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on the earth successively, that they lived and worked here for the inhabitants mingle this fossil meal with the four of corn, indefinite periods, and then vanished, and made way for other or with meal made of the bark of trees, ground for food. This kindred generations.

Bergmehl, or fossil flour, is one mass of animalculites. The The most distinguished student of animalculites is EHREN- same kind of rock is found at San Fioro in Tuscany. BERG of Berlin, who is the Lord Rosse of the microscope. In the neighbourhood of Eyra, in Bohemia, there is dug up a These tiny animals exist in ten million times ten millions, and fine white earth, which lies about three feet under the surface. millions of millions, and are found living in all water and when this earth is dry, it has all the appearance of pure magliquids. Wherever you see a spot of yellow or ochreous scum nesia ; but when it is examined by the microscope, it is seen in a pond, or ditch, or any stagnant water, that scum consists to be formed entirely of an elegant species of infusorial shells of an aggregation of hosts of animalculæ.

called Campilodisca. The living thing itself that is called an animalculite, or an In North America, one of the most celebrated places for infusorian, is a soft, juicy, fleshy, or mucous substance, that, infusorial rocks, is a district that lies between the cities of for the most part, lives in a case which forms its house and Richmond and Petersburg in Virginia. The city of Richhome. This case is sometimes called its shield and sometimes mond is built on a stratum of Hinty marls, having a thickness of its shell; and by technical writers it is called the carapace. more than twenty feet, extending, as far as Petersburg, and Some, however, exist without such cases, but are naked and spreading out into sterile tracts along the sides of the hills. have a flexible skin.

These formations are supposed to belong to the older tertiaries, The cases or shields of animalculites differ in different species. the meiocene or the eocene. The whole of these deep and In one class, the shields are calcareous or limy; in others sili- extensive marls are composed of infusorial remains. “When,” ceous or flinty; in others, ferruginous or irony. Their forms says Dr. Mantell, in “Medals of Creation,” p. 225, “a few and shapes are innumerable, but frequently of great beauty and grains of this marl are prepared, and mounted on a glass, symmetry. The Xanthidia are a hollow globe of finty matter. almost all their varieties will be manifest, so largely is this The Pyxidiculæ have a case like a saucer which is filled with earth composed of the skeletons of animalcules : in fact, very their body. The Bacillariæ look like a dozen cards placed in few inorganic particles are intermixed with the organisms. zigzag row, one touching the other at a point. The Naviculæ The merest pellicle or stain, left by the evaporation of a drop have a bivalve shell with six openings. The Gaillonellæ of water in which some of the marl has been mixed, teems have a bivalve case, but of a cylindrical and half globular form. with the most beautiful structures." You will find the rich and beautiful variety of their shapes well illustrated in Dr. Mantell's “Medals of Creation," and

ANIMALCULITES IN CHALK, especially in his “Invisible World.

Few of the revelations of geology have been more astonish. It is these shields or cases of the animalculite, and not the ing than the discovery,that a large proportion of the purest white animalculites themselves, that claim the attention of the geolo- chalk consists of minute chambered shells and microscopic gist, for it is these shields that he discovers mineralised, and corals, all of which are of the most complete and exquisite which, in a fossil state, constitutes vast rocks in the crust of the structure. If you scrape or brush a piece of chalk in water, earth. Ehrenberg has found them in fint, in opal, in chalk, and examine a small patch of the sediment by a microscope, and in many other rocks. They are found in vast profusion you will see that it consists of a vast abundance of the cases or in rocks of different periods—such as the tertiary series, and in shells of Polythalamia, Foraminifera, and Polyparia. Neverthe chalky and other secondary deposits.

theless, even these microscopic creatures must appear colossal Fossil animalculites are those which had shields; for the when you think that these animalculæ live upon infusoria more races that were naked and had a flexible skin had nothing diminutive than themselves. A cubic inch of white chalk enduring in their structure. Our lesson will embrace not only contains, according to Ehrenberg, more than one million of the fossils which belong strictly to the infusoria, but also other well-preserved shells of animalculites. minute organisms with which they are associated. One class This thought is almost overwhelming, when you consider, in of these are called Polythalamia, because their shells have connection with it, the vast extent and the great depth of the many chambers in them, and are not like that of the snail, chalk formation on the surface of the globe. All the Chalk which has only one. The other are called Foraminifera, Downs of England, and the cretaceous rocks of the earth, are because their cases or shells are covered with pores, or because only an accumulation of exceedingly minute organisms, which the different chambers of their shell are connected by a pore, are so closely packed together, that a piece of soft chalk, that and not by a siphuncle that runs through each.

you use in making a mark or drawing a line, has half its bulk

formed by fossil bodies. This is the case with our English ANIMALCULITES IN SOILS AND SANDS.

chalk; but in the chalk of the South of Europe, the profusion At the bottom of many swamps and peat bogs, whether rest of animalculite remains is in much greater proportion. ing on modern soils or on ancient rocks, there are generally

There is, of course, in every mass of chalk, a quantity of found layers of white, marly, or flinty paste or clay. This matter where no animalculite organisms appear in the field of paste or clay is made up entirely of the shields of infusoria. the microscope. This inorganic matter does not owe its ori..

They are found in abundance under the bogs of Ireland, in gin to a precipitation of lime that was previously held in soluLough Island, near Newcastle, and in many parts of North sion by the water, but it is the result of the attrition and disAmerica.

integration of the infusiorial organisms into a more pulverized This statement refers to peat bogs of the present age; but mass of calcareous particles, which have been afterwards when we examine the deposits of the tertiary period, the ani. reunited by crystallisation. malculite relics far surpass, both in multiplicity of forms and The upper part of the chalk formation abounds in nodules of in extent of distribution, any infusorial strata of modern times. fiint. Geology has lately shown that these nodules of Aints have And even the profusion which is found in the tertiaries of originated in an accumulation of the pulverised and ground parEngland is not to be compared with thuse of the continent, ticles which have been derived from the siliceous or flinty shields such as France and Germany, and also those of North America. of animalculites. The late Dr. Mantell distinguished hiirself The rocks of the Paris basin abound with marine sands. These much by his researches, chemical and geological, among these sands are so full of microscopic animalculites, that a cubic inch infusoria. He says that the most abundant microscopical of them—that is, a mass cut and squared like a dice an inch forms of animalculæ discovered in the chalk and finis of each way-would contain sixty thousand Foraminifera and England are two kinds of Polythalamia, called the Rotalia and Infusoria. This is particularly the case with the sands Texitularia. Associated with these are immense numbers brought from Grignon in that neighbourhood. In the district of the class called Foraminifera. of Bilin, in Northern Germany, there is a rock cailed “polish

These animalculite families are found to be most extensively ing slate.” The rock is of considerable extent, and is fourteen distributed in the rocks of every part of the globe. In the feet in thickness. It consists entirely of the Ainty shields of East, they have beon discovered in the Mount of Olives near Gaillonellæ. These shells are so minute, that a cubic inch of Jerusalem, in the Plains of Damascus, in the Hills of Antilia the slate containg forty-one thousand millions, 41,000,000,000 of banus, and in the rocks about Beyrout. In the South, it has animalculites. in Lapland there is a rock of fossil four, which been ascertained that a large proportion of the sand of the Lib. is called Bergmehl, or mountain meal. When bread is scarce, yan desert of Africa consists of microscopic shells. In North


America, the boundless masses of calcareous marls that prevail in Upper Missouri, and that stretch even to the Rocky A KEY TO THE EXERCISES IN THE Mountains, are, throughout their entire depth and extent,

LATIN LESSONS. made up of the shells of infusorial animals.

By John R. BEARD, D.D.
Among the lower or older series of tertiary rocks, there are

(Continued from page 59, Vol. IV.) several layers of limestone which consist of minute, flat, and cir

Vol. III. p. 72.-ENGLISH-LATIN. cular pieces that look as so many very diminutive and even microscopic coins. As Nummulus is the Latin for “little Reipublicae interest; meâ refert; illorum interest; omnium coin,” this rock has been called Nummulitic, as if it consisted interest; neminis refert; se domum reversurum esse certiorem me of " fossil money.” This calcareous rock consists often of a fecit filius; maritum valere certiorem fecit matrem filia tua; animi compact crystalline marble full of nummulites, and these sum confusus; mali saepe confusi sunt animi; temporis et trecésnummulites are only the shells of those extremely minute sitatis senatum regina admonet; me suscepti negotii taedet; boni forms of molluscous animals called Foraminifera. Foramini- malorum miserentur ; illos taedet vitae ; te uxorem habere mihi fera is the Latin for the numerous openings or pores with which venit in mentem ; praeteritorum recordatur ; rei militaris es peri

tus; consciano recti est mens tua ? consilii mei te faciam certiorem ; the shields of this genera are covered.

literarum appetens puer fiet sapiens; piscibus scatet mare; mitis Nummulites are not all microscopic, though as a genera est ingenii soror tua ; a plurimis divitiae magni aestimantur ; quanti they are diminutive. If you can imagine the size of a gold hunc librum emisti? non unius assis me faciunt; nostrum est penny, or, better still, a gold farthing, you will be helped to imperare, iuum obsequi; proditionis est accusatus ; capitis damna. conceive of the various sizes of this fossil money" constituting bitur ; claves urbis potestatis suae fecerunt hostes. immense mountains of limestone. The nummulite varies in size from a minute point to a disc of an inch, or an inch anda

Vol. III. p. 95.-LATIN-ENGLISH. half in diameter. When you look at it outside, its surface is Caesar said to Dumnorix that he pardoned the past misdeeds of generally smooth and marked with fine undulating lines ; but his brother Divitiacus ; the abandoned woman cursed both; physiif the piece be split transversely, it is found to consist of several cians, while they minister to the whole body, cure not even the coils, which are divided into very many cells or chambers, by smallest part ; Venus was married to Vulcan; Gabinius is reviled; oblique partitions which have no communication with each I have reproved Trebatius because he does not regard his health other.

sufficiently; the unwilling are not easily persuaded; I am of this The extent to which these nummulitic rocks spread in opinion; a good citizen makes to the republic a present of his different parts of the globe, has arrested the attention of all private hatreds; the Germans are given to labour and hardships; practical geologists. In Northern Italy, in a district near Nice, I am satisfied that you are worthless ; a good general is present is a rock remarkable for its nummulites. They are also found made war on Gaul ; certain signs precede certain things; father

in dangers; the physician applied remedies to the wounds ; Caesar in the Apennines, on both flanks of the Pyrenees, and among compares small things with great; the consul preferred the safety the high Alps. They occur in Asia Minor, and may be traced of all to the safety of individuals'; I set before myself all things' ; at intervals along the wide tract of country which extends he esteemed his love for his son less than the public good; Quinfrom the Mediterranean to the borders of Western India. tius Fabius alone survived the slaughter of his family at Cremera; Thick deposits of the same calcareous nature are found in the senate bestowed honours on illustrious men; the virgin marGreece and in Egypt. Sir RODERICK MURCHISON has lately ried him whom Caecilia had had for a husband; thy keepers have shown in a paper read before the Geological Society of London, given thee the name of madman; the name of that disease is that these nummulitic rocks supply one of the chief connecting all things belonging to human life ought to have been investigated

avarice; my name is Arcturus; I have deliberated and determined; links between the deposits of India and those of Europe. heard, read, discussed, and handled by the orator ; Alcibiades had “They extend,” he says, " at intervals through no less than such sagacity that he could not be deceived, especially when he twenty-five degrees of latitude, and near one hundred degrees purposely kept his mind on the watch ; majesty and love do not of longitude : its northernmost ridge on the north flank of the weil

agree, nor tarry in one abode ; the father gave his son a dog ; Carpathians being clearly identifiable with its southernmost the Rhine approaches the ocean ; you do not know what man you known limb in Cutch, and its western masses in Spain and speak ill of; avoid the dog ; surely these things do not seem to you Morocco being similar to those of the Bramahpootra” in the suitable to a marriage ? the villas, built along the pleasant places East.

of the river, stand on its margin; the world obeys God, and the In the United States, a range of mountains near Suggsville, seas and the lands obey him, and the life of man obeys the comand which are about three hundred feet high, are entirely it is agreed between Dejotarus and myself [comma after conteniti composed of one species of nummulites. In our own country, especially in Sussex, the blue clay that to fear my house and be on his guard against me; but it is agreed

that he with his troops should be in my camp: he advised Pompey is found at Bracklesham and Stubbington, and the calcareous to by all that the Sibyl brought three books to Tarquinius Supersandstone that is dug up at Emsworth and Bognor, abound in bus; it is foolish to allow what you can prevent; neither the plan nummulites.

nor the conversation suits me; an image of victory stood in the The facts which have been briefly stated in this lesson right hand of Ceres; the Parthians had taken the standards from show to you what an important influence the number, the Crassus; Caesar betrothed the granddaughter of Atticus to growth, and the decay of minute bodies and invisible agents Tiberius Claudius Nero; it is advantageous to the country itself to have had in the slow but progressive formation of our Earth's have citizens who perform what they owe to their parents; no fool crust. The contribution of each is almost unappreciable even by nor dislionest person can be well off'; Caesar made to his country the microscope, but the enormous masses produced by their a present of his grudges; Perseus familiarly smiled on persons numerical profusion are incalculable. Well might Infinite whom he scarcely knew; the praise and the glory of other men are Power stand over these stupendous operations, and ask “who things; who has not heard of the watchings (vigiliae) of Demoshath despised the day of small things?" It is by means of thenės Plet us always live as if we thought we had to give an account; these diminutive agents, that He has brought to pass the most in the school of Pythagoras silence was imposed on disciples for astounding phenomena and the most magnificent results. five years; Aeneas is seen by no one; Julianus and Apollinaris When we think that these minute animalculites have contri. in their lasciviousness and sloth, were like gladiators rather than buted much more material for furnishing the cover of the

globe, generals ; if my son sins at all he sins against me; we wish to be than have been supplied by lions, and elephants, and whales, rich not only for ourselves but for our children, our relatives, our and leviathans, we cannot but think of the language of the friends, and, above all, for the commonwealth; I recommended Psalmist : "O Lord, how manifold are thy works! in wisdom peace to Pompey, and the senate; who is a witness of this thing? hast thou made them all; the earth is fulí of thy riches; so is stand what is the meaning of avarice in old age ; virtue is the only this great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping and innu- thing which men can neither give nor receive as a gift; it is base merable, both small and great beasts. These wait all upon and nefarious to make a gain of politics ; they blame me greatly thee, that thou mayest give them their meat in due season. because I bewail the death of my friend; 'Pausanias went to assist Thou hidest thy face, they are troubled; thou takest away the inhabitants of Attica; the Veientes go to aid the Sabines; their breath, they die, and return to their dust."

they chose this place as their residence ; Caesar left behind fire

cohorts to protect the camp; sleep is very like death; a physician dilegerunt; tibi subvenit medicus, sed mederi non potest; domo ministers to a sick body; but who cures the mind ? the lion has a me reliquerunt praesidio; vae mihi! quid facio ? imperio Galterrible voice; Egypt was added to the Roman empire; he is liberal lico Italia est adjecta ; fratris ingenium longe antecellit meum; who takes from himself what he gives to another; the genius of si peccas, tibi peccas; cave leonem; portae liber adjacet; copiae the Greek poets far excelled the poets of other nations.

fluminis ripac insistunt; mihi convenit liber; hostibus signa detrahent milites; impiis non est bene; mali malis maledicunt;

in doctum esse con convenit tibi; prae curru currit equus ; bona Vol. III. p. 95.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

omnia sibi ipsi proponunt; maximos forti duci honores déferret

senatus ; volentibus multa facile persuadentur; vulneribus tuis Nomen tibi est Roberto; filio nomen do Roberto; simillimus remedia medicus adhibebit; Angli®student laboribus; est in peripatris est filius tuus; alteri seris, non tibi; est mihi ager; divitias culo pa'er (patri est periculum); mulieri supplicanti condonavit; mihi affert ager; mihi auxilio advenerunt amici; ludos sibi ueprf | virginem mihi uxorem adjungam.


Irregular Verbs, continued from p. 33.

Loben, to praise.

I may

thou mayst

he may


we may







you have



Present Tense.
Present Tense.

Present Tense Present Tense. Present. 1 ich lobe, I praise. ich lobe,

2. lobe tu, loben, to praise. lobend, 2 ru lobeft, thou praisest. tu lobest,

praise thou.

praising 3 er lobt, he praises. er lobe,

3. lobe er, let 1 wir loben, we praise. wir loben,

him praise. 2 ihr lobet, you praise. ihr lobet, you may

1. loben wir, ( 3 ste loben, they praise. fie loben,

they may

let us praised
Imperfect Tense.
Imperfect Tense.

2. lobet ihr,

praise ye. ich lobte, I praised. ich lobete, I might

3. loben fie, let 2 vu lobtest, thou didst praiso, du lobeteft, thou mightst

them praise 3 er lobte, he did praise.

er lobete,

he might 1 wir lobten, we did praise. wir lobeten, we might 2 liur lobtet, you did praise. ihr lobetet, you might 3 ifte lobten, they did praise. fie lobeten, they might Perfect Tense. Perfect Tense.

Perfect Tense.

Perfect ich habe I have ich habe I may have

gelobt Haber, to geioht

, praised. 2 tu haft thou hast bu habeft praised, &c.

have praised. 3 ler hat he has

er habe 1 wir haben we have

wir haben 2 ihr habet

ihr habet 3 lite haben they have

fite haben Pluperfect Tense.

Pluperfect Tense. 1 ich hatte I had

ich hätte I might have 2 bu hattest thou hadst

du hättest praised, &c. 3 er hatte he had

er hätte 1 wir hatten

wir hatten 2 ihr hattet

ihr hättet 3 sie hatten

sie hätten
First Future Tense.
First Future Tense. First Future.

First Future.
I ich werde I shall ich werde (if) I shall ich würde

loben werden, to 2 tu mirst thou wilt bu werdest praise, &c. vu würdest

be about
er wird
he will
er werte
er ivürde

1 wir werden

we shall
wir werden

wir würden 2) ihr werdet

ihr werdet

ihr würdet
3 sie werden

they will
fie werden

fte würden
Second Future Tense. Second Future Tense. Second Future.
11 ich werbe I shall ich werbe (if) I shall ich würde
2 bu wirst thou wilt du werdest have praised du würdest
3ler wird he will er werde

&c. er würde
wir werden
we shall
rvir werden

ivir würden
2) ihr werdet
ihr werdet

ihr würdet (3 sie werden they will sie werden

sie würden $ 81. The Mixed CONJUGATION

Perfect Participle, and at the same time, partaking of the New

Form, in that they assume, in the same parts, the lense-sign (Embracing the Irregular Verbs properly so called). te and the participial ending t. These are they which, strictly

speaking, are the irreghlar verbs of the language, and accordThere are a few verbs (sixteen in all), which have, a sort of ingly, they are here so classed. They will be found, also, mixed conjugation : partaking of the old Form, in that they in the general List of (so called) “ irregular" verbs, which, change their radical vowels to form the Imperfect Tense and the l for the sake of convenience, we have inserted.





we had you had they had


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lowed, may,

er mag

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ZIG-ZAG (Spalding): His geometrical trisection of an angle won't do; his S 82. VERBS OF THE MIXED CONJUGATION. other queries are exceedingly sınall.-G. B.(Manchester) is right; he will find

the matter put right at p. 89 of the same volume. See the 1st No. of vol. iv..-W.R. C. (Stepney): The Stadium differs in different places and with different ancient writers.-J. C.C.: We really cannot well advise without

more definite information; if in town, a personal interview would save PRESENT IMPERFECT.

immense trouble.-AN ADMIRER: See past Notices to Correspondents.INFINITIVE,


X. Y. Z. (Liverpool): Study Latin well first, and then Greek, UN ELEVE of the Indicative

(Birmingham): Here is a French song for you :Indicat. Subjunct CIFLE.

DodécALOGUE DE L'Amitié.

Un ami tu te choisiras Brennen, to burn, ich brannte ich brennte gebranntbrenne

Sans te presser aucunement.

Semblable à toi tu le voudras Bringen, to bring, ich brachte ich bråchte gebracht

D'âge, de gouts, de sentiment. Denken, to think, id dachte ich dächte gedacht

A t'aimer tu le convieras

En vivant charitablement. Dürfen, to be per- ich tarf, du darfst, ich durfte ich dürfte geturst

Ton respect tu lui prouveras mitted, er darf

En le reprenant franchement, Haben, to have, ich habe, du hast er ich hatte ich hätte gehabt tabe

Jamais au sien tu ne voudras hat

Qu'il préfère ton jugement.

Au besoin tu le défendras Rennen, to know, ich fannte ich fennte gekannt

Contre tous intrépidement. Können, to be able, ich kann, du kannst, it fonnte ich könnte gekonnt

A sa parole tu croiras

Comme à son entier dévouement. can, er fann

Beaucoup tu lui pardonneras Mögen, to be al. ich mag, du magst, ich mochte ich möchte gerucht

San vouloir qu'il t'en fasse autant,

Ses peines tu derineras Müffen, to be ich muß, tu muß, ich mußte ich müßte gemußt

Pour les consoler seulement,

Les tiennes tu ne lui diras obliged, must, er muß

Que s'il y peut soulagement, Nennen, to name, ich nannte ich nennte genannt

Sa femme tu respecteras Rennen, to run, ich rannte id rennte gerannt

Et la tienne pareillement.

Avec lui tu partageras Senden, to send ich saubte ich sendete gesandt

Tous tes biens fraternellement. Sollen, to be ich soll, sa follit,

Et faisant ainsi tu seras obliged, shall, er soll

Sûr d'être aimé bien tendrement. Wenden, to turn, ich wandte ich wendete gewandt

F. H. J. (London) and J. E. H. (Kidderminster): Thanks.-J. DOWELL Wissen, to know, ich weiß, du weißt, ich wußte ich wüßte gewußt wisse

(Birmingham): Thanks; the cause for a standing army is to keep the

balance of power in Europe, as well as for national defence. The second er weiß

question is absurd.-CRETOS: We don't know the "Heir-at-Law Society."Wollen, to be wil ich will, tu willit,

J. RUTHERFORD (Buckden): The correct answer to a question implying an ling, er will

affirmation is yes ; and to one implying a negative, is no.-NIL DESPRRANDUM asks too much of us.-W. B. HODSON (Lincoln): Series is both

singular and plural; hence we can say both this series and these series.S 83. PARADIGMS OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

W. W. B. (Taunton) and A FATHER (Burnley): We cannot undertake to

recommend one Assurance Society more than another.-C, THOMAS (St. (1) In order to a better display of the irregularities of some Betting questions.-J. C. JOHNSTONE : We mean that the whole New

Austell): Right.-J. THOMAS (Sheffield): We never undertake to answer of these verbs, we append the following paradigms. They will Testament in French can be had for 6d. The specific gravity of silver, fine be found exceedingly convenient for ready reference. Some of and not hammered, is 10474, and hammered, 10:512; of tin, pure and not these verbs, also have certain peculiar uses, which require spe

hardened, 7.291, and hardened, 7.299; that of water being 1.000. cial attention. For this reason we have, immediately after the

ALPHA (Farringdon): To differentiate y=(1+x2) (1 + x)*, paradigms, added a series of explanatory remarks, with copious apply the formula dy=d(uv)=udvtvdu, thus : examples illustrating the several ways in which they are dy=(1+x)(1+3)+(1+x)(1+x2)3= employed.

(1+x2)34(1+x)dx+ 1+x)*3(1+x2)?d(1+x2)=

(1+x2)4(1+x)(1+x)3dx+(1+x)(1+x)(1+x)6xdı ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

(1+22)2(1+x)" { 4+4x2+6x+6x2 } da=

(4+60+10.x2)(1+x)(1+*) dr. UN ETUDIANT: The letter vis put at the end of words ending in a vowel and coming before a word beginning with a vowel, whether a comma inter. venes or not; but it may be omitted. The correction suggested was made in answer to another correspondent, vol. iii., p. 344, where the meaning of

LITERARY NOTICES. xacpw (I rejoice) is given. The following is the translation of the lines of Homer :

FRENCH “For there is not anywhere a more miserable being than man among all the creatures that breathe and crawl upon the earth.” “And when the Now ready, price 48. in stiff Wrapper, or 55. strongly bound in cloth, early rosy-fingered dawn appeared."

the First Part complete, consisting of the French and English, or CASSELL'S Jacques Knox: We cannot answer the first query satisfactorily, but can FRENCH DICTIONARY: the entire work will be completed in Twenty-six only conjecture there may be some reasons of a local character for using a Threepenny

Numbers, and will form one handsome Volume of eight

hundred feminine noun to designate a man. The word des is used with a nominative and thirty-two pages. Price 8s. 6d. bound in cloth, or the Two Divisions case in a partitive or indefinite sense to express some, any; as, des pommes, may be had separate. some apples, or simply apples. See vol. i., pp. 32 and 63. 'We do not know A COMPLETE MANUAL OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE, by Professor De which a in the word amans our correspondent means.

Lolme, just published, price 3s. neatly bound. This forms one of the A CONSTANT SUBSCRIBER: "Which is the better of the two?" is most simple, practical, and complete Guides to a thorough knowledge of the undoubtedly correct, and best is, strictly speaking, wrong; but it may be French Language which has hitherto been published. The plan upon which questioned whether usage, which is the only guide in language, does not it is conducted is admirally calculated to accomplish the proposed object. afford the latter sanction enough to render it allowable.'

In the first place, the Grammatical Principles of the Language are clearly TERTIAN: We have not room for the complete parsing of the sentence laid down, and, secondly, these Principles are copiously illustrated by suitable, referred to, nor do we see any difficulty in it.

Exercises of English to be turned into French. AQUILA PULCHRA: The preposition ab is indispensable before names of

CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH, in a neat volume, price 25. in stiff covers living agents, but is not used before those of lifeless instruments, which are or 23. 6d. neatly bound in cloth. simply put in the ablative. Ad insulam could not be changed to insulæ, the A KEY TO CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH, containing Translations of all dative case. The word to, after a . word signifying motion, must generally the Exercises, with numerous references to the Grammatical Rules, price be translated by ad, followed by an accusative, though the preposition is is. paper covers, or ls. 64. cloth. omitted before the name of a town or small island. The French books

GERMAN, mentioned are good and cheap. H. STYLE: We are now preparing an easy German reading book, which will

CASSELL'S GERMAN DICTIONARY is now issuing in Numbers, at 3d, each be published soon, under the title of " Lessons in German Pronunciation." Monthly Parts, 18. each. We have already published an " Eclectic German Reader," containing select CASSELL'S LESSONS IN GERMAN, price 26. in sik covers, or 2s. Bd. and varied extracts from German Authors. Both these works have a diccloth. tionary of all the words at the end.

CASSELL'S LESSONS IN LATIN, price 26. In stiff covers, or 3s. 6d. cloth. BACINE (Manchester): All right.-SALOPIAN (Shrewsbury): We do not CASSELL'S KEY TO THE LATIN EXERCISES, now ready, price 1s. in stie know.-lo ORAMUS (Amble): Not.

covers, or 1s. 60, cloth.


terminating above in a sharp edge, will do). These prelimi.

naries being arranged, place under the suspended and inverted ON HYDROGEN.

tumbler the tobacco-pipe stem delivering hydrogen gas. If The student will remember that in the first lesson he


Fig. 23.
to prepare a certain combination of tobacco-pipes, corks, and
large-mouthed bottles. They have not been employed hitherto,
and the learner may consequently think I have forgotten all
about them : not so.

It has been my especial object to arrange these lessons in such a manner that manipulative details, or the directions for conducting the mechanical part of operations (and chemistry is full of such), may be interspersed with a due proportion of thinking philosophy. I shall continue to hold this

f object in view, and therefore shall not set off the manipulative part of chemistry by itself, but describe the manufacture of every instrument when wanted.

Perhaps the operative student may have observed—at any rate, he ought to have observed, for no phenomenon occurring during the performance of a chemical operation and appertain.

(a) ing to it should remain unnoticed,- I say he may have observed, that during the act of solution of the zinc in dilute sulphuric acid a certain gas was evolved. Now this gas is termed hydrogen ; it is the lightest ponderable body in nature, and the common method of procuring it is really that which the the apparatus be sufficiently delicate, the tumbler t will be student has already followed, namely, by the operation of raised, thus proving the levity of hydrogen gas. There dilute sulphuric acid upon the metal zinc: iron will answer are many processes of demonstration more elegant than this : nearly as well. Perhaps, moreover, the student may have several will he mentioned hereafter. There are none, howobserved that the hydrogen gas thus developed had a peculiar ever, of equal simplicity, as they require the use of apparatus smell; this, however, is a casualty-pure hydrogen is almost not yet described. devoid of smell. I need not describe on what the smell de

The next experiment to be mentioned shall have reference pends just at this time, further than stating that the cause is to the products of the combustion of hydrogen gas. For a sort of oil generated during the process of dissolving zinc in this purpose, ignite a jet of such gas as it emerges from dilute sulphuric acid.

the shank of the tobacco-pipe, and hold over the flame a wide. Let us now learn a few properties of this gas by experiment, mouthed bottle or tumbler, as represented in the following generalising these properties hereafter. For this purpose,

diagram, fig. 24:repeat the act of solution,-using zinc and dilute sulphurić

Fig. 24. acid as before,-only let the solution be performed in the bottle instead of an open dish, and stop its mouth with the perforated cork, armed with its tobacco-pipe shank, immediately after the zinc and dilute acid have been poured into it. It is scarcely necessary to intimate that the mixture of sulphuric acid with the predetermined quantity of water can scarcely, with safety, be attempted in the bottle itself, on account of the heat developed. It requires to be effected in an earthenware basin, jug, cup, or something of that sort.

Having generated hydrogen in this way, we shall soon learn one of its most prominent qualities : causing a flame to approach the end of the tobacco-pipe shank, the hydrogen which escapes will immediately take fire, proving that it is combustible. In performing this experiment, it will be well for the operator to place himself at some little distance from the apparatus, because if the light be caused to approach the extremity of the tobacco-pipe shank before the generated After the lapse of a few seconds, the vessel, previously dry, will hydrogen has forced out all the atmospheric air which the be bedewed with moisture. Where does the student believe bottle originally contained, an explosion will be the result: the moisture comes from? His first idea, perhaps, might be, not dangerous in itself, but it may be destructive to the clothes that it comes from little particles blown out, as it were, from by the diffusion of the dilute acid in spray. Every pheno- the liquid in the bottle. In our rough experiment, probably menon, as I have before remarked, occurring during the a little is attributable to that source; hut if every care be taken performance of a chemical experiment is important, and should to dry the gas, still its combustion yields water-nothing but never be passed unchallenged. In the present case, we do water. Hence hydrogen derives its name from vówp, water, not stipulate for an explosion ; we will effect that purposely, and yévvaw, I form; hydrogen, then, means the water-former. and by a convenient process, hereafter. Nevertheless, should If, instead of a tumbler, the student uses a large-mouthed an explosion occur, it would only serve to anticipate a com. bottle (a soda-water bottle answers remarkably well), he will munication of the fact, that hydrogen gas forms an explosive generally succeed in eliciting a roaring or singing noise, attrimixture when mingled with air in certain proportions. If butable to vibrations set up in the contained air by means of an explosion occur, replace the stopper, and wait this time the burning hydrogen. before applying the flame until all the atmospheric air has been The chemistry of gases is very delicate; I shall, therefore, expelled. This period may be readily guessed at, or may be when describing these bodies (the term sounds oddly to an uninsured, by giving the operation a little more time. Applying chemical ear, though it is correct) frequently require to mennow the flame, the jet of hydrogen will burn tranquilly. tion instruments that the student neither has nor requires to

The next experiment we will perform shall have reference have, a mere description of their form and mode of operation to the extreme lightness of hydrogen. It is this:-Attach being sufficiently instructive. Of this kind is Cavendish's to one end of a thin slip of deal, a drinking-tumbler, or Eudiometer, the instrument by which the truth that hydrogen other similar vessel, as indicated in the accompanying dia- by combustion with oxygen (for that is essential) yields water, gram at t, fig. 23, and to the other end of the same slip of deal nothing but water, was first determined. In the experiment any pan-like contrivance for the suspension of a counterpoise which we have performed, the hydrogen supplied itself with w; next, support the slip by a fulcrum f (an upright board, oxygen from the atmospheric air; but it would have been com. VOL. IV


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