the end of an equipoised handspike 100 inches long, which is to meet with a convenient prop exactly 7; inches above the other end of the machine? Answ. 18+ Cwt. 13. What weight hung at 70 inches distance from the fulcrum of a steel yard, will equipoise a hogshead of tobacco, weighing 94 Cwt freely suspended at two inches distance on the contrary side? Answ. 30th 6oz. 6; drs, nearly. MOTIONS of BODIES with their VELOCITIES. In comparing the motion of bodies, the ratio or propertion between their velocities will be compounded of the direct ratio of the forces wherewith they are moved, and the reciprocal of the quantitics of matter they contain. Examples. , 14. The battering ram of Vespasian weighed, suppose 100,000ft, and was moved, let us admit, with such a velocity, by strength of hands, as to pass through 20 feet in one second of time, and this was found sufficient to demolish the walls of Jerusalem: with what force must a buliet that weighs about 395. be moved in order to do the same execution ? Answ. 66,666 feet, 8 inches #" second. 15. A body weighing 200lb. is impelled by such force as to send it 100 feet in a second; with what velocity would a body of 81b move, if it were impelled by the same force : Answ. 2500 feet df" second. To: probably is called the Double Rule of Three, because questions therein may be solved by two statings of the Single Rule of Three. It is likewise by some called the Rule of Five, because generally, five numbers are given to find a sixth, of which five given numbers, 3 are conjoined in form of supposition; and upon that supposi I 3 tion tion a question is raised of the other two, which with the number sought, are respectively like the former three. I. To solve questions in this rule by two statings of the Single Rule of Three, this is the Rule: 1. Let either of the two numbers of which the question is raised, be put in the third place, and the correspondent number of the same name or kind in the first, the second will be that which hath no correspondent number given. 2. Three of the first given numbers being thus stated, find a fourth proportional. 3. Put this fourth number resulting from the work of the first stating, for the second number of a second stating, the remaining number of which the question is raised the third, and its corresponding number of the same name the first, and the fourth number resulting will be the answer. Application. Let this question be proposed, viz. If the carriage of 25 stone weight for 16 miles cost 15l. 10s. what will 40 stone cost for 9 uniles 2. Here of the five given numbers 25 stone, 16 miles, and 15l. 10s. are conjoined in form of a supposition, and there upon a question is raised concerning Sto. l. s. Sto. L. s. 40 stone for nine 1...25—15 10–40 . Answ. 24 16 miles: wherefore let either of the Miles l. s. Miles 1. d. two numbers, 40 2... 16—24 16–9 Answ. 13 19 stone or 9 miles be put for the Or thus: third number of Miles l. s. Miles 1. s. d. the first stating 1... 16–15 10–9 Answ. 8 14 4: and its corres ponding term, 25 Sto. l. s. d. Sto. l, s. stone or 16 miles. 2... 25—8 14 10:--40 Answ: 13 9 Such questions as (being stated) are found to have both the statings in direct proportion, may be solved more readily by one compound stating and operation, thus: Place the two terms of which the question is raised under one another in the third place; their corresponding terms under each other in the first; and the remaining term in the nid- - dle: dle ; then multiply both these first terms and third terms into each other, and so the double stating is reduced to a simple stating of the Rule of Three Direct, viz. the product of the two first terms is the first of a simple stating; the second term is the second; and the product of the third term is the third number to find a fourth proportional. Questions in this Rule may be contracted as in the Rule of Three, particularly if any of the first and last terms have a common measure we may divide them, and use the quotients instead of the numbers themselves, by which means the last question will stand thus, viz. Questions belonging to this Rule are such as follow : 1. If 4 students spend 191, in 3 months; how much will serve 8 students 9 months? Answ. I 14l. If 2. 2. If the carriage of 8 Cwt. 128 miles cost 48 shillings, for how much may I have 4 Cwt. carried 32 miles after the same rate : Answ. 6s. 4. A merchant agrees with a carrier to carry 15 Cwt. of goods 40 miles for 10 crowns, each crown 65 pence; how much must one pay in proportion to have 3Cwt. carried 32 miles? Answ. 17s. 4d. 5. If 20 Cwt. is to be carried 50 miles for 5l. how much will 400wt. cost if it was to be carried 100 miles 2 Answ. 20l. 6. With how many pounds sterling could I gain 5l. dp' annum, if with 450l. I gain in 16 months 30l. R. Answ. 100l. 7. If 81. is gained in 12 months with 100l. with how much money can I gain 8l. 12s. in 5 months? Answ. with 258/. 9. If I pound of thread makes 3 yards of linen 5 quar ters broad; how many pounds of thread would be wanted to make a piece of linen 45 yards long, and 1 yard broad 2 Answ. 12 pounds. 10. If 2005. of merchandize is carried 40 miles for 3 shillings, how many pounds may be carried 60 miles for 22l. 14s. 6d. * Answ. 20200fb. 11. If for 3 shillings 2008. of goods are carried 40 miles; how many miles might 20200tb. be carried for 22l. 14s. 6d. # Answ. 60 miles. 12. If 200 b. are carried 40 miles for 3 shillings; how much must be paid for carrying 202001b. 60 miles? dusw. 221, 14s. 6d. ~-14. If a footman travel 240 miles in 12 days when the day is 12 hours long; in how many days may he travel 720 miles when the day is 16 hours long? Answ. 27 days. 16. What is the interest of 200l. for three years and 9 months, at 5 o' cent. £' annum ? Answ. 371. 10s. ' 417. If 80,000 Civt. of ammunition was to be removed from a place in 9 days, and that in 6 days time I find 4500Cwt. is carried away by 18 horses, how many horses would be wanted to carry away the remainder in 3 days? Answ. 604 horses. 18. A and B are on opposite sides of a wood, 134 fathoms about, they begin to go round it both the same way at the same instant of time; A goes 11 fathoms in two minutes, and B 17 in 3: the question is, how many times will they surround this wood, before the nimbler overtakes the slower P -- 17 times by A. Answ. { 174 by B. 19. A weight of 1445. laid on the shoulders of a man is no greater burthen to him than its absolute weight; what difference will he feel between the said wt. applied near his elbow, at 12 inches from the shoulder, and in the palm of his hand 28 inches therefrom ; and how much more must his muscles then draw to support it at right. angles; that is, have his arm extended right out * Answ. 24th. - * * BOOK |