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VOCABULARY.

Abstract number. This phrase is employed to designate numbers

used without reference to any particular unit, as 8, 10, 21. But all numbers are in themselves abstract whether the kind of thing

numbered is or is not mentioned. Addition. The process of combining two or more numbers so as to

form a single number. Aliquot part. A number which is contained an integral number of

times in a given number. Thus, 5, 61, 123, 163, are aliquot parts

of 100. Amount. The sum of two or more numbers. In Interest, the sum

of principal and interest. Analysis. The separation of a question into parts, to be examined

each by itself. Antecedent. The first of the two terms named in a ratio. Area of a surface. The ratio of the surface to another surface

assumed as the unit of measure; usually the square of the linear

unit. Arithmetic. The science that treats of numbers and the methods

of using them. Assets. All the property belonging to an estate, individual, or cor

poration. Average. The mean of several unequal numbers, so that, if substi

tuted for each, the aggregate would be the same. Bank. An establishment for the custody, loaning, and exchange of

money; and often for the issue of money. Bank discount. An allowance received by a bank for the loan of

money, paid at the time of lending as interest on the sum lent. Bonds. Written contracts under seal to pay specified sums of money

at specified times, issued by national governments, states, cities,

and other corporations. Cancellation. The striking out of a common factor from the diviCommission. Compensation for the transaction of business, reck

dend and divisor.

oned at some per cent of the money employed in the transaction. Common denominator. A denominator common to two or more

fractions. Common factor. A factor common to two or more numbers. Common multiple. A multiple common to two or more numbers. Complex fraction. A fraction that has a fraction in one or both of

its terms. Composite number. The product of two or more integral factors,

each factor being greater than unity. Compound denominations. Several denominations used to express

parts of one quantity. Compound interest. When the interest due is left unpaid, and con

sidered as an increase made to the principal, the whole interest,

accruing in any time, is called compound interest. Compound fraction. A fraction of another fraction. Concrete number. A phrase used to denote numbers applied to

specified things; as 6 horses, 8 desks. Consequent. The second of the two terms named in a ratio. Consignee. The person or firm to whom goods are sent. Consignor. The person or firm who sends goods to another. Corporation. An association of individuals authorized by law to

transact business as a single person. Couplet. The two terms of a ratio taken together. Coupon. A certificate of interest attached to a bond, to be cut off

when due and presented for payment. Creditor. A person or firm to whom money is due. Cube root. One of the three equal factors of a number. Customs. Duties or taxes imposed by law on merchandise imported,

and sometimes on merchandise exported. Debtor. A person who owes money to another. Decimal fractions. Fractions of which only the numerators are

written, and the denominators are ten or some power of ten. Decimal point. A dot placed after the units' figure to mark its place. Decimal system. The common system of numbers founded on their

relations to ten, ten tens, etc. Denominator. The number which shows into how many equal parts

a unit is divided. Difference. The number which, added to a given number, makes a

sum equal to another given number.

Discount. Allowance made for the payment of money before it be

comes due. Also, the amount which the market value is below

the face or nominal value. Dividend. In division, the given number which is equal to the

product of a given factor (called divisor) and required factor (called quotient). In business, the share of profits which belongs

to each owner of stock, on his proportion of the capital. Division. The operation by which, when a product and one of its

factors are given, the other factor is found. Divisor. The number by which a given dividend is to be divided. Draft. A written order directing one person to pay a specified sum

of money to another. Drawee of a draft. The person to whose order the sum of money

named in a draft is to be paid. Drawer of a draft. The person who signs the draft. Duty. A sum of money required by government to be paid on the

importation, exportation, or consumption of goods. Equation. A statement that two expressions of number are equal. Equation of payments. The finding of an average time at which

several payments may be justly made. Exchange. A system of paying debts, due to persons living at a

distance, by transmitting drafts instead of money. Exponent. A small figure placed at the right of a number to show

how many times the number is taken as a factor. Extremes. The first and last terms of a proportion. Evolution. The process of finding the root of a number. Factors. The factors of a number are a set of numbers whose prod

uct is the given number ; they are assumed to be integral, except in the extraction of roots. In commerce, agents employed by Improper fraction. A fraction whose numerator equals or exceeds

merchants to transact business. Figures. Symbols used to represent numbers in the common system

of notation. Also diagrams used to represent geometrical forms. Firm. The name under which a company transact business. Fractions. One or more of the equal parts into which the unit is

divided. Grace. An allowance of three days, after the date a note becomes

due, within which to pay the note. Gram. The unit of weight in the metric system. Greatest common measure. The greatest number which is a com

mon factor of two or more given numbers.

the denominator. Index. A figure written at the left and above the radical sign to

show what root of the number under the radical sign is required. A fraction written at the right of a number, of which the numerator shows the required power of that number, and the denomi

nator the required root of that power. Instalment. A payment in part. Insurance. A guarantee of a specified sum of money in the event

of loss of property by fire, storm at sea, or other disaster; or of

loss of life. Integral number. A number which denotes whole things. Interest. The sum paid for the use of money. Involution. The process of finding a power of a number. Latitude of a point. The angle made by the vertical line at that

point with the plane of the equator. Least common multiple. The least number which is a common

multiple of several given numbers. Liability. A debt, or obligation to pay. Line. Length without breadth or thickness. The path of a moving

point. Liter. The unit of capacity in the metric system equal in volume

to a cube each edge of which is one-tenth of a meter. Long division. The method of dividing in which the processes are

written in full. Longitude of a point. The angle between two planes supposed to

pass through the centre of the earth and to contain, the one the

meridian of that point, and the other the standard meridian. Loss. The excess of the cost price above the selling price. Maturity of a note. The date at which a note legally becomes due. Mean proportional. A number which is both the second and third

terms of a proportion. Means. The terms of a proportion between the extremes. Meter. The unit of length in the metric system. Minuend. The given number in subtraction which is equal to the

sum of another given number called the subtrahend, and a

required number called the difference or remainder. Mixed number. A number that expresses both entire things and

parts of things taken together.

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