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zinc, to combine in its turn with sulphuric acid. The reader I shall not say more about it at present, but shall simply conwill moreover observe that what we call, for shortness, sulphate tent myself by remarking, that chemical combinations do not of zino is really sulphate of the oxide of zinc, Acids never com- take place in proportions a little more or a little less, but they bine with metals, but with acids.
are fixed, unvarying, definite, and therefore capable of representaWith respect to the diagram just given, I advise the student, tion by numbers, which latter are called the atomic equivalents whenever he is in doubt as to the changes which ensue during or proportional numbers of the bodies concerned. Thus 3 is chemical composition or decomposition, to have recourse to a dia- the atomic number for oxygen, and 1 for hydrogen, congram. First put down all the substances employed, then divide sequently the atomic number of water must be 9. You them into three components
, then join the elements together by must learn the atomic numbers of simple bodies, but do not lines or brackets in a manner that shall be accordant with actual attempt too much at a time. Remember on this occasion the results.
atomic numbers of hydrogen, oxygen, and zinc-1, 8, and 32; One point connected with the preceding diagram requires fur- this is surely. no difficult matter. If you choose to remember ther explanation; I mean the numbers there given. My first the atomic weight of sulphuric acid to be 40, well and good; hereintention was to have omitted them, because the general explana- after you will get at this information through another channeltion of what took place would have been equally comprehensible you will be told that sulphuric acid is a compound of three equiwithout them. Further reflection caused me to alter this deter-valents of oxygen and one of sulphur ; now the equivalent number mination; let the reader, then, consider them as the shadow of a of sulphur being 16 and of oxygen 8, it follows that 16+(8X8)= coming doctrine-the atomic theory and doctrine of definite pro-40; or, in the symbols of chemical algebra, 803=5+30, s portions.
standing for sulphur and 0 for oxygen.
Present. mögen, to be mögend, being
Perfect Tense. Perfect. gemodit haben, geinocht,
to have been allowed. allowed.
he is allowed. er möge,
wir mögen, we may ihr möget, you are allowed. ihr möget, you may sie mögen. they are allowed. fie mögen, they may Imperfect Tense.
Imperfect Tense. i ich mochte, I was allowed. ich möchte, I might 2 du mochtest , thou wast allowed. du möchtest
, thou mightst 3 er mochte, he was allowed.
er möchte, he might i wir mochten, we were allowed. wir möchten, we might 2 ihr mochtet, you were allowed. ihr möchtet, you might 3 sie mochten, they were allowed. fie möchten, they might Perfect Tense.
du haft gemocht, allowed, &c du habeft been allowed,
&c. wir haben gemocht,
wir haben ihr habet gemocht,
ihr habet fie haben gemocht,
fie haben Piuperfect Tense.
Pluperfect Tense. ich hatte gemocht, I had been ich hatte I might have du hattest gemocht, allowed, &c. tu hättest been allowed er hatte gemocht,
&c. wir hatten gemacht,
wir hätten ihr hattet gemocht,
ihr hättet fie hatten gemocht,
Fie hätten Pret Future Tense. First Future Tense, First Future. ich werde mögen, I shall be ich werde (if) I shall be ich würde bu wirst mögen, allowed, &c du werbest allowed, &e. du würdest er wird mögen,
Jer würde wir werden mögen,
wir würden 2 ihr werdet mögen,
Jihr würdet 3 sie werden mögen,
lfte würben Second Future Tense. Second Future Tense. Second Future. rl ich werde I shall have ich werbe (if) I shallsich würde 2 du wirft been allowed, du werdest have been al- du würdest 3 er wird
&c. er werde lowed, &c. er würde wir werden wir werden
wir würden 2 thr werdet
ihr würdet (3 | fie werben
(11) Remarks on mögen.
MM. Quoy and Gainard were the first to show that the Mögen marks possibility under allowance or concession from coral insects had not built up their masses of rock from grea! another : as, Gr mag lachen, he may laugh ; that is, he has per- fathoms deep, and that these incrustations rested upon some
depths, but had merely produced stony incrustations a few mission to laugh, no one hinders him. Er mag ein braver Mann fein, he may (I grant) be a brave man; where the possibility of his underlying rocks. They also remarked that wherever land being a brave man is a thing conceded. Kindred to this are the was cut into bays with shallow and quiet water, and exposed other significations (chance, inclination, wish, &c.) usually attri- to the intense heat of the sun, there the polyparia abounded buted to this verb: thus, es möchte regnen, it might rain; that is, From circumstances of this character it was conjectured that
most, and there they incrusted the rock the most extensively. the causes that seem to forbid, are likely not to operate; ich the coral reefs and coral islands took their form and shape möchte es bezweifeln, I am disposed or inclined to doubt it, that is, from the forms and the inequalities of the rocks on which I might doubt it altogether, but for certain circumstances they were built
, and that circular or oval islands owed their seeming to forbid: möge es der Himmel geben, may heaven grant it; form to the underlying crusts of the craters of submarine volich mag es nicht thun, I do not like to do it, that is, I am not per-canoes. All these hypotheses have been long ago exploded, mitted by my feelings to do it cheerfully, &c.
partly by Sir CHARLES LYELL, but chiefly by Mr. CHARLES Darwin, the most distinguished and the most successful
student of coral formations, LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.–No. XLV.
Coral rocks are divided into three great classes, called
respectively Atolls, Barrier Reefs, and Fringing Reefs. By Thos. W. JENKYN, D.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., &c.
ATOLLS used to be called Lagoon Islands, and consist of CHAPTER IV.
rings of land in the midst of the ocean. The ring of land,
sometimes oval or egg-shaped, is a few hundred yards in ON THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIC AGENTS ON THE' breadth. These ring islands or atolls are sometimes only a EARTH'S CRUST.
mile in diameter, but sometimes as much as thirty miles. Land
of this description is generally low, rising but little above the SECTION III.
level of high water, but covered with cocoa-nut trees and ON THE AGENCY OF CORAL INSECTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF pandanus of great height (see illustration, fig. 102, at the close
of this lesson). Within these rings of land is a bed of calm, N almost every district on the surface of the globe, and at clear, and shallow water. It is this sheet of water that is called almost every depth in the earth's crust, calcareous strata are delicate kinds of coral insects find a tranquil abode, while the
a lagoon. In this water the more minute and the more found, which have all the appearance of being the work and stronger and the larger live and work on the outer margin of product of living agents—agents that knew how to secrete the ring among the waves and
breakers. Every such atoll has atoms of carbonate of lime out of sea water, and had skill to an opening at one part of it, which allows a ship of any burden unite those particles into beautiful structures, which were to to pass from the ocean into the
lagoon. form stony habitations for their own safety and comfort. This class of animals is constantly called coral. This is not These are coral rocks which either extend in straight lines in
The second class of coral rocks consist of Barrier Reefs, their appropriate name, for coral is the name of the rock that the front of a continent
or of a large island, or encircle smaller is built
, and not of the animal that constructs it. They are islands. In both cases, as they are separated from the land sometimes called Zoophytes, a Greek term which means animal plants, on account of their resemblance in form to by a broad and rather deep channel of water, they are analogrowing plants. At other times they are called Polyparia, gous to the lagoon within the atoll
. and Polypifera. These and others are only names for the
The annexed illustration (fig. 99) represents a part of the barcoral insect
, or the animal that constructs the coral rock. The rier that encircles an island. "It is a true sketch of the Island coral insect consists of a little oblong bag of jelly, which is of Bolabola, as 'seen from one of the central peaks. You see closed at one end but open at the other. The mouth of the that the coral reef is covered with palm trees, and you must bag is surrounded by the insect's tentacles or feelers, which imagine that the reef completely encircles the island, in the are generally about six or eight in number, and dart in all centre of which you see that peaked rock. That reef was all directions like the rays of a star.
worked beneath the sea, but by a volcanic upheaval, sudden unite to form a common stony skeleton called coral, in the three miles to more than forty miles in diameter
. There is Myriads of these minute animals live close together, and or gradual, it has become dry land.
The extent and dimensions of these barrier reefs vary frotte minute openings of which they live. When they are under water, they protrude their mouths and tentacles to seize and near New Caledonia a reef, fronting one side and encircling receive their calcareous food; but the moment they are
appre-both ends of the island, that is 400 miles long. hensive of danger, they withdraw into their holes. These calcareous abodes form, over the bottom of the sea, stony cases, called coral banks or coral reefs, which they build up from a moderate depth, not much exceeding a hundred feet. It is found that at different depths, and in different areas, corals of different species develope themselves. Their range extends on each side the equator between 32° north latitude and 28° south latitude.
The amount of coral rocks in different oceans is enormous ; but not so enormous as was at first apprehended by the earlier navigators. The scientific men, who accompanied exploring expeditions, found the Indian and Pacific Oceans studded everywhere with the products of these polyparia. As the seas in the immediate neighbourhoods of coral rocks were always well-nigh unfathomable, it was conjectured that the coral insects had built up their masonry from a sea bottom at immense depths. In the coral rocks which appeared above the surface of the sea, the insects had finished their work and died; but it was conjectured that other zoophytes were, in the meantime, just commencing their architecture at the dottom of deep seas, were spreading their sheets of coral Fig 99.- The Island of Bolabala the Pacific, surrounded by roek over a vast area of sea bottom, and that they, in their turn,
a Coral Reef overgrown with Palms. would work up their rocky structures to the surface of the ocean.
The third class of coral rocks are Fringing Reefs. Whero
the land slopes abruptly under water, these reefs are only a few | stony masonry must have a foundation to rest upon; and yards in breadth, and they form a kind of stony ribbon or thirdly, that as soon as the corals build up their reef to such a fringe round the shore. In places where the land slopes gently height as to be left dry at low water, they cease to work. under the water, the reef always extends farther seaward, For the sake of understanding the formation of coral rocks, sometimes even as much as a mile from the land. From the let us look again at the figure which represents the Island circumstance that corals always grow more vigorously on the of Bolabola. We have supposed that the reef which suroutside amid the breakers, and that the sediments washed rounds it became dry land, through being upheaved by a within the reefs have a noxious effect upon the insects, the sudden or gradual volcanic action. But now, let us imagine outer edge of the reef is always the highest part.
that that peak and that yonder reef are subsiding and sinking In accounting for the architecture of coral reefs, there are under the waters of the ocean. The island, with its present three things to be assumed as well-established facts : first, reef, represented by the unbroken lines in the next diagram that no coral insects can live at a depth below 20 or 30 subsides slowly. fathoms—that is, below 120 or 180 feet; secondly, that their
In this illustration (fig. 100) A A represents the outer edges | "A'B'. You can now see why certain encircling reefs stand of the fringing reef at the present sea level. B B are the present so far from the shores which they form. shores of the island. As gradually as the island continues to sink, so progressirely do the corals work upward ; and A' A'
The same facts would come out, if, instead of an island, we represent the outer edges of the reef after its upward growth, had supposed the shore of a continent fringed with reefs to during a period of subsidence, has been completed, and even
have subsided. tually converted into a barrier with islets on it. B'B' are the You must again imagine that the island of Bolabola has new shores of the now encircled island; and c o represents the continued to subside for thousands of years, until there was lagoon between the fringing reef and the island, after a subsi- formed around it a new barrier reef, represented by the broken dence of several hundred feet, is given by the dotted lines | lines in fig. 101.
Fig. 101.-A Section through Bolabola during a period of supposed Subsidence.
A A represent the outer edges of the barrier reef at the level atolls, as well as in the no .ess wonderful barrier reefs, of the sea, with islets on it. B'B' the shores of the included whether encircling small islands or stretching for hundreds of island of Bolabola. co, the lagoon channel between the reef miles along the shores of a continent, are simply explained.”— and the land. On our supposition, as the barrier reef continues Darwin's Naturalist's Journal, p. 474. to sink down slowly, the coral insects go on working, vigor- The preceding figure represented to you the gradual formaously upwards. As the island sinks, the water gains inch by. tion of lagoon islands or atolls by subsidence. Fig. 102 wil. inch on the shore, and the two peaks, x y, form separate give you the appearance of an atoll when so formed. islands within one great encircling reef; and, finally, x the This engraving, after all, gives but a faint idea of the highest disappears. As soon as this takes place, a perfect singular aspect of an atoll. Whitsunday Island is one of the atoil is formed, and A" A" represent the outer edges of the smallest size, and has its narrow isleis united together in reef, now converted into an atoll, and c' is the lagoon in which a ring. “The immensity of the ocean, the fury of the a ship rides at anchor.
breakers, contrasted with the lowness of the land and the “We can now,” sayMr. Darwin, " perceive how it comes smoothness of the bright green water within the lagoon, can that atolls, having sprung from encircling barrier reefs, re- hardly be imagined without having been seen." semble them in general size, form, in the manner in which The rocks produced by coral insects are of immense extent. they are grouped together, and in their arrangements in single Coral reefs are scattered in the oceans, as if in certain lines of or double lines; for they may be called rude outline charts of enormous length. On the eastern coast of Australia a coral the sunken islands over which they stand. We can, farther see reef stretches that is 350 miles long. In the Pacific there are how it arises that atolls in the Pacific and Indian Oceans extend two groups of islands, the one called the Disappointment on lines parallel to the generally prevailing strike of the high Islands, and the other the Duff group. These two groups are lands and great coast lines of those oceans. I venture, 500 miles apart, but they are connected by coral reefs over therefore, to affirm that, on the theory of the upward growth which the natives can travel from one island to another. Alsu of the corals during the sinking of the land, all the leading between New Guinea and Australia there is a line of coral features in those wonderful structures, the lagoon island or reefs 700 miles long, in which there are no gaps wider thor
thirty miles. In the Indian Ocean, to the west of Malabar, of the Danish islands, however, the flinty chalk is covered there is a chain of coral islets and coral reefs, called the Mal- by coral limestone. divas, that is 480 geographical miles long. This chain consists The oolite beds abound in corals, and their limestones are of a series of innumerable atolls, between which no soundings nothing but coral reefs consolidated. Indeed, the coral rag, could be found at 150 fathoms.
in this formation has all the characters of the reefs now The study of coral formations is of importance in geology, forming in the Pacific. Rocks constructed by corals form the as it tends to explain the production of coralline rocks formed principal part of the vast range of the Jura in Switzerland. at earlier epochs in the history of the globe. Geologists find In the carboniferous system are deep and extensive strata
that be very remote periods in the earth's history, and in called the mountain limestone, which abounds in various forms much higher latitudes than at present, these coral insects were of corals. The silurian system also teems with peculiar kinds among some of the most efficient architects employed by the of corals. Creator in the structure of the earth's crust, and that both From these facts we learn, as Dr. Mantell says, the architects and the architecture in the ancient hills were the an atom of living jelly floating in the ocean, at length besame as in the present day.
coming fixed to a rock, may be the first link in a chain of All the tertiary formation, especially the coralline crag, events, which, after the lapse of ages, may produce important supplies numerous specimens of cargophylliæ, spongiæ, &c., modifications in the physical geography of our globe. 'When while the eocene deposits contain astrea, meandrina, and we bring the knowledge thus acquired to bear on the natural mugenera, inhabitants of tropical seas.
records of our planet, and examine the rocks and mountains In the chalk formation corals are abundant in certain around us, we find that, in periods so remote as to exceed our localities, as in the sandy strata of Maestricht; but in the powers of calculation, similar effects were produced by beings white chalk of England there is no appearance of coral reefs, of the same type of organization as those whose labours" are though corals of a small and delicate species are found in it. carried on at this day. “We are thus enabled to read the It is evident that the white chalk was deposited in a profound history of the past, and to trace the succession of events, each ocean. As, therefore, the corals can only live at a moderate of such duration as to defy all attempts to determine, with depth, coral reefs could not have been produced in the chalk any approach to probability, the period required for its devesea, except in shallows or near the sea-shore. In some I lopment."—Wonders of Geology, p. 657.
LESSONS IN GREEK.--No. XII. ending in ooς (ούς), οη (ή), οον (ούν), as απλού, απλή, απλούν,
single or simple; also adjectives of two terminations in oos (ous) · By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.
and oov (oūv) formed from the substantive voos (vos), the mind, A DEVIATION from the usual form of the Second Declension as o, ή ευνους, το ευνουν, well-minded, that is, well disposed; and may here claim the student's attention.
from the substantivo πλοος (πλούς) ο, ή ευπλους, το ευπλουν, THE SECOND DECLENSION CONTRACTED.
voyaging successfully. These differ from their substantives A small number of substantives in which an o or an e stands only in this, that in the neuter plural they suffer no contrac
Decline in the same before the case-endings undergo contraction. By contraction tion, ending in -voa and -loa. is meant the blending of two vowels into a diphthong, or some
manner adjectives ending in oos, and denoting that of which a other equivalent. The student must learn both the uncon-I thing is made, 18 χρυσεος (χρυσούς), χρυσεα (χρυσή), χρυσεων tracted and the contracted forms, first horizontally, as aloos, (xpvooūv), golden. In the neuter plural ea is contracted into ã. πλούς και πλου πλού, &c. ; and then perpendicularly, as πλοος, | When the feminine termination εα is preceded by a vowel or πλοου, πλοω, uncontracted; and πλούς, πλού, πλω, con
p, the ea is contracted, not into ñ, but into ã, as tracted. Thus are declined ó adoos, a sailing or voyage; Tepe- ερε-εος (ερεούς), ερε-εα (ερεά), ερεον (ερεούν), woollen. πλοος, α sailing round or circumnaoigation; and το οστεον, α δone. αργυρ-εος (αργυρούς), αργυρ-εά (αργυρά), αργυρ-εον (αργoρEXAMPLES OF CONTRACTED NOUNS; SECOND DECLENSION.
ούν), of silver. UncontContr Uncont. | Contrac. Uncon. Contrc. EXAMPLES OF CONTRACTED ADJECTIVES ; Second Declension. S.N. πλοος πλούς περιπλοος περιπλους οστεον οστούν
Μ. F. Ν. Μ. F. Ν. G. πλοου πλού περιπλοου περιπλου οστεου οστού
χρυσούς χρυσή χρυσούν απλούς απλή απλούν D. πλοφ πλω περιπλοω περιπλω οστεφ οστώ G.
χρυσου χρυσής χρυσού απλού απλής απλού πλοον πλούν περιπλοον περιπλουνoστεoν οστούν D. χρυσω χρυση χρυσω απλω απλή απλά V. πλοε πλού περιπλοε περιπλου οστεον οστούν
χρυσούν χρυσήν χρυσούν απλούνα πλήν απλούν P.Ν. πλοοι πλοί περιπλοοι περιπλοι οστεα οστά ν. χρυσούς χρυσή χρυσούν απλούς απλή απλούν
G. πλοων πλών περιπλοων περιπλων οστεων οστών P.Ν. χρυσοί χρυσαι χρυσά απλοί άπλαι απλά D. πλοους πλούς περιπλοοις περιπλοις οστεοις οστούς G. χρυσών χρυσών χρυσών απλών απλών απλών Α. πλοους πλους περιπλοους περιπλους οστεα οστά D. χρυσοίς χρυσαϊς χρυσοίς απλούς απλαϊς απλούς πλοοι πλοί περιπλοοι περιπλοι οστεα (οστά
Α. χρυσούς χρυσάς χρυσά απλούς απλάς απλά D.Ν. & . πλοω πλω περιπλοω περιπλω οστεω
7. χρυσοί χρυσαι χρυσά απλοί άπλαϊ απλά G. & D. πλοοιν πλούν περιπλοοιν περιπλoιν οστεοιν οστούν D.Ν. & V. χρυσώ
χρυσά χρυσω απλώ απλά απλώ After this manner decline the multiplicatiye adjective, G.D. χρυσούν (χρυσαϊν χρυσούν απλοϊν άπλαϊνάαλούν
to the stem, does not appear in the nominative. In the follow. Noos, ov, d, the understanding, Oxaos, ou, ó, a multitude, asin avos, comes from a noun in as ; Mexas, therefore, is the
ing table, however, you will find that a genitive having an 1, the mind, the soul.
word which you have to look for in the lexicon, and pelas Kaveov, ov, 70, a small basket.
'Tavos, ov, , sleep. Evvooś, ovv, well-disposed, be- Xativos, ov, 'é, a bridle, rein. you find to mean black. Thus, you see
, if the genitive is
given, the word is easily ascertained. In general, then, the nevolent.
Κατοπτρον, ου, τo, a mirror. Avoos, ouv (a not and voos), Κυπελλον, ου, τo, a goblet.
genitive in unintelligent, senseless. Tekvov, ov, to, a child.
δος Xankeos, ea, eov, brazen, made Andos, n, ov, known, evident,
θος comes from a nominative in o of brass.
clear. Aindela, as, ý, truth. A8nios, ov, unknown.
yos eparaiva, ns, y, a female serOlcyos, , ov, few.
comes from a nominative in ErKaMUTTW, I uncover.
xos Opyn, ns, y, anger.
Etikovo.cw, I lighten.
ryos comes from a nominative in yo
βος Teyea, as, ý, Tegea, a city in Aeyw, I say, I name.
comes from a nominative in y Arcadia. sipoopepw, I carry, I bring to.
φος Opeoins, ov, d, Orestes.
comes from a nominative in ; }
and in particular Λογος κατοπτρον εστι του νου. Τον νούν έχουσιν οι ανθρωποι
avos comes from a nominative in as, av διδασκαλoν. . Τον ευνουν φιλον θεραπευε. Οι αγαθοι φιλοι πιστον
αντος comes from a nominative in as νούν εχουσιν. Ο πλούς εστιν αδηλος τους ναυταίς. Συν να τον
aos comes from a nominative in aus, as βιον αγε. Ο οχλος ουκ εχει νούν. Μη εριζε τους ανοις. Οι αγαθοι
EVOS comes from a nominative in no τοις αγαθοις ευνοι εισιν. Ορεγου φιλων ευνων. Τα Ορεστου οστά
EVTOS comes from a nominative in eis εν Τεγέα ην. Αι θεραπαιναι εν κανοίς τον αρτον προσφερουσιν
comes from a nominative in evs, ns, os, v, us Οι θεοι και καλον και κακον πλούν τους ναυταις παρεχουσιν.
comes from a nominative in np epos
. Ψυχης χαλινος ανθρωπους και νούς εστιν. Πολλακις οργή ανθρωπων
comes from a nominative in 1, v, us, EUS νουν εκκαλυπτει. Απλούς εστιν και της αληθειας λογος. Λογος
comes from a nominative in , v, is ευνους επικουφιζει λυπην. . Το κυπελλον εστιν αργυρουν. Ο
comes from a nominative in 1 θανατος λεγεται χαλκους υπνος. .
comes from a nominative in is ENGLISH-GREEK.
comes from a nominative in v The understanding is a teacher to men. The well-disposed
ovus comes from a nominative in wr friend is honoured (Departeuw). Well-disposed friends are
comes from a nominative in wv, ovs honoured. To the well-disposed ar many friends (that is, the
comes from a nominative in w, ws, alls well-disposed have many friends). Abstain from the senseless. opos comes from a nominative in wp, op Strive after benevolent friends. Bring the bread in a basket.
comes from a nominative in ns, os, ws Avoid senseless youths. Senseless youths are avoided. The goblet is golden. Silver goblets are beautiful. Pass life (Blov
pos comes from a nominative in F ayelv) with understanding. Contend ye not with the senseless.
Tpos comes from a nominative in the Remark that as a general rule the subject (or what is commonly called the nominative) has the article, the predicate
comes from a nominative in us
υδος being without it. Thus, if, as in the last Greek sentence, you υθος meet with a sentence having two nouns connected by the verb eivat, take first, that is, take as the subject, that which has the
comes from a nominative in wr article before it, as -Subject.
comes from a nominative in ws και θανατος λεγεται χαλκούς υπνος
I wish you, with the aid of this table, to review the ground Death is called a brazen sleep. oret which we have gone. With it you should possess the
utmost familiarity before you pass on to the next topic. In
order to assist you, and at once to ground you in what you THE THREE DECLENSIONS (review).
have learnt, and to enlarge your acquirements, I subjoin With the nouns of the first and second declension, the stu- exercises bearing on the three declensions. These exercises dent, if he has thoroughly mastered the foregoing lessons, are taken from the best Greek authors, and from the Sacred will find no difficulty in any attempt he may make to construe Scriptures. When you have mastered them, you will feel classical Greek. It is somewhat different with nouns of the that already you have made some progress. third declension, the discovery of the nominative of which is I premise a few syntactical remarks. In Greek, as in necessary in order to consult a Greek lexicon with ease and Latin, adjectives, adjective pronouns, and participles, agree effect. I therefore subjoin the following, which will enable with their nouns in gender, number, and case. That is, if the him from the genitive case to find the nominative ; in which noun is in the accusative singular, in the accusative singular form substantives and adjectives appear in dictionaries. I must the adjective, &c., be. If the noun is in the genitive give the genitive, because the genitive is, as it were, the key plural, the adjective must be in the genitive plural. If the to the remaining oblique cases. Thus, if you meet with avopa, noun is of the neuter gender, put the adjective in the neuter you know the genitive must have two of these letters, namely, gender; and so in all other cases, the adjective, the adjective õp; if you meet with Xevuwves, you know the genitive will pronoun, and the participle, when they agree in sense, must have the letters Xeipwr; if you meet with uedaves, you know agree also in form, both being in the same gender, number, the genitive will have the letters medar. Now, from the and case. Thus, we say aya@os avnp, a good man; but if we genitive you may get to the nominative, and you may do so use gurn instead of amp, we must change ayados into ayadn. by the aid of what has already been said. But for this you Also we write avdpa ayubov Oavuação, I admire a good man ; must bear in mind that the v in uelas, though belonging but yuvalka ayaonu Pavaso, I admire a good woman--where