Research in Educational Administration: Cooperative Research Project No. F-2

University Council for Educational Administration, 1962 - 548 σελίδες
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Σελίδα 60 - Every man is in certain respects a. like all other men, b. like some other men, c. like no other man.
Σελίδα 49 - Our schools are, in a sense, factories in which the raw products ( children ) are to be shaped and fashioned into products to meet the various demands of life.
Σελίδα 137 - If a straight line meets two straight lines, so as to make the two interior angles on the same side of it taken together less than two right angles...
Σελίδα 49 - Every manufacturing establishment that turns out a standard product or series of products of any kind maintains a force of efficiency experts to study methods of procedure and to measure and test the output of its works. Such men ultimately bring the manufacturing establishment large returns, by introducing improvements in processes and procedure, and in training the workmen to produce a larger and a better output.
Σελίδα 52 - In the illustration above, a sudden draft will cause the flame to flicker, but with the cessation of the draft the flame regains its normal characteristics. 4. Open systems display equifinality; that is, identical results can be obtained from different initial conditions. Hearn...
Σελίδα 51 - ... together according to certain laws and in such a way as to produce some characteristic total effect. A system, in other words, is something that is concerned with some kind of activity and preserves a kind of integration and unity; and a particular system can be recognized as distinct from other systems to which, however, it may be dynamically related. Systems may be complex; they may be made up of interdependent subsystems, each of which, though less autonomous than the entire aggregate, is...
Σελίδα 46 - ... transmission? Or, to say the same thing differently, do the laws about rumors have the same form as the laws about diseases? The descriptive concepts in the laws of epidemiology are first of all replaced by letter variables. This reveals the form of the laws. The concepts referring to diseases are put into one-to-one correspondence with those referring to rumors. The letter variables in the epidemiological laws are replaced by the descriptive terms referring to rumors. This results in a set of...
Σελίδα 100 - A Psycho-Sociological Framework for the Study of Educational Administration...
Σελίδα 45 - Two theories whose laws have the same form are isomorphic or structurally similar to each other. If the laws of one theory have the same form as the laws of another theory, then one may be said to be a model for the other. This definition of "model" in terms of an isomorphism between theories at least provides one unambiguous meaning for that term.
Σελίδα 52 - Even though the initial states may differ, human beings generally achieve the same stages of development. 5. Open systems maintain their steady states, in part, through the dynamic interplay of subsystems operating as functional processes. This means that the various parts of the system function without persistent conflicts that can be neither resolved nor regulated. 6. Open systems maintain their steady states, in part, through feedback processes.

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