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... vib PRACTICAL QUESTIONS. 1. If 9 yards of cloth cost 41. 3s. 7d. what is thai per yard ?
in 1108 £ $. d. tr. 9)4 3 7 2
pizda 9 3 2 Answer. 2. If 11 tons of hay cost 231. Os. 20. what is that per tun?
Ans. £2 ls. 10d. 3. If 12 gallons of brandy cost 41. 15s.6d. what is that per gallon?
; Ans. 7s. 114. 2grs." 4. If 84 lbs. of cheese cost 11.-16s. 9d. what is tha per pound?
Ans. 5ld.? 5. Bought 48 pairs of stockings for 11l. 2s. how niuch a pair do they stand me in?
Ans. 4s. 7 d. * 6. If a reckoning of 51. 8s. 10d. be paid equally amore 13 persons, what do they pay apiece ? Ans. 8s. 4d.
7. A piece of cloth containing 24 yards, cost 181. 6:... what did it cost per yard ?
Ans. 15s. 3d 8. If a hogshead of wine cost 331. 12s. what is it a ga lon?
Ans. 10s. Bd. * 9. If I cwt. of sugar cost 31. 10s, what is it per pound.
Ans. 70. 10. If a man spend 711. 14s. 6d. a year, what is tha per calendar month ?
Ans. £5 19s. 6 d. 11. The Prince of Wales' salary is 150,0001, a year what is that a day?
Ans. £410 19s. 2d. 12. A privateer takes a prize worth 12465 dollars, of which the owner takes one half, the officers one fourth, and the re. mainder is equally divided among the sailors, who are 125 ir.' number; how much is each sailor's part ? Ans. $24 93 cts.
13. Three merchants A, B, and C, have a ship in com pany. A bath , B , and C ), and they receive for freigh 2281. 16s. 8d. It is required to divide it among the own ers according to their respective shares.
Ans A's sharc £143 Ös. 5d. B's sharc £57 4s. 21" ! ("'s share £28 12s. Id.
11 A privateer having taken a prize worth $6850, it i
divided into one hundred shares; of which the captain is to huve 11; 2 lieutenants, each 5; 12 midsipmen, each 2; and the remainder is to be divided equally among the 89.ilors, who are 105 in number.
Ans. Captain's share $753 50 cts. ; lieutenant's, $342 50 kts.; a midshipman's, $137, and a sailor's, $35 88.
REDUCTION, TEACHES to bring or change numbers from one name to another, without altering their value.
Reduction is either Descending or Ascending.
Descending, is when great names are brought into smali, as pounds into shillings, days into hours, &c.—This is done by Multiplication.
Ascending, is when small names are brought into great, is shillings into pounds, hours into days, &c. This is perrmed by Division.
REDUCTION DESCENDING. Rule.-Multiply the highest denoinination given by so many of die next less as make one of that greater, and thus continue till you iave brought it down as low as your question requires.
PROox. Change the order of the question, and divide your last 00uct by the last multiplier, and so on.
EXAMPLES. 1. In 251. 15s. 9d. 2grs. how many farthings ? Din £ s. d. grs. 25 - 15 9 2 Proof.
4)24758. Ans. 24758.
210)5115 9d. 6189 pence :
£25 1592 1.21763 farthings. Notr. In multiplying by 20, 1 added in the 155.—by 1% ne Id.—and by the Brs. which must always be done in Ike cases. 2. lr 311. 11s. 10d. Igr. how many farthings ?
3. In 461. 5s. 11d. 3qrs. how many farthings?
Ăns. 44441. 4. In 611. 12s. how many shillings, pence, and farthing: 1
Ans. 1232s. 14784d. 59136grs, 5. In 841. how many shillings and pence?
Ans. 1680s. 20160/ 6. In 18s. 9d. how many pence and farthings ?
Ans. 225d. 900grs. 7. In 3121. 8s. 5d. how many half-pence? Ans. 149962. 8. In 846 dollars, at 6s. each, how many farthings?
* Ans. 243648. 9. In 41 guineas, at 28s. each, how many pence?
Ans. 1:3776. 10. Ini 59 pistoles, at 22s. how many shillings, pence and farthings ?
Ans. 1298s. 15576d. 62304 grs. 11. In 37 half-jolames, at 43s. how many shillings, six pences, and three-pences ?
ins. 1776s. 353, six-pences, 7104 three-pences. 12. In 121 French crowns, it (s. 8d. each, how mars pence and farthings?
Ans. 9680.1. 38720grs.
REDUCTION ASCENDING. RULE.--Divide the lowest denomination given,,by so many of this name as make one of the next higher, and so on thirough all tho de nominations, as far as your question requires. Proof. Multiply pwersely by the several divisors.
EXAMPLES. 1. I. 224705 farthings, how many pence, shillings and pounds ?
Firthings in a penny=4)224765
£234 2s. 7d. I gr.
Aus. 56191d. 4682s. 2341. Note. The remainder is always of the same name at the divislead. 2. Bring 30329 farthings into pounds.
: diis. £331 11s. 101. Igr.
3. In 44447 farthings, how many pounds ?
Ans. £46 5s. 11d. 3qrs. tan 4. In 59136 farthings, how many pence, shillings, and jounds ?
Ans. 14784d. 1232s. £61 12s. 45. In 20160 pence, how many shillings and pounds ?
Ans. 1680s. or £84.
Ans. £0 18s. Id.
Ans. 59. **11. In 7104 three-pences, how many hall-johannes, at 18s. ?
Ans. 37. 12. In 38720 farthings, how many French crowns, at *is. 8d. ?
: Ans. 121.
Reduction Ascending and Descending. .
1. MONEY. * 1. In 1211. Os. 9id. how many half-pence? Ans. 58099. 2. In 58099 half-pence, how many pounds ?
* Ans. 1211. Os. 9!d. 3. Bring 23760 half-pence into pounds. Ans. £49 10s. 3.4. In 2141. Is. 3d. how many shillings, six-pences, threevences, and farthings? Ans. 428)s. 8562 six-pences,
17125 three-pences, and 205500 farthings. 5. In 1371. how many pence, and English or French owns, at Os. 80. each ? - Ans. 32880d. 411 crowns.
6. In 249 English half-crowns, how many pence and pounds?
Ans. 9960d. and £41 10s. 7. In 346 guineas, at 21s. each, how many shillings, croats, and pence? Ans. 7266s. 21798 grts, and 871920, 38. In 48 guineas, at 28s. each, how many 4 d. pieces?
Ans. 358. 9. In 81 guineas, at 27s. 4d. each, how many pounds ?
Ans. £110 14s.
Examples in Reduction of Federal Money. 1. Reduce 2745 dollars into cents. 2745 dollars) ere. I multiply by 100, the cents in 100 | a dollar; but dollars are readily brought
into cents by annexing two ciphers, Ans. 274500 and into mills by annexing three ci
Jphers. Also, any sum in Federal money may be written down as a whole number, and expressed in its lowest denomination ; for, when dollars and cents aro joined together as a whole number, without a separatrix, they will show how many cents the given sum contains ; and when dollars, cents, and mills, are so joined together, they will show the whole number of mills in the given sum.-Ilence, properly speaking, there is no reduction of this money ; for cents are readily turned into dollars by cute ting off the two right hand figures, and mills by pointing, off three figurcs with a dot; the figures to the left hand of the dot, are dollars; and the figures cut off are cents, or tents and mills. 2. In 345 dollars, how many cents, and mills ?
Ans. 34500 cts. 345000 mills. 3. Reduce 48 dols. 78 cts. into cents. Ans. 4878
4. Reduce 25 dols. 8 cts. into cents. Ans. 2508 · 5. Reduce 54 dols. 36 cts. 5 m. into mills. Ans. 54365
6. Reduce 9 dols. I cts. 9 m. into mills. Ans. 9099