance, are to be avoided; peace and concord, useful to the No evil is more oppressive and troublesome than envy; what conquered, are honourable to the conquerors ; the captives became embossed plate, what rich coverlets, what paintings do you think the soldiers' booty; riches are incitements to evil; the wall and there are in his house ? the question is, whether one duty is greater the gate were struck with lightning; Cneius and Publius Scipio than another; is there any human being of whom you have a better were two thunderbolts belonging to the Roman dominion; Brutus opinion ? they spoke to the people, each on his own behalf, with the and Cassius were Caesar's murderers ; Vespasian, when (appointed) greatest authority they severally possessed; the mind of man is Quaestor, received by lot as his province Crete and Cyrenae ignorant of coming fate; the ancient Germans were not lovers of Pompey, deserted by his soldiers, proceeded to Egypt; philosophy letters, but they could endure thirst, cold, and labour ; Africa feeds is the guide of life, the explorer of virtue, the banisher of více ; herds of wild asses; Alexander the Great had not control over what shall I say of memory, the treasury of all things ?

his anger; the ancient Romans were very desirous of glory; in

summer the days are longer than in winter ; nothing is more divine Page 383, col. 2, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

than mercy; the moon is nearer the earth than the sun; as the Qui Caesaris fuerunt interfectores ? Brutus et Cassius ; thesaurus mind is more poble than the body, so virtue is preferable to strength animi est memoria ; vitae dux est religio; nonne expultrix viti- and external beauty; how (quanto) preferable (put a note of exclaorum est religio ? religionis philosophia medicina est animarum ; few philosophers are with you! the tribunes put forward a law (to

mation after potior) is an honourable death to a base life ! how benignissimae sunt religio et philosophia:, qui imperii Romani the effect) that one of the two consuls should be chosen from the fuerunt fulmina ? duces, imperii Romani fulmina, ad bellum pro: people ; we are very

numerous; Themistocles sent to the king by fecti sunt; in Graeciâ, magnorum virorum genetrice, vivebant night the most faithful servant he had : we have come hither to do Solon et Aristides ; caduca sunt divitiae et honores; vir mulierque thee honour; Hasdrubal was the son of Giscon; how many are repente sunt mortui ; murus et limen et navis de coelo tacta sunt; you ? (how many are there of you ?) we are few (there are only a ros amici, nos inimici sumus ; clarus scriptor fuit Æsopus ?

few of us); Callisthenes was the most earnest among those who

refused (the recusants); Themistocles inflicted on the house of Æsop's Fables.

Xerxes more evils than any other Greek; he is the elder of the THE ASS AND THE HORSE.

Neros; I am Deiphobé, the daughter of Glaucus; the king's

friends are few; Thales was the wisest of the seven (sages of An ass called a horse happy because he fed so abundantly, while Greece); the state of the Treviri was by far the most powerful of not even sufficient straw was supplied to him after the severest all Gaul in cavalry; to what degree of madness have you gone? labours. But a war having arisen, the horse is driven to battle, a good friend in a trial lessens the trial one-half; can anything be and being surrounded by foes, at length, after incredible struggles, more absurd than to seek the means of living the more, the less sinks or the ground pierced with many wounds. The ass behold the remains of life? I give you the same advice as (I give) myself ; ing all these things, said: "What a dolt I was to estimate happi- of their benefits some are of that kind that they extend to all the ness by the condition of the present hour!”

citizens, some that they affect individuals ; you have an abundance

of wealth; terror and fraud abound; you have preserved me rather THE HUSBANDMAN AND HIS SONS.

from love than honour; he pretended to be in haste on account of

business; all of them received a military honour on account of their When a husbandman, advanced in life, felt that his decease was valour; that one day on which I returned to my native land, was at hand, he called together his sons, whom, as is usual, he knew to me as good as an immortality. to disagree sometimes, and ordered a bundle of twigs to be brought. The twigs being produced, he bade his sons break the bundle.

Page 18, col. 2, vol. III.- ENGLISH-LATIN. When they were unable to do so, he gave a twig to each one, and they being easily broken, he taught his sons how strong a thing is mulier ; uter est sapientior? sapientissimus mortalium est Socra.

Regis mulier pulchra est; regis mulier est pulchrior quam ducis concord and how weak discord.

tes; quid panis est tibi ? eo dementiae est progressus ut omnes eum THE WOMAN AND THE MAID-SERVANT.

predicent stultum; belli causâ venerunt milites; ducis honori

praemium cuique militum est datum; librorum abunde mihi est; A widow woman, who gained her living by weaving, was hic unus liber librorum omnium mihi est instar. accustomed to call up her servants to their work by night as soon as she heard the first cock-crow. But they, worn out by their

Æsop's Fables. daily toil, resolved to kill the cock. This being done, they began

THE TORTOISE AND THE EAGLE. to be in a worse condition than before ; for their mistress, ignorant (incerta) of the time, now often called her slaves even in the A tortoise earnestly entreated an eagle to teach her to fly. The early part of the night.

eagle attempted to show her that she asked a thing contrary to he

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