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TITULY

STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring;

for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business : for expert men
can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling
of affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies, is sloth; to use them
too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar:
they perfect nature, and are perfected by experience; for nafural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning
by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by
experience.—Bacon.

Presented by the thon

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LONDON:
CASSELL, PETTER, AND GALPIN, LA BELLE SAUVAGE YARD,

LUDGATE HILL, E. C.

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In bringing our Fourth Volume to a close, we heartily thank all our Subscribers for their steady and unwearied support. The letters of encouragement and of commendation which we have received during the past six months, have been more numerous and more gratifying than ever. We have endeavoured to show our sense of these favours, by labɔuring more earnestly to impart solid and useful instruction in various important branches of learning; we have, in fact, considered that we were entrusted by our readers with the responsible task of their education, and we rave aimed at fulfilling our duties to their satisfaction. We have given a concise and popular summary of the leading facts in several branches of Natural Philosophy, as may be seen by consulting the Index; but many highly useful and interesting departments are soon to follow in their order; these are Caloric and Optics, or the doctrines of Heat and Light, including some of their most interesting applications, as the Steam Engine, the Telescope and Microscope, Daguerreotype and Photography; Magnetism and Electricity, including the nature of the Telegraph, the Electrotype, and other useful applications; and, as soon as possible, Astronomy, which is much in demand.

Chemistry has also been treated in a highly popular manner, and has converted a great number of our Subscribers into practical Students of that art. The elegant languages of ancient Greece and of modern Rome have also occupied our pages, and have been expounded with great care by the authors of the Lessons on these branches of Literature; nor have we forgot our Students in French, as a “ Course of Readings” in that popular language is still appearing at convenient intervals. The Mathematics, including Algebra and Geometry, with Instrumental Arithmetic and Mathematical Illustrations, have also been progressing under our own care, and these branches will be still more vigorously pursued in our next Volume, where some of them, if possible, will be brought to a conclusion. Bookkeeping has already occupied a portion of our labours, and we shall conclude this branch in a few early Numbers, with the subject of Foreign Trade. The Lessons in Reading and Elocution will be rendered still more useful and attractive in our next Volume; but we cannot promise any new language till we have finished one or more of those now in hand ; the German, however, is very near a conclusion. We are preparing for Lessons in Mechanical Drawing, and in various other branches which have been unavoidably, postponed, on account of the great demand for those which we have given, and which we are now carrying on. In closing these remarks, we can only say that we shall continue to place before our Readers, as we have always striven to do, those subjects which are the most irr demand, and which are calculated to do “ the greatest possible good to the greatest possible number.”

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254

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.
VIII. Reduction and Addition of Fractions

116

Map of France, with the Railways, and Divisions
IX. Subtraction and Multiplication
of Fractions .. 249

into Provinces and Departments; Map of
X. Division of Fractions ; Simple Equations 270

Turkey in Europe, with Greece and the Ionian
XI. Reduction of Equations by Multiplication, and

Islands; and Division into Provinces and
by Division ; Numerical Substitution

327

Islands, Map of the Austrian Empire, with
XII. Problems in Simple Equations

342

Divisions into Provinces and Population;
XIII. Involution of Powers; Binomial Theorem 381

Map of Russia in Europe, with Divisions into

BIOGRAPHY.

Provinces and Territories-to be prefixed to the

volume.

XIII. Zarah Colburn, the Calculating Boy ..........

374

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY,

LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.

XLII. Icebergs...

23

VII. Home Trade; Memoranda of Transactions.. 108, 126

XLIII. Botanic Agents; Plants and Trees

29

VIII. Subsidiary Books ; Cash Book ; Bill Book; Bills

XLIV. Animalculite Contributions to the Formation

Receivable Book ; Bills Payable Book

144

of Rocks.

72

IX. Day Book, from January till June

151

XLV. Agency of Coral Insects in producing Rocks 96

X. Cotton Book; Purchases; Sales; Profits 176

XLVI. Results of the Agency of Man, by Agriculture,
XI. The Journal, from January till June ; with the

etc.

139

General Balance .......

197 XLVII. Classification of the Rocks in the Earth's Crust 165

XII. XIII. The Ledger ; Posting; Balancing; Index to XLVIII. Relative Position of Rocks in their vertical order 231
Ledger A; Ledger X, from January till June;

XLIX. Rocks of Recent Formation; Rocks in course

Trial Balance

.....214, 227

of Formation ; Rocks formed since the Crea-

tion of Man and Animals ..

262

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.

L. The Tertiaries; their Lithological Character.... 313

II. Materials required; Remarks on Iron and Zinc 3

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.

III. Zinc; Manganese ; Facts for the Student, etc.. 37
IV. Chemical Tests for Metals; their Application

XXIII. Lectures on Euclid, Book I. Props. XVI.,

69

V. On Hydrogen; Cavendish's Endiometer........

77

XVII., XVIII.; with Scholia, Corollaries, and

Exercises

92

49

VI. Application of the Pneumatic Trough

XXIV. Book I. Props. XIX., XX.; with Scholia, Corol-
VII. Experiments on) Hydrogen and Sulphuretted

laries, and Exercises

194
Hydrogen Gases; Resumption of the Metals 113

XXV. Props. XXI., XXII., XXIII; with Scholia,
VIII. White Arsenic; Experiments with the Arsenical

and Exercises
Solution .....

128

XXVI. Props. XXIV., XXV., XXVI.; with Scholia
IX. Experiments on Arsenic; Further Tests for

Corollaries, and Exercises ..

141

268

Arsenic
X. Reinsch's Process of detecting Arsenic ........

155

XXVII., XXVIII., XXIX; Props. XXVII., XXVIII;

173

XI. Solution of Antimony

with Scholia and Exercises; Discussion on

the Theory of Parallel Straight Lines; Thirty

XII. Hydrochloric Acid; Sulphuret of Antimony.... 191

different methods for removing the difficulty

XIII. Experiments on Tin; the Proto-chloride of Tin;

of the Twelfth Axiom of Euclid's First

Bichloride of Mercury; Chloride of Gold.... 201

Book......

218

XIV. Protoxide of Tin ; Experiments

295, 311, 321

XV. Persalts of Tin; Formation of Sulphurets 236

LESSONS IN GERMAN.

XVI. Oxygen; its Generation

247 LX VIII., LXIX. Irregular Verbs; Verbs of the New

XVII. Properties of Oxygen Gas.....

261

Conjugation.......

18, 32

XVIII. The Results of Combustion in Oxygen

280 LXX. Paradigm of a Verb of the New Form; the

XIX. Experiments on Silver; Lunar Caustic; etc. 292

Mixed Conjugation; Verbs of the same .... 75

XX. Method of obtaining Silver from a Metallic LXXI., LXXII., LXXIII., LXXÍV., LXXV., Paradigms

Solution.

304

of Irregular Verbs; Passive Verbs 86, 94, 112, 131, 154

XXI. Chloride of Silver ; Mercury, Calomel, etc...... 320 LXXVI. Paradigm of a Passive Verb; Reflexive Verbs '172

XXII. Chloride of Mercury; Calomel; Corrosive Sub- LXXVII. Paradigm of a Reflexive Verb; Impersonal

limate; Poison ; Tests and Antidote. 336

Verbs; Compound Verbs.....

187

XXIII. The Bichloride of Mercury; Detection of Poison 355 LXXVIII. Compound Prefixes Separable ; Paradigm of a

XXIV. Economy of Heat, chiefly in reference to Gas 366

Compound Verb Separable

205

XXV. Principle of the Blast Furnace; The Argand LXXIX. Observations on the Paradigm of a Compound
Gas-Burner ; Distillation ; Stiñ and Worm;

Verb; Inseparable Prefixes,..

219

Flasks and Retorts ....

380 LXXX. Prefixes, Separable and Inseparable; the Ad-

verbs; the Prepositions

238

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.

LXXXI. Table of the Prepositions; the Conjunctions ;

LXVII. Agreement of the Subject and Verb

The Interjections ....

246

LXVIII. Adverbs; Syntax of the Predicate

14 LXXXII. Syntax; the Articles; the Noun, etc........ 309

LXIX. Syntax of Predicate; the Verb; Object

33 LXXXIII. Rules and Observations relating to Nouns, etc. 325

LXX. Syntax; Prepositions ..

481 LXXXIV. The Pronouns; the Adjectives; the Verbs 339

LXXI. Syntax; Conjunctions; Interjections.

64 LXXXV. Use of the Tenses; Rules and Observations.... 358

LXXII. Compound Sentences

79 LXXXVI. The Tenses; Participles; Adverbs; Preposi-

tions ; Conjunctions; Interjections ... 371

LESSONS IN FRENCH.

LXXVIII. The Infinitive; Government of Verbs ; etc 11

LESSONS IN GREEK.

LXXIX. Government of Verbs; the Past Participle ... 26 VIII., IX., X., XI. The Third Declension; Paradigms 10,39, 65, 71

LXXX. Remarks on the Foregoing Rules, etc ........

42 XII., XIII. The Second Declension contracted; the Three

LXXXI. Adverbs of Negation; the

Preposition

51

Declensions reviewed; Exercises, etc......97, 115

LXXXII. The Conjunction, its regimen; Collocation of XIV., XV. Comparison of Adjectives; General View 124, 170

Words......

67 l, XVI. Adverbs; Comparison of Adverbs .....

185

XVII., XVIII. The Pronouns ; Personal; Reflective;

FRENCH READINGS.

Reciprocal; Possessive; Demonstrative; Rela-

I. Sections I. II., with Exercises, etc....

287

tive; Indefinite and Interrogative, etc....209, 222

II. Sections III., IV., and V., with Exercises, etc. 293 XIX. The Numerals; with Declension of the First' 235

III. Section VI., with Exercise....

316 XX. Numeral Adverbs; Remarks ; General View.. 244

IV. Section VII. Le Chateau De Cartes; M. De XXI., XXII. The Verb; Voices, Tenses, Moods; the

Lajolais, Section I.

341

Participle; Numbers; Conjugations; Prefixes,

V. M. De Lajolais, Section II.

373

Suffixes, Stems; the Verb to be. ... 282, 307

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XXIII, Conjugation; Augment; Characteristic Let- XIV., XV. Capillary Attraction; its Effects; Laws of
ters; Flexional Terminations

337

the Ascent and Depression of Liquids in Capil-
XXIV., XXV. Conjugation of a Pure Verb in w; Para-

lary Tubes, between Plates of Glass, in Siphons;
digm of the Active Personal Voice; Termi-

of Liquids in Contact with Solids, etc. 203, 213
nations of the Active Voice; Paradigm of

XVI. Endosmose, Absorption, and Imbibition; Ab-
the Middle Voice ..

352, 365
sorption in Plants and An als

234

INSTRUMENTAL ARITHMETIC.

XVII. Pneumatics; Gases and the Atmosphere ; Mag.

II. The Plane Scale; its construction and use 13

deburgh Hemispheres; Measure of Almo-

III. The Plane Scale and Protractor ; Principles of

spheric Pressure; Torricellian Experiment;

Pascal's Experiment
Trigonometry
89

241
. IV. Scales of Various Equal Parts to an Inch...... 375

XVIII. The Atmosphere ; its Pressure ; the Barometer,

Cistern, Portable, and Siphon; Variations in

KEY TO THE LATIN EXERCISES.

the Height of the Barometer; its Relation to

Lessons XLVI. to L.

57

the Weather; the Wheel and Aneroid Baro-

Lessons L. to LI.

74

meters; Measurement of Heights, etc.

257

Lessons LII. to LIII.

119

Lessons LIII. to LVII.....................

XIX. The Elastic Force of Gases; Experiments of

135

Boyle ; Mariotte's Law; Manometers

276

Lessons LVII. to LXI.

163

XX. Mixture of Gases and Liquids ; Aerostation;

KEY TO THE LESSONS IN GREEK.

Balloons; the Parachute, etc...

289

Lessons II. to VII...

161 XXI. Pneumatic and Hydraulic Machines; the Air-

LESSONS IN ITALIAN,

pump; its Uses; the Fountain in a Vacuum;

301

I. Introduction; Pronunciation

the Atmospheric Railway

8

II. Pronunciation of Vowels and Consonants; First

XXII. The Condenser; Condensing Syringe; Condensed

Pronouncing Table .....

19

Air Fountain; Air-gun; Hero's Fountain ;

Intermittent Fountain ; Siphons ...... 317

III. First Pronouncing Table continued; Semivowels 41

IV. Pronunciation continued ; Second Pronouncing

XXIII. Pumps; the Suction-Pump, Forcing-Pump,

Table

Lift-and-Force Pump; Valves; Bramah's

52

Press; Mariotte's Bottle

333

V. Of Diphthongs; Third Pronouncing Table 65

VI. Fourth Pronouncing

Table

XXIV. Acoustics: Production, Propagation, and Reflec-

83

VII., VIII. Fifth Pronouncing Table

tion of Sound; Intensity of Sound; Savart's

103, 110
IX. Sixth Pronouncing Table, Accents, etc...

Apparatus for Increasing Sound; Effect of

133

X. On the use of the Apostrophe

Tubes ; Velocity of Sound; Laws of Reflected

147

Sound

349

XI., XII. The Articles; Declension of Nouns 159, 178
XIII., XIV., XV. Use of the Preposition or case-sign

XXV. Echoes and Ringing Sounds; the Speaking and
Di; etc.

192, 211, 232

Hearing Trumpets; Vibrations of Cords; the
XVI. Use of the Particle a; Vocabulary

Monochord; Nodes and Nodal Lines; Savart's

253
XVII., XVIII. Use of the Preposition Da; etc.

Toothed Wheel; the Siren; the Blowing
...... 265, 284
Machine...

361

XIX. Use of the Preposition In; etc.

298

XX. Use of the Preposition Con; etc..............

XXVI. Physical Theory of Music; Quality of Musical

306

XXI. Use of the Preposition Per, and Exercises...... 356

Sound; Unison; Gamut; Diatonic Scale;

Intervals, Sharps and Flats; Harmony, Dis-
LESSONS ON MUSIC.

cord; Pulsation; Tuning Fork; Vibrations

XX. Introduction to the Old Notation ; Relative

of Rods, Plates, and Membranes

Length of Notes; Absolute Length of Notes

LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION.
and Speed of Movement; Pauses of the Voice ;
Time Signatures ; Absolute Pitch and Clefs;

I. Punctuation ; Characters employed

251

Keys and their Signatures...

181

II, The Period; the Note of Interrogation; the

XXI. Of accidendal Flats and Sharps, and Rules

Note of Exclamation; Rules and Examples.. 285
for recognising on the Staff the Notes of Tran-

III. The Comma; Rules and Examples

330
sition, the Distinguishing Notes of Minor

IV. The Semicolon; the Colon; the Parenthesis,
Keys, and Chromatic Notes; other Symbols

Crotchets, and Brackets; Rules, etc.

370

of frequent occurrence

225

SKELETON MAPS..

XXII. Minor Tunes ; Exercises ; Remarks on the Com-
mon Scale ; Conclusion

273

IV. Description of the Skeleton Map of Africa, with

Table of Latitudes and Longitudes; Table of
LESSONS IN NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

the Length of Degrees in Different Latitudes 7

1. Object of the Science; Definitions

1

V. Description of the Skeleton Map of South Ame-

II. General Properties of Material Bodies; Prelimi-

rica, with Table of Latitudes and Longitudes 295

nary Notions on Force and Motion ...

21

SKETCHES FOR YOUNG THINKERS,

III. On the Composition and Resolution of Forces.. 35

IV. On Gravity and Molecular Attraction; on Den

IV. Milton: Intellectual Excellence, etc. ..... 16

sity, Weight, Centre of Gravity, Equilibrium 45

V. Alfred_the Great; Sir Isaac Newton ; Wesley;

V. Laws of Falling Bodies, Intensity of Gravity,

Dr. Evans; Simonides

54

Inclined Plane, Atwood's Machine, Morin's

VI. Moral Excellence; Cyrus; Confucius ; Socrates ;

Apparatus, etc...

61

Ignatius ; Polycarp

84

VI. Laws of Gravity; the Pendulum .............. 81

VII. Louis IX ; Salmasius; Cæsar Borgia; Pascal 143

VII. Molecular Forces ; Particular Properties of

VIII. Lord Bacon ; Locke; Boyle; Lyttleton; West;

Solids ; Tenacity of Metals, etc.

100

Addison ....................

175

VIII. Hydrostatics; Properties of Liquids; Piesome-

MATHEMATICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.
ters; the Principle of Pascal; Pressure in
Liquids from Gravity; Hydrostatic Paradox 105

1. Asymptotes to Curves; the Conchoid; the Conic
IX. On the Equilibrium of Liquids, in single and

Sections, etc.

149

communicating vessels; the Hydraulic

Press ;

MISCELLANEA.

Levels and Levelling; Fountains and Arte-

sian Wells .....

121

On Preparing Shells, 87. Poetry: “Look Aloft," 132. French

X. Bodies immersed in Liquids; Principle of

Sentences, 176. University of London, Nos. IV., V., and VI., 207,
Archimedes ; Hydrostatic Balance ; Meta- 220, 288, 345. Poetry : “ Curiosity,” 293. Mr. Cassell's Publica.

centre; Specific Gravity; the Areometer ....

XI. Specific Gravity; Tables of the Specific Weights

CORRESPONDENCE.

of Solids and Liquids ; use of these Tables

On Bathing when Heated, 27. Arithmetic, 59. Sloane's Ba.

XII. Areometers; Nicholson's and Baumé's Areome- lance, Solutions, 60. The Gift of Oratory, 120. University of

ters; Gay-Lussac's Densimeter

168 London: Lectures to Schoolmasters, 224. Industry and Charity,

XIII. Hydrodynamics ; Efflux of Liquids ; Liquid 240. The Blowpipe, 288. Tonic Sol-Fa Association, 300. Mutual

Vein; Vena Contracta; Theorem of Torri. Instruction Classes, 331. University of London : Classical Sub-

celli ; Discharge, theoretical and effective, etc. 188 jects, Calendar, 347.

ON PHYSICS, OR NATURAL

PHILOSOPHY.-No I.

OBJECT OF THE SCIENCE.

The object of physics, or natural philosophy, is the study of all in the air, and a great number of other bodies, to which the phenomena which material substances present, except those general appellation gas or aëriform fluid is applied. In gasos which relate to changes of internal composition; the latter the mobility of the molecules is still greater than in liquids; but come under the domain of chemistry. For example, selecting the special characteristic of gases is their unceasing tendency the metal iron as a subject of contemplation, we may study its to expand into a greater volume; a characteristic expressed by specific gravity, its degree of hardness, its property of weld- the term expansibility, and which will hereafter be demonstrated ing, of being drawn out into wire, and rolled or beaten into experimentally. The general term fuid is applied both to plates; all these phenomena depend upon the physical proper liquids and to gases. The greater number of simple bodies, ties of the metal, and the study of such phenomena comes under and many compound ones, are capable of presenting themselves the domain of physics, or natural philosophy, sometimes called successively under the three forms of solid, liquid, and gaseous, mechanical philosophy. But iron is endowed with another according to the variations of temperature to which they are set of qualities. It is capable of being dissolved in certain exposed. Of this successive change, water affords a well-known acids, and rendered invisible as iron, although its presence may example. Hereafter, when we farther advance into the regions be recognised by various tests. All this department of study of natural philosophy, it will be found that the three states of belongs to chemistry;

solid, liquid and gaseous, depend chiefly on variations of We have stated that matter (or material bodies) admits of molecular attraction and repulsion. being studied under two aspects : but what is matter? It is On Physical Phenomena.-Every change which the state of a necessary to arrive at some understanding as to this question body may undergo without involving alteration of composition before proceeding farther. Perhaps the best definition of mat- is a physical phenomenon. The falling of a body, the sound ter is comprehended in the expression, whatever falls or is produced by such falling, the freezing of water, all are physical capable of falling under the immediate cognisance of the phenomena. senses. At this time, there are sixty-three known elementary, or to designate the constant relation which exists between any

Laws and Physical Theories. The term physical law is applied simple bodies; that is to say, bodies out of which chemical particular phenomenon and its cause. For example, in demon. analysis has not succeeded in extracting more than one species Atrating the fact that a given volume of gas becomes one-half, of matter. Nevertheless the number sixty-three is by no one-third, one-fourth, &c., its original size, according as it is means to be regarded as the permanent representative of simple exposed to a degree of pressure, twice, three times, &c., we illusbodies. Possibly their number may hereafter be increased or trate the well-known physical law which is expressed by saydiminished, according as new simple bodies may be discovered, ing that the volumes of gases are in an inverse ratio to the or those with which chemists are at present acquainted may pressures under which they eiist. A physical theory is the colbe proved to be made up of simple constituents.

lection of laws relating to the same class of phenomena. Thus Bodies, Atoms, Molecules.-Every definite or limited amount we speak of the theory of light, the theory of electricity. of matter is termed a body or mass, and the properties of such Nevertheless this expression also applies, though in a more bodies or masses show that the matter of which they are com- restricted sense, to the explication of certain particular phenoposed is not continuous, but is made up of elements, as it were, mena. In this latter sense, we speak of the theory of San, the infinitely small; so small that they are incapable of physical theory of mirage, &c. or mechanical division, and not in actual contact, but in near Physical Agents.-As causes of the phenomena which bodies proximity; the distances between them being maintained by present, philosophers admit the existence of physical agents or reciprocal repulsions, known under the name of molecular natural forces, by the operation of which all matter is governed. forces. These minute elements of bodies are termed atoms, These agents are universal attraction, caloric or heat, light, and groups of atoms are termed molecules,-of which latter, a magnetism and electricity. Mere physical agents only manifest body or mass is only an aggregated collection.

themselves to us by their effects, their ultimate nature being Mass.—The term mass of a body is applied to the amount of completely unknown. In the present state of science, the matter which it contains. The absolute mass of a body cannot question still remains undetermined, whether the physical be determined, but its relative mass, considered with regard agents are to be regarded as properties inherent in matter, or to the mass of some other body taken as unity, can be readily whether they are in themselves subtle material bodies, impalarrived at.

pable, pervading all nature, and the effects of which are the Physical Conditions or states in which Bodies exist.—These result of movements impressed upon their mass. The latter states are three, each being well characterized and readily dis- hypothesis is that most generally admitted ; but being admittinguishable from the others. 1. The solid state. This condition ted, next follows the important question,—"Are these kinds of is manifested at ordinary temperatures by wood, stone, and matter distinct amongst themselves, or are we to refer them to metals. It is characterized by an entire adherence of mole. one and the same source?" This latter opinion appears to gain cules amongst themselves, so that they only admit of separa- ascendency in proportion as the boundaries of natural philosotion by the exercise of a certain degree of force, varying for phy, become expanded. Under the assumption that the phydifferent solids, and for the same under different circumstances. sical agents are subtle forms of matter, devoid of all appreciIt is a direct consequence of this molecular adherence, that able weight when tested by balances of the highest sensibility, Bolid bodies retain their original forms. 2. The liquid state. they have been termed imponderable fluids ; hence arises the of which we are furnished with examples in water, alcohol, distinction between ponderable matter, or matter properly and oils. The distinctive character of liquids is an adherence 80 called, and imponderable matter, or imponderable physical of so feeble a degree between their molecules, that the latter agents. slide upon and pass each other with extreme facility, in conse

ON THE GENBRAL PROPERTIES OF BODIES. quence of which it results that liquid bodies do not affect any external form of their own, but invariably assume that of the Different kinds of Properties.

By the term properties of bodies containing vessel. 3. The gaseous state. Or this we have examples or of matter is understood, the different methods by which they VOL. IV.

79

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