Josephus' Description of the Essenes Illustrated by the Dead Sea Scrolls
Prior to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1948, scholars studying the passages in Josephus' works which mention the pre-Christian sect of the Essenes attempted to explain various sections in Josephus primarily by comparing them with what other ancient writers, such as Philo and Hippolytus, had written concerning this group. With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, however, and the subsequent identification of the Qumran community with the Essenes by the majority of scholars, a whole new treasure trove of first-hand information concerning the Essenes has been made available. This study provides the first detailed analysis of and commentary on Josephus' description of the Essenes in the light of the new material from Qumran. A fresh translation is provided alongside the Greek text of the passages in Josephus, as well as a full commentary on the major passages in which he describes this group.
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1QpHab 1QSa Ancient Library angels Aramaic Archaeology biblical Books of Enoch Cave common meal concerning covenant Damascus Document Dead Sea Scrolls described Deut discussion Dupont-Sommer Enoch Essene Writings evidence Fitzmyer found at Qumran fragments Free 12 further Greek healing Hebrew Herod Hodayot holy Hypothetica immortality indicates interpretation Israel J.T. Milik Jerusalem Jews Josephus and Qumran Josephus mentions justice Kittim Law of Moses lawgiver Leaney Manual of Discipline marriage mebaqqer mentioned by Josephus nepi novice np6q numerous oath overseer parallels passage Pesharim Pharisees Philo phrase prayer priests prophets purification Qumran community Qumran literature references regard righteousness ritual purity Romans Rule of Qumran Sabbath sacrifices Sadducees scholars sectarians seems similar soul speaks specifically spirit statement Strugnell TCOV Teacher of Righteousness Temple Scroll Testament Tfiv Tfjq Therapeutae translation truth Vaux Vermes War Scroll word Yadin