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SKELETON MAPS.

BAD

ENGLISH,

you loves

GOOD ENGLISH.

we love

It is she, u is he, it is they, it is we.
Singular.

Plural,

Apposition may be regarded as a case of a compound sentence, 1. I loves

we loves

and so might have been reserved until we treat of that part of our 2. thou loves

subject. Thus, in the instance 3. he love

they loves

“But he, our gracious master, kind as just."--Barbauld.

may be written out in full in this way:
1. I love

He who is our gracious master and who is kind and just.
2. thou lovest
you love

CORRECT THE FOLLOWING INACCURACIES.
3. he loves

they love

The master and mistress is going to town. I loves to see boys In the third person singular and plural, nouns may take the at play. The consequence of your follies are that you will be

miserable. To die and to be no more is not the same thing. You
place of pronouns ; thus, we say,
Pronours :

gives the children too many sweetmeats. Let thou and I serve
he
drinks

they
they drink

drink

the Almighty. Nouns : the man drinks the men drink the women drink

"Do not think such a man as me contemptible for my garb."The subject and the verb then must be in the same person. Addison. Now the only person that ends in s is the third person ; conse- “ His wealth and him bid adieu to each other."--Priestley. quently, an & put to the verb in any other person is an

" The Jesuits had more interest at court than him.-Smollett. ungrammatical addition.

“We sorrow not as them that have no hope.”—Matarin. In general, then, the rule is this :

"A stone is heavy and the sand weighty; but a fool's wrath is The subject and the verb must be in the same number and person; heavier than them both.”—(Prov. xxvii. 3.) or, to state the same fact differently, the subjects and their verb must

“ Better leave undone, than by our deeds acquire agree in number and person.

Too high a fame, when him we serve 's away."-Shakspeare. Nouns of multitude, i. e., nouns signifying many, take their verbs "Now therefore come, let us make a covenant, I and thou."-(Gen. in the plural.

xxxi. 44.) When, however, the idea of one predominates, that is, when you " Yet I supposed it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my regard the object spoken of as a whole, and not as consisting of brother, and companion in labour, and fellow-soldier, but your mesparts, then a collective noun requires its verb to be in the singular senger, and he that ministered to my wants.—(Philipp. ii. 25.) number ; &s,

“Amid the tumult of the routed train,
The Parliament was dissolved; but

The sons of false Antimachus were blain ;
The People were admitted to the Queen's presence ;

He, who for bribes his faithless counsels sold,

And voted Helen's stay for Paris' gold."- Pope's Iliad. for the word people gives the idea of many persons.

“ The first, the court baron, is the freeholders' or freemen's court."Nouns are of the third person. But some grammarians have Coke. ascribed all the three persons to nouns. In only one form of con

“The angels adoring of Adam is also mentioned in the Talmud."struction, however, namely, the form that bears the name of Sale. apposition, can nouns have a first, a second, as well as a third

" It was necessary to have both the physician and the surgeon's person ; e. g.,

advice."- Cooper. Nouns in the first person: It is I, your old friend.

“And love's and friendship's finely-pointed dart second Thou, the man of my heart.

Falls blunted from each indurated heart."-Goldsmith. third He, the king of the Jews. Let me distinctly state that two or more nouns, or a noun and

SKELETON MAPS.--No. IV. a pronoun, are said to be in apposition, when, being in the same

AFRICA. number, person, and case, they refer to the same person or thing, Our Map of France, with the Railways, not being

ready for this and when the second is put in order to explain or add something number, we have inserted, for the use of our Geographical Stuin meaning to the first. The essence of apposition is in the fact that a word or words are endeavour to fill up, as we trust they have done the former

dents, a Skeleton. Map of Africa, which they would do well tc apposed (ad, to, and pono, I put), with a view to explain, enlarge, Skeleton Maps, from the lists of the Latitudes and Longitudes or qualify a foregoing noun or pronoun. Observe that in every case of apposition there are two parts, the vacant space in the left hand corner at the bottom of this Map,

of places given on the margin or in the text. * Under the apposed part, and the part to which the apposition is made. Thus, intended for the name Africa, is a scale of British miles, of in the sentence, “ Richard, the king, lost his crown,” the king is which each division stands for 100 miles distance on the Map. the apposed part, and Richard is the part to which the apposition The middle parallel of Latitude, marked 0 at both ends, is the is made. You will now readily see that the added part will partake of the 10, 20, 30, &c. on the sides, and proceed upwards to the top of

Equator; from this parallel, the Latitudes which are marked person as well as the number of the part to which the addition is the map, are North Latitudes; and those which are marked 10, made. Call the latter the principal part; call the former the sub-20, 30, &c. on the sides, and proceed downwards to the bottom ordinate. Then the rule may stand thus :

of the map, are South Latitudes. The dotted parallels of LatiIn apposition, the subordinate part agrees with the principal tude are the tropics; the one in Lat. 23° 28' N. being the tropic part.

of Cancer, and the other in Lat. 23° 28' S. being the tropic of And this agreement will in general be not only in person and Capricorn; between these two parallels, the sun shines vertically number, but also in gender and in case ; so that if the principal at noon on every place of the torrid zone, two days in the year. part is of the feminine gender, in the feminine gender will the sub- In laying down the Latitudes on this map, there will be ordinate part be; and whether the principal part stand to the verb little or no difficulty, inasmuch as the parallels of latitude have of the proposition in the relation of subject or object, in the same been made parallel straight lines; only let it be observed that relation will the subordinate part stand.

every black or white space on the sides of this Map must be In the sentences, " It is I; it is the Lord ; the Lord sitteth king reckoned two degrees of Latitude, that is, 120 Geographical for ever," and others in which the second noun or pronoun aids to miles, or about 140 British miles. In laying down the Longimake up the intended idea, the second must of course have the tudes, however, there will be considerable difficulty, owing to same grammatical relations as the first which it aids. Thus, king the curvature of the meridian lines. This will be obviated by has the same grammatical relations as the Lord. In other words, graduating with a pencil the Equator, or the parallel of Latithe rule may be stated thus :

tude marked 0 at both ends, exactly like the degrees of LatiThe verb to be, and other verbs which in themselves do not tude at the sides of the map; for on the Equator the distance express a complete idea, take the same case after as before them. between ono degree of Longitude and another is exactly equal

Consequently, to say " It is me,” in answer to the question to the distance between one degree of Latitude and another “who is that?" is ungrammatical.

* The list of the Latitudes and Longitudes of the Capitals or Remark, however, that it, used generally, is an exception so far Chief Cities in Africa will be found at page 62, vol. iii., of the as gender and number are concerned, for it is idiomatic to say Popular Educator."

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on any meridian. Supposing, then, that the Latitude and The trigonometrical rule for the construction of this table, Longitude of a place are given, and you wish to find its place is to multiply 60 Geographical miles, the length of a degree of on the map in order to lay it down; supposing, also, that the Longitude on the Equator, by the cosine of the given Latitude, Equator has been so graduated as we have said, and that the product will be the length of a degree of Longitude in the the degrees of Longitude are marked at every 10 degrees, given Latitude. exactly like the degrees at the top and bottom of the map; then place a piece of whalebone, or other equally flexible substance, on the given degree of Longitude at the top, at the

LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.–No. I. Equator or middle, and at the bottom, and it will assume

By CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D., very nearly the proper curve form of the meridian ; while in of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the German and Italian this position, make a mark close alongside the piece of whale- Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School. bone at the given degree of Latitude, and this mark will represent the exact position of the place on the map whose Lati

INTRODUCTION. tude and Longitude are given. Remember, however, that propose to teach the grammar, structure, and vocabulary of every black or white space at the top and bottom of this map the Italian language by a method not commonly adopted by must be reckoned two degrees of Longitude, or 120 miles of Longi- the learned. A considerable experience in tuition has contude; these degrees or miles of Longitude vary in size according vinced me that a strict adherence to scientific forms, though to their position on the map,-a fact which must be sufficiently all-important in the cultivation of a language, does not tend to obvious to the attentive reader, seeing that the meridian lines the advantage of the learner. Writers of practical grammar err, taper towards the poles both northward and southward, and that for the most part, in studying system too much. They teach all meridian lines do actually meet at the poles on the globe itself. grammar as they would the pure mathematics, as if an abstract

The following table will show the exact size of the science of itself, and not as a practical guide through the degrees of Longitude in Geographical miles of Latitude idiomatic intricacies of living languages. Such instructions according to their distance from the Equator; if the size of may be very scientific in form, but they do not follow nature. shese degrees be wanted in British miles, you have only There is no due separation of that which is the foundation, or to add to the number of Geographical miles given, one-sixth as it were the skeleton of a language, from those things which part of itself, for a first approximation to the truth; to obtain are the ornaments, the delicacies, the accidents and exceptions the next approximation, a very close one, deduct one-tenth of of speech... A language should be taught as anatomy is the preceding sixth-part from the first approximation, and you taught.

We must first thoroughly study the bones, if we will have the number of British miles required. Suppose, for would successfully, trace the intricate ramifications of nerves example, that you wished to know the length of a degree of and arteries. The learner of a foreign tongue cannot for him. Longitude in Lat. 40° north or south of the Equator. Look in self judge of what is material or immaterial to his sure and the table, in the column marked Deg. Lat. for 40, and in the rapid progress. It will be my endeavour to instruct by a col. adjoining column to the right marked Geog. miles, you will find loquial and natural, rather than a grammatical and purely 45.96 ; this shows that the length of a degree of Longitude in scientific method. Lat. 40°, is only about 46 Geographical miles, or exactly 45

The Italian language has for a long time been regarded in such miles and 96 hundredth parts of a mile. In order to find this country as a fashionable branch of education. Knowledge the number of British miles, take one-sicth part of 45.96, which of it has been reckoned an indispensable accomplishment of is 7.66, and add this part to itself; this gives 53.62 for a first cultivated society, but rather, as it would seem to me, as a approximation to the truth; next take one-tenth part of 7.66, serviceable attendant at Italian picture galleries and operas, which is 766 or 77 nearly, and deduct this part from 53.62, than as a guide to the philosophy of a Dante, the invention of the first approximation; this gives 52-85 for the next approxi- an Ariosto, or the sagacity of a Machiavelli. The present is mation. Thus, we find that a degree of Longitude in Lat. 40° perhaps the first considerable attempt that has been made to is only 52.85 British miles.

popularise this noble and melodious tongue.

I'he Italian is the first born of the old language of Rome, Table showing the Length of a Degree of Longitude on any Parallel and owns a strength and beauty worthy of its noble origin. of Latitude, between the Equator and the Poles :

In cultivation, it is the oldest of European tongues. When

Dante wrote, English, French, and German were comparatively Deg. Lat. Geog. Miles. Deg. Lat. Geog. Miles Deg. Lat. Geog. Miles. rude dialects. To Italy, the world owes the preservation and re

generation of learning and the Arts; and its fine soil, the fertile

mother of great spirits of old, has produced to the latest times 60.00 31 51.43

62 28:17

men who have enriched every intellectual pursuit alike by their
59.99
32 50-88

27.24
69 96
33 50.32

genius and learning. The language in which they expressed

61 26.30
59 92
3+ 49 74

65 25-36

that infinite variety of thought and sentiment, contains a 59 85 35 49.15

66 24:40 literature, the rich mine of which is in foreign countries only 59.77 36

The time may not 48 54

67 23-45 known to solitary and toilsome explorers.
59 67
37 47.92

be distant when the increased intercommunication of nations, 7 59 55

47.28

21:50 and the progress of popular education, will lay these rich 8 59.42

46.63

70 20-52 treasures open to the many. 59.26

45.96

71 19.53 For its own intrinsic merits, however, as a language, Italian 10 59.09

45.28
72 18.54

deserves to be studied by every one who would enjoy the 11 68.89

44.59
73 17:54

pleasures of style, inexhaustible in variety: the energy of Dante,
58.69
43 43.88

74 16:54 58 46

the graphic power of Boccaccio, the lyrical grace of Petrarca, 44 43:16

75 15.53 14 58.22 45 42 34

76

the refinement of Ariosto, the ornament of Tasso, the satire

14.52 15 57.95 46 41.68

77 13:50

of Berni and Aretino, the historical dignity of Guicciardini and 57 67 47 40.92

78 12:48

Botta, the point and perspicuity of Macchiavelli, the hilarity of 17 57.38 48 40.15

79 11.45 Casti, the music of Metastasio, and the Roman manliness of 57 06 49 39.36

80 10 42 Alfieri. And they who would cultivate language for its excel 56.73 60 38:57

81 9:38 lence must seek that of Italy for the ideal beauty of expression. 20 56-38 51 37.76

82 8 35 My method will be a natural, a simple, and, I trust, an easy 56.01 52 36.94

83 7.31

one. I shall discard, as much as possible, all the conventional 55 63 53 36:11

84 6.27

terms of grammar. I shall not travel by the old beaten path23 55 23 54 35.27

85 5.22

way through the parts of speech. My grammatical progress 24 54.81 55 34:41

86 4 18

wilí imitate the action of the mind in the formation of a sen. 25 54.38 56 33-53

87 3:14 26 53 93

57
32 68

2.09

tence, with a due regard to peculiarities of idiom. As a child 27 53.46

58
31.79

1 05

first learns the name of a thing, I begin with the noun, as soon 28 52-97 59 30.90

90

0.00 as I have clearly explained the principles of pronunciation ; and 29 52.48

60
30 00

as the child demonstrates its progress in thinking, by connect30 51.96 61 29.09

ing an action or suffering with the object named, I shall

22:48

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40

42

12 13

16

18 19

21 22

89

proceed at once to the verbs. The verb is the life of a language, out the leading errors which Englishmen commit in pronounce and he who knows the verbs thoroughly has mastered the ing Italian. The reason of this is, that men are apt to transfer chief difficulty of his task. The remaining kinds of words will involuntarily the peculiarities of their own language to that be taught and discussed in the same natural order.

which they are studying. The first effort therefore in learning to These lessons will contain, if I may so speak, two grammars. pronounce Italian, should be to forget your native peculiarities. Presuming that I may find two classes of readers,—one anxious In the mastery of the pronunciation of the continental lanfor knowledge by the most easy and rapid manner, the other guages, and particularly of Italian, the Englishman's great diffi. with more preparation, inclination, and leisure for study,-I culty is in the vowels. have so shaped my labour as to combine in a form sufficiently The Englishman, perhaps from childhood, has heard no vowel marked though not separated, an elementary grammar which sounds but those of his own island--his four sounds of a, his shall give the before-mentioned indispensable foundation and four sounds of o, his three sounds of v, his two sounds of e, and skeleton; and a grammatical treatise which shall, with philo- his two sounds of 1,-sounds little swayed by rule, and changing sophical reasons, satisfactorily explain the ornaments, the continually. He begins Italian, but carrying to the study the delicacies, the accidents, and exceptions of the language. complex vocal habit of his language, it must be some time

As I have said, I shall not divide my grammar into parts of before he can comprehend and practise the simplicity and perspeech, but into paragraphs. In the paragraphs I shall dis- manence of the sound of one Italian a, one Italian i, one Italian u, tinctly mark the line of separation between the elementary two Italian e's, and two Italian o's. He therefore pronounces no grammar and the grammatical treatise by the title of “ADDI- vowel purely, and wherever he may move in Italy, his insular TIONAL REMARKS." The student who only desires to learn the nativity will be instantly recognised by the facchino of any language sufficiently to enable him to read, speak, and write village inn, from his inveterate habit of giving to the Italian a, with tolerable accuracy, need only attend to the numbered that most comical of sounds to a Tuscan ear, of a in hat and fat. paragraph ; but he who would learn the language thoroughly, Another radical error committed by Englishmen in promust follow me closely and carefully in all I may find occasion nouncing Italian, arises from two opposite principles which to say in the additional remarks.

may be said to be the fundamental rules of the accentuation of Each paragraph will be complete in itself-a decided step in the languages. In English, every word has its leading, marked, knowledge of the language. Every principle of the language or strongly accented syllable-generally speaking the root of will be clearly illustrated by examples, including vocabularies the word; and it follows that while this syllable is distinctly and exercises.

marked by the voice, the subordinate unaccented fade away I have now only to ask the earnest and patient attention of in the utterance into an airy nothingness that can hardly be my pupil readers.

described. It is quite different with Italian. It has its I.

accented syllables just as English, but the accent on the one

does not destroy the vocal enunciation of the others. On the I shall teach the pronunciation of the Italian language in contrary, full and substantial justice must be done to every more detail than is generally pursued in English tuition. The syllable, each being clearly sounded, full and roundly with profit to be derived from the study of any living language is the vowels, and in a resonant or vibrating tone with the conmuch less if we are unable to pronounce it correcily. We can

sonants. The contrast may be observed in the pronunciation make little practical use of our theoretical acquirements, if in of any of the many words of a kindred sound in both languages communication with those to whom this language is the derived from the same classic stock. Take the following: mother tongue, we can neither make ourselves understood when

English.

Italian. we speak, nor understand when we are spoken to. And besides,

Difficulty:

Dif-fi-col-. no man, though he may gather the sense, can relish or even

Voluntarily.

Vo-lon-ta-ria-men-ti. comprehend the beauties or delicacies of great poets, and prose

Detestably.

De-te-sta-bil-men-te. writers too, in any language, and more especially in that

Generously.

Ge-ne-ro-sa-men-te. of Italy, without an accurate knowledge of the sounds. In

Indifferently.

In-dif fe-ren-te-men-te. reading such poets as Ariosto or Tasso, the pleasure does not

Repetition.

Re-pe-ti-zi-o-ne. consist altogether in appreciating the thoughts or even shades of thoughts, but in the faculty to enjoy that divine harmony This peculiarity of the English language, it may be remarked, to which they have attuned the language. One may relish the is the great obstacle which every English poet has eribeauty of the rose, but if he is deprived of the sense of smell, countered in the effort to naturalise the classic measures of he can admire only a lifeless beauty. Such students of the antiquity. Contrasted with the open limpid vocalisation of Italian poets, to use a more homely figure, may read their poetry Italy, the pronunciation of the English is to an Italian so with the satisfaction with which one might admire a Turkey obscure or indistinct, as very frequently not to be even undercarpet, who has seen the reverse side only. There is no insu- stood. It might be presumed that in a word so sonorous as perable or even very considerable difficulty in mastering detestabilmente or volontariamente it would be impossible to miss Italian pronunciation ; but a thoughtful attention to some the true sounds, yet an Englishman will, generally speaking so leading principles, and a student-like diligence, are conditions slur over what he would from the analogy of his own language essential to success. My thoughtful and industrious pupils conceive to be the subordinate parts of the word, as to be often will very soon find that a prolixity in this the very outset of quite unintelligible to an Italian. my labours which might seem trifling, is really most impor- A third and radical difference between the two languages, as tant-one of the fundamental parts of the language.

regards the principles of pronunciation, proceeds from what I am aware that I am writing for the most part for adult may be termed the vocal mechanism or the physical principles readers; but let them for a little space forget the dignity of of enunciation. Shortly stated, the physical difference is this, manhood; for every learner of a language, be he as old as Cato in England, they speak from the mouth; in Italy, from the was when he learnt Greek, should be regarded as a child chest. The Englishman whispers his words through the palate, boarning to express his thoughts. Indeed the more he is tongue, teeth, or lips ; the Italian throws them out with the taught a foreign tongue as the child his mother's speech, the vigour of his lungs. When therefore the Englishman attempts better for him.

the pronunciation of Italian after his accustomed mode, he conA living language can never be accurately and completely fines the open sounds of Italy to the limited mechanism of his expressed by signs. They who profess the contrary only hissing or lisping articulation above the throat, and turns mislead the uninformed. But a tolerable approach to accuracy Italian melody into harmonious discord, now a croak, now a in fixing pronunciation may be made by letter-signs represent- hiss. ing analogous sounds familiar to the ear in one's own lan- These are the radical differences and difficulties which my guage. If one has made himself so familiar with the imitated readers must strive to overcome. This is only to be accomsounds, as to have acquired a considerable vocal command of plished by a constant recollection of these points of difference the leading ones, he may very soon accurately and perma- in connection with the rules I am about to state and illustrate, nently acquire them, by a few brief communications with an and by reading aloud, and with a clear and distinct voice uttered educated native.

from the chest, every Italian word which I may have occasion Perhaps the most useful beginning I can make, is to point | to give in the course of the grammar

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D,

LESSONS IN GREEK.-No. VIII.

a whip. The minds of men are led by the harp. Ravens croak. By John R. BEARD, D.D.

The pipe (plural) delights shepherds. The she-goats are driven

to the meadow. The shepherd sings to the pipe. The daughter THE THIRD DECLENSION (Continued).

has a beautiful face, but a bad voice. NOUNS WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A CONSONANT.

Of another class under this head, the stem ends in a T sound, c. The Nominative appends o to the stem.

that is, in either 8, T, KT, 0, or vo. The nouns in the ensuing

table are ή λαμπας (instead of λαμπαδς), α torch και η κορυς (inOf this subdivision the first class has a stem which ends in stead of kopvós), a helmet; ó, j opvis (oovils), a bird;'d avač a P sound, or in a K sound; that is, in either β, π, φ, or in (ανακτς), α king; and ή ελμινς (ελμινθς), α tapeworm. γη γη, κ, χ. Observe that o with a P sound makes y; and with a K sound, makes g.

S. Ν. λαμπας κορυς ορνις αναξ έλμινς

G. λαμη άδ-ος κορύθ-ος ορνίθ-ος ανακτος ελμινθ-ος 1 storm. o raven. the gullet (throat). D. λαμπάδ-ι κορυθορνίθ-ι

έλμινθ-ι S. Ν. λαιλαν κοραξ

λαρυγξ
Α. λαμπάδ-α κορυν

ορνίν ανακτ-α έλμινθια G. λαιλαπ-ος κοράκ- ος λαρυγγ-ος

V. λαμπας κορυς ορνίς αναξ έλμινς D. λαιλαπκοράκι

λαρυγγοι

Ρ, Ν. λαμπάδ-ες κορύθ-ες ορνίθ-ες ανακτ-ες έλμινθ-ες Α. λαιλαπ-α κοράκ-α

λαρυγγα

G. λαμπάδων κορύθων ορνίθων ανακτ-ων ελμινθ-ων V. λαιλάψ κοραξ λαρυγξ

D. λαμπά-σι* κορύ-σι* ορνί-σι* αναξ-ι* έλμι-σι* Ρ. Ν. λαιλάπες κοράκ-ες λαρυγγ-ες

Α. λαμπάδ-ας κορύθας ορνίθ-ας ανακτ-ας ελμινθ-ας G. λαιλαπ-ων κοράκ-ων λαρυγγων

Υ. λαμπάδ-ες κορύθ-ες ορνίθ-ες ανακτες ελμινθ-ες λαιλάψ-ι κοραξ

λαρυγξ-ι

D. Ν.Α.V.λαμπάδ-ε κορύθ-ε ορνιθ-ε ανακτ-ε ελμινθε Α. λαιλάπας κοράκας λαρυγγ-ας

G.D. λαμπάδ-οιν κορύθ-οινίορνίθων ανακτ-οινέλμινθοι» V.

λαιλάπες κοράκ-ες λαρυγγ-ες D, Ν. Α.V. λαιλαπ-ε κοράκ-ε

λαρυγγ-ε

The noun o, η παις, child, has in the vocative παι. G.D. λαιλαπ-οιν κοράκ-οιν λαρυγγ-οιν Here belong the adjectives in ις and ι, (gen. ίδος, ίτος) as o,

η ευχαρις, το ευχαρι, (g. ίτος), pleasing, graceful; also, those in Here belong the adjectives in ξ (gen. γος, κος, χος) and Ψας, (gen. άδος), as o, η φυγας, (g. φυγάδ-ος), an exile, or banished (gen. πος), as o, ή, άρπαξ, άγος (Latin ταραα, English χαραcious); | person; those, too, in ης, (g. ητος), as o, η αργης, (g. ητος), white; ό, ή ήλιξ, ίκος, aequalis, of the same age ; ο, ή μωνυξ, ύχος, one- those, moreover, in ως, (g. ωτος) as o, η αγνως, (g. αγνωτος), hoofed, λαυing solid hoofe' (μονος, alone, one, and ονυξ, a hoof), unknown; and those in ις, (g. ίδος), as o, η αναλεις, (g. αναλand o, η αιγιλιψ, έπος, lofty.

κίδος), without strength ; ή πατρις (sc. γη land,) g. πατρίδ-ος,

one's native country; finally, those in ús, (g. ūdos), as , VOCABULARY.

νεηλυς, (g. νεηλύδος), recently come. Οψ, οπος, ή, voice; (Lat. vox.) Αγων, ωνος, o, a contest in the

VOCABULARY. Ωψ, ωπος, ή, the countenance,

public gaines. fair.

Αλεκτρυων, ονος, ή 8 cock.
Λιξ, αιγος, ή, a she-goat. *Ωιδη, ης, ή, 8Οng, or ode, (from

Φιλοχρημοσυνη, ης, η, Ιove of

Γελως, ωτος, o, laughter. Μαστιξ, ίγος, ή, whip, qow, I sing.

Ερως, οτος, ο, Ιove (English money, avarice.

erotic, as in erotic poems). Αθηναιος, o, an Athenian.

Πας, πασα, παν, every; in the scourge. Ορτυξ, υγος, o, a quail. Ιππος, ου, o, a horse.

plural, παντες, all.

Κακοτης, ητος, ή baseness. Συριγξ, ιγγος, ή, a shepherd's Oρχηθμος, ου, o, a dance.

Νεοτης, ητος, ή, youngness, Απας, άπασα, άπαν, another youth.

form of πας, πασα, παν, the pipe, Pandean (from the Πολυπονος, ον, laborious. rural divinity, Pan) pipes Ελαυνω, Idrive.

| Ομοιοτης, ητος, ή, likeness, å giving the force of toge

resemblance. Τεττιξ, ίγος, o, the grasshopper. Κρωζω, I croak.

ther, all together, so of com

bination. Φορμιγξ, ιγγος, η, the harp.

Χαρις, ίτος, ή, loveliness, plea-
Και-και, both-and.
Κολαξ, άκος, o, a fatterer. Δε, but, μεν-δε, particles de-

singness, Tavour, beneft, Αδελφος, ου, o, a brother. Μυρμηξ, ηκος, o, the ant.

noting a contrast.

gratitude (Lat. gratia, Eng. Αδελφη, ης, ή, a sister.
gratis).

Πλουτος, ου, ο, wealth.
Φεναξ, ακος, o, a deceiver.

Ερις, ερίδος, ή, strife.

πλουσιος, α, ον, rich.
EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

Ελπις, ελπίδος, ή, hope. Εγειρω, I stir up, arouse,
Παις, παιδος, ό, ή, a child, Bon, awaken.
daughter.

Ενεγειρω, εγείρω

with Οι κορακες κρωζουσιν. Τους κολακας φευγε. Απεχου του

EV,

which

here acts as an intensive, that φενάκος. Οι ανθρωποι τερπονται φορμιγγι και ορχηθμη και φδη. Φροντις, ίδος, ή, care.

Νυξ, νυκτος, ή, night.

is, it strengthens the force Οι ιπποι μαστιξιν ελαυνονται. Αί φορμιγγες τους των ανθρωπων Πενης, πενητος, ο, ή, poor. of the verb. θυμους τερπουσιν. Τεττιξ μεν τεττιγι φιλος, μυρμηκι δε μυρμηξ Κουφος, η, ον, light, light- Κατακρυπτω, I conceal. (sc.ή εστιν). Οι ποιμενες προς τας συριγγας αδoυσιν. Παρα minded.

Κολαζω, I punish, chastise. τους Αθηναιοις και ορτυγων και αλεκτρυονων αγωνες ησαν. οι | Απορια, ας, ή, want of means, Μακαριζω, I account happy

destitution, need.

congratulate. ποιμενες τας των αιγων αγελας εις τους λειμωνας ελαυνουσιν. μυρμηκων και ορτυγων βιος πολυπονος εστιν. Πολλοι αγαθην

EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH. μεν ωπα, κακην δε οπα εχουσιν.

Οι ορνιθες φδουσιν. Χαρις χαριν τικτει, ερις εριν. Μακαριζομεν ENGLISH-GREEK.

την νεοτητα. Απορια τικτει εριδας. Πλουσιοι πολλακις την Ιανοίd a hatterer. Ravens croak. You are delighted by the κακοτητα πλουτω κατακρυπτουσιν. Ο καλε παι, στεργε τον harp. Dances delight men. They drive the horses with (dat.) αγαθον αδελφον και την καλην αδελφην. Η φιλοχρημοσυνη μητηρ

κακοτητος απασης εστιν. Οι πενητες πολλακις εισιν ευδαιμονες. * The tota, which is subscript with small letters, is written / Η σοφια εν τοις των ανθρωπων θυμους θαυμαστους των καλων by the side of capitals, but not sounded; thus ωδη becomes | ερωτας ενεγειρει. “Ο θανατος τους ανθρωπους φροντιδων απολυει. Ωιδη, and qδω becomes Αιδω.

“Η φιλια δια όμοιοτητος γιγνεται. Oινος εγείρει γελωτα. Εν νυκτι + Note, '80. stands for scilicet (that is, scire licet) and points βουλη τους σοφους γιγνεται. Οι σοφοι κολαζουσι την κακοτητα. out that a word is understood, that is, left out, ειnd is to be οι ανθρωποι πολλακις κουφαις ελπισι τερπονται: supplied : sc. is therefore equivalent to our that is, or supply: 80 here 80. εστιν means that the verb εστι, s, being omitted by the author, is to be supplied by the reader.

* Instead of Λαμπαδσι, κορυθσι, ορνιθσι ανακτσι, and ελμινθσι.

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ENGLISH-GREEK,

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. LXXVIIL Birds sing. Favour is begotten by favour, strife by strife.

By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D. By (dat.) wisdom (there) is awakened in men's minds a won. derful love of good things. I am delighted with the song of

§ 128.—THE INFINITIVE. birds. The songs of birds delight the shepherd. We delight (1.) The infinitive represents the being, action, or passion in in (dat.) birds. Men follow kings. Men obey the king. an indefinite manner, and without number or person :

Vouloir tromper le ciel, c'est folie To wish to deceive heaven, is folly

à la terre. LA FONTAINE. There are neuter nouns which belong to this class. The

L'ardeur de vaincre, cède à la The ardour of conquest (to constem of these neuter nouns ends in 7 and in it, as yala, milk,

peur de mourir. CORNEILLE quer), yielus to the fear of death (to yalart-os, of milk. As the laws of euphony do not endure a

die). For at at the end of a word, the j and the kt disappear in Haïr est un tourment.

To hate is a torment, the nominative, or pass (as in ovs, g. ОUTOS, an ear) into o.

SéGUR. Thuς, το σωμα, σωματος, α body και το γονυ, γονατος, α knee και το

(2.) The infinitive is often used substantively :yala, yalaktos, milk, and to ovc, wros, an ear, are declined as follows.

Ou plutôt, que ne puis-je au Or rather, why can I not at the doux tomber du jour ?

sweet close of the day ? S. N. σωμα yovv γαλα ους

LAMARTINE. G. σωμάτ-ος γονάτος γαλακτ-ος UT-OS

(3.) The infinitive present is used in French after certain D. σωμάτ-ι yovăt-i γαλακτ-ι

verbs, which are, in English, joined to other verbs by the conA. σωμα yovu γαλα

junction and :V. owpa γονυ γαλα

ους

Allez chercher mon père. P. N. σωμάτ-α γονάτα γαλακτ-α

Go and fetch my father.

1 G. σωμάτων γονάτων | γαλακτων

(4.) We might give as a general rule, that a verb imme. D. σωμά-σι* γονά- σι* γαλαξ-ι* ω-σι * diately preceded and governed by another verb (avoir and étre σωμάτ-α γονάτ-α γαλακτ-α

excepted), or by a preposition (en excepted), is put in the σωμάτ-α γονάτ-α γαλακτ-α

present of the infinitive :D. N.A.V. owpăt-e yovăr-γαλακτε

Tout ce qu'elle s'imaginait tenir, All that she fancied that she held, G.D. σωμάτ-οιν! γονάτ-οιν ! γαλακτ- σιν

lui échappait tout-à-coup.

escaped her suddenly.

FénéLon. Like γονν (stern γονατ) decline το δορυ, και εφear, δοράτος, Vos raisons sont trop bonnes Your reasons are too good in δοράτι, &c. ; dat. pl. δοράσι.

d'elles-mêmes, sans être appuyées themselves to need that foreign asde ces secours étrangers.

sistance.
VOCABULARY.

RACINE.
Vous pensez tout savoir.

You think that you know every.

PIEYRE, Αμαρτημα, ατος, τo, a failing, Μυθος, ου, o, a speech, word.

thing.

Croit-il le pouvoir rompre! Does he believe he can break it? a fault, sin. Xwplouos, ov, è, a separation.

TH. CORNEILLE. Βοηθημα, ατος, τo, help. Mirpos, a, ov, small. Πραγμα, ατος, το, 8 deed, Ποικιλος, η, ον, various, varie- (5.) The French language preferring the active to the thing.

gated.

passive voice, requires the use of the active verb in the Ρημα, ρημάτος, a thing spoken, Φαυλος, η, ον, radically bad. following and similar cases wherein the English use the passive

voice : Xphotos, n, ov, useful, good. Xpnua, aros, to, a thing for use; Baotaśw, I bear, carry.

Cette dame est bien à plaindre. That lady is much to be pitied. in the plural, goods, pro- ruuvasw, I exercise.

Cette maison est à rendre.

This house is to be sold. perty: EOSW, I accustom.

La chose est de trop peu de con- The matter is of too little conseΙδρως, ιδρωτος, o, sweat. ETTEVÕw, I hasten.

séquence pour la traiter sérieuse- quence to be treated seriously.
ment.

VOLTAIRE.
Depanela, as, n, care, service. Enevdw, I pour out, make a
Ταυτολογια, ας, ή, saying the libation.

§ 129.-GOVERNMENT OP VERBS.
same thing again, repetition. 'Arrouar, I hang on something,
Nuuon, ng, n, a nymph,

I touch (gen.)

Some verbs are in English governed by prepositions different

from those which connect or govern the same verbs in French. 'Ikerns, ov è, an entreater, pe- l'evojai, I taste (gen.)

Some, again, which are in English joined by prepositions, titioner. Alajeißopai, I exchange.

require none between them in French. We give below lists EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

of verbs with the appropriate prepositions, according to the

best French authorities. Εν χαλεποις πραγμασιν ολιγοι εταιροι πιστοι εισιν. Tns § 130.-VERBS REQUIRING NO PREPOSITION BEFORE ANOTHER αρετης πλουτον ου διαμειβομεθα τους χρημασιν. Οι ικεται των

VERB IN THE INFINITIVE. γονατων άπτονται. “ο θανατος εστι χωρισμος της ψυχης και του Accourir, to run

Observer, to notice, to observe σωματος. Ο πλουτος παρεχει τους ανθρωπους ποικιλα βοηθηματα. | Airner mieux, to prefer

Oser, to dare

Aller, to go
Μη πειθου κακων ανθρωπων σημασιν. Μη δουλευε, ωπαι, τη του | Apercevoir, to perceive

Paraître, to seem

Penser, to think, to fancy σωματος θεραπεια. Οι Ελληνες ταις Νυμφαις κρατήρας γαλακτος | Assurer, το αεsure

Pouvoir, to be able σπενδουσιν. Εθιζε και γυμναζε το σωμα συν πονοις και ιδρωτι. Ανouer, to cofess

Prétendre, to pretend Οι αδολεσχαι τειρoυσι τα ωτα ταις ταυτολογιαις. Την ψυχην Confesser, to confess

Compter, to intend

Préférer, to prefer

Protester, to protect εθιζε, ω παι, προς τα χρηστα πραγματα: Οι φαυλοι μυθοι των | Courir, to run

Rappeler (re), to remember ωτων ουχ άπτονται. Τοις ωσιν ακουομεν. Μη έχθαιρε φιλον μικρου Croire, to believe

Rapporter, to report αμαρτηματος ενεκα. Γευου, ω παι, του γαλακτος. Οι στρατιωται Declarer, το deiare

Daigner, to deign

Reconnaître, to acknowledge

Regarder, to look at δορατα βασταζουσιν.

Désirer, to desire

Retourner, to return
Devoir, to be obliged

Revenir, to come back
ENGLISH-GREEK.

Ecouter, to hear, to lister,

Savo to know
Entendre, to hear

Sembler, to seem
O young men, exercise your (the) bodies with labour and

Envoyer, to send

Sentir, to feel sweat. We strive after good deeds. Many men delight in gold. Espérer, to hope

Souhaiter, to wish From a good deed arises glory. We admire the good words of the Faire, to make

Soutenir, to maintain, wise. The good deeds of good men are admired. The soldiers Falloir, to be necessary

Témoigner, to testify ught with (dat.) spears. I do not exchange the wealth of Imaginer (s'), to imagina

Valoir mieux, to be better virtue for (dat.) kings. Obey ye not the words of the bad. Laisser, to let, to suffer

Venir, to come
Mener, to take, to lead

Voir, to see
* For σωματσι, γονατσι, γαλακτσι, ωτσι.

Nier, to deny

Vouloir, to be willing

, ,

a word

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