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5;217,645

When the number contains millions-
Thus-Five millions; two hundred and seventeen thou-

sand, six hundred and forty-five....
Seventy-nine millions; four hundred and seven

thousand, two hundred and eighty-one....
Three hundred millions; nine hundred and forty-

five thousand, and eighteen..

79;407,281

300;945,018

EXERCISES.

Write in figures, Eight millions; two hundred and seventy-one thousand, three hundred and eighty-six.

Nineteen millions; four hundred and five thousand, six hundred and sixty-two.

Three hundred and seven millions; and fifty-nine thousand, one hundred and eighty-seven.

The Romans and other ancient nations, to whom the present method of Notation was unknown, made use of seven capital letters to express any number required; namely, I for one; V for five; X for ten; L for fifty ; C for one hundred; D for five hundred; M for one thousand.

XXV expressed Twenty-five ;-CVIII One hundred and eight;CCLXI Two hundred and sixty-one;—MDCCCXLIV One thousand eight hundred and forty-four.

SIMPLE ADDITION

Teaches to add several numbers of the same kind into

one total.

Example.

425 Begin at the lowest figure of the right hand column, 214 that is with 3, and add thus, 3 and 4 are 7; and 7 are 561 14; and 1 are 15; and 4 are 19; and 5 are 24. Put

27 down 4 under 3, and add 2 to the next column. Again, 204 2 added to 5 are 7; and 2 are 9; and 6 are 15; and 53 1 are 16; and 2 are 18. Put down 8 under 5, and

add 1 to the next column. Again, 1 added to 2 are 3; Total 1484 and 5 are 8; and 2 are 10; and 4 are 14. Put down 4

under 2, and 1 to the left. The total is 1484. Method of Proof. Begin at the upper instead of the under figure of the right-hand column, and proceed towards the bottom; and if the total is the same, you may conclude the work is right.

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11. Add together, 21;234;—45;—13;—24, and 15.
12. Add together, 325;—406 ;—214;—131 ;—523, and 31.

13. Add together, Fifty-seven ;-ninety-six ; seventy-five;-eightyone;-thirty-six; and sixty seven.

14. Add together, 763 ;-849 ;-—217;—340 ;-285, and 136. 15. Add together, 7184 ;-2367 ;-1053 ;—298; 3764, and 5470.

16. Add together, Three thousand, two hundred and ninety-five ; -one hundred and eighty-seven ;-five thousand, four hundred and thirty-eight ;-three thousand, seven hundred and twenty-nine ;- one hundred and fifty-four ;-eight thousand, three hundred and ninetysix.

17. Add together, 82705 ; — 57926 ;— 6834; — 14237 ;— 587; 37645, and 2976.

18. Add together, 617284:—56392 ;—154027 ;—2465;—751270; --31286, and 569247.

19. Add together, Forty thousand, seven hundred and ninety-eight; -twenty-three thousand, six hundred and forty-seven ;-ten thousand, five hundred and seventy-six ;--two hundred and forty-one ;-forty-six thousand, seven hundred and five ;—and eight thousand, one hundred and fifty-seven.

Instead of the former repetition, proceed by adding, as shewn in the following

Example.
572831 Begin as before taught with the lowest figure:

51972 6..10..19..25..27.,28..carry 2;
317586 2.. 5..13..15..23..30..33..carry 3;

4829 3.. 7.. 8..16..21..30..38.. carry 3 ;. 643184 3..10..13..17..24..25..27..carry 2 ; 27436 2.. 4.. 8., 9..14..21.. carry 2 ;

2.. 8..11..16. The total is 1;617,838 Total 1617838

[20] 37185 46 902 7 3 628 91037 5 7 296 2 3514 67 295

EXERCISES.

[21] 21709 64

3 4 5 7 28 9021 863 820715

43260 38 7 5 419 4307 36

[22] 2139 7 5 8 4 46 40 26

15843 6 9 5 31 907 827 3 240 680139 27 863

23. Add together, 4729 ;—683;—2405; -172 ;—3614;—8091, and 726.

24. Add together, Nine hundred and seventy-two thousand, and sixty-four ;-five thousand, four hundred and thirty eight ;- sixty thousand, seven hundred and twelve ;-six hundred and eighty-two thousand, five hundred and forty ;-seventy-two thousand, one hundred and fifty-three ;-and four hundred and seventy-five.

25. Add together, 801729 ;-457064;—53297;—150362;—707291; -562873, and 24512.

26. Add together, 90756 ;-3675 ;-43058 ;-294;—31279, and 8453.

27. Add together, Six hundred and seventy-five thousand, three hundred and forty-eight;-nineteen thousand, five hundred and seven ; -two thousand and ninety-five; three hundred and eighty-one thousand, seven hundred and forty-nine ;-—six thousand, one hundred and eight;-and five hundred and seventy-six.

SIMPLE SUBTRACTION

Teaches to find the difference between two numbers of the same kind by taking the less from the greater.

Example.

75964 Take 2 from 4, and 2 remain; 3 from 6 and 3 41532

5 from 9 and 4 remain ; 1 from 5 and 4

remain; 4 from 7 and 3 remain. The difference Difference 34432 is 34,432.

remain ;

When the under figure is greater than the upper, borrow ten, and add one to the next figure in the lower line, as in the following

Example.
87459 6 from 9, 3; -7 from 5, borrow 10, which added
28176 to 5 make 15—7 from 15, 8;-1 that was hor-

rowed added to 1 makes 2-2 from 4, 2 ;-8 from Difference 59283 7, borrow 10,8 from 17, 9;-) and 2 are 3, 3 from

8, 5. The difference, or remainder, is 59,283. Method of Proof. Add the remainder to the less number, and if the sum be equal to the greater, the work is right.

Exercises.
[1] [2]

[3]
[4]

[5] From 247

846
7859
2963

53806 Take 123

512
4235
1758

14375

[6] From 7 40 9 5 Take 327 64

[7] 318 47 6 30 7 5 38

[8]
5 2 9 7 6 31

189706

[9] 8 2 7 6 5 340 4 5 9 8 13 27

10. From 618963 take 204857.

11. From four hundred and eight thousand, seven hundred and ninety-three-take thirty-nine thousand, eight hundred and fifty-four.

12. From 4070826 take 1265793. 13. From 64072853 take 5197364.

14. From thirty-one millions; four hundred and eighty-six thousand, seven hundred and ninety-two-take two millions; seven hundred and forty-five thousand, three hundred and eighty-six.

(7)

SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION

Teaches to increase numbers by repeating them a proposed number of times.

The following Table must be learned perfectly before the exercises can be performed.

1....

1....

1....

11..

Twice 3 Times 4 Times 5 Times 6 Times 7 Times 2 3 1.... 4

5 1.... 6 1.... 7 2.

2. 6 2. 8 2. ..10 2....12 2. 14 3. 6 3. 9 3. 12 3. 15 3....18 3 .21 4. 4. 12 4....16 4. 20 4....24

28 5. 10 5. 15 5....20 5. 25 5. 30 5. 35 6. 12 6. .18 6....24 6....30 6 36 6 42 7..5.14 7....21 7....28 7....35 7....42 7....49 8....16 8....24 8....32 8....40 8 48 8....56 9. 18 9....27 9....36 9....45 9....54 9....63 10. 2010....30 | 10....40 10....50 10....60 10....70

22 11....33 11....44 | 11....55 11....66 11....77 12....24 | 12....36 | 12....48 / 12....60 12....72 12....84

8 Times 9 Times 10 Times 11 Times 12 Times 1.... 8 1.... 9 1.... 10 1.... 11 1.... 12 2....16 2... 18 2.. 20

2...

22 2.. 24 3 .24 3. 27 3.... 30 3.. 33 3.... 36 4. .32 4... 36 4.... 40

.44 4.... 48 5 40 5.... 45 5.... 50 5., 55 5.... 60 6 48 6.... 54 6.... 60 6.... 66 6.... 72 7....56 7.... 63 7.... 70 7.... 77 7.... 84 8....64 8.... 72 8.... 80 8.... 88 8.... 96 9. 72 9.... 81 9.... 90 9.... 99 9....108

80 10.... 90 10....100 10....110 10....120 11.. 88 11.... 99 11....110 11....121 11....132 12....96 12.... 108 12....120 12....132 12.... 144

10...

When the multiplier does not exceed 12.

Example. Multiplicand 371 542 | Twice 2 are 4, put down 4 under 2. Twice Multiplier..

4 are 8. Twice 6 are 12, carry 1. Twice 5

and 1 are 11, carry 1. Twice 1 and 1 are 3. Product.... 7431284 Twice 7 are 14, carry 1. Twice 3 and 1 are 7.

The product is 7;431,284.

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