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TROY WEIGHT.

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6 from 20, 14. 17 from 16 cannot be taken borrow 20 (because 20 dwts.=1 oz.) 20+16 =36; 17 from 36, 19. 1, that was borrowed, added to 10, are 11–11 from 8 cannot be taken ; borrow 12, (because 12 oz. = 1 lb.) 12+8=20. 11 from 20, 9. 1 is added to the pounds, and these performed as in Simple Subtraction.

The difference is 34 lb. 9 oz. 19 dwts. 14 grs.

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23. A silversmith had 71b. 8 oz. 9 grs. of silver, and melted down 3 Ib. 10 oz. 7 dwts. 15 grs. How much had he remaining?

Answer, 3 lb. 9 oz. 12 dwts. 18 grs.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.*
[24]
[25]

[26]
Ib.
oz. drs.

Cwt.
qr.
Ib.

lb.
120 10 4 307 2 10 4 2 13
17 10 13

159 3 21 2 3 16

Cwt. gr.

OZ.

9
4

27. A grocer bought 18 cwt. 1 qr. 17 lb. of sugar, and made 5 cwt. 2 qrs. 19 lb. into parcels. What quantity remained ?

Answer 12 cwt. 2 qrs. 26 lb.

Ib.

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT.
[28]

[29]
oz.
dr. scr.
oz. dr.

gr.

Ib. 0%. 2 1 0 15 0 0 4

37 3 5 2 1

scr.

[30]
dr.

7
3

4 2

scr. gr. 0 14 1 18

7 6 1 15 19 5

* To give an example in each of the following Weights and Measures would be unnecessary. They are all performed by one principle. When it is required, borrow as many of the less as make one of the next higher name.

31. An apothecary bought 3 lb. 2 oz. 5 drs. I scr. of rhubarb, and sold 1 lb. 5 oz. 3 dr. What quantity had he left ?

Answer 1 lb. 9 oz. 2 dr. 1 scr.

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35. Bought 37 sa. 1 wy. 3 tds. of wool, whereof 14 sks. 4tds. being damaged; what quantity was fit for use?

Answer 23 scks. 5 tds.

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39. From 853 yds.--take 201 yds. 2 qrs. 1 nl. 1 in.

Answer 651 yds. 1 qr. 2 nls. 11 in.

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43. Take 7 mi. 6 fur. 32 po. from 18 mi. 3 fur.

SQUARE, OR LAND MEASURE.

EXERCISES.
[44]
[45]

[46]
Acr. rd. po.
Acr. rd. po.

Acr. rd. po. yds.
17 1 14 69 2 13 75 3 19 13
15 2 8

30 3 28 61 3 38 10

47. A person had two pieces of ground: the first measured 19 acr. 3 rd. 17 po.; and the second, 43 acr. 1 rd. 19 po. How much larger was one piece than the other? Answer 23 acr. 2 rd. 2 po.

[48]
Tun. hhds. gal.
17 2 23
9 1 35

WINE MEASURE.

[49]
Tun. hhds. gal. qts.
27 1 20 2
9 0 38 3

[50]
Tier. gal. qts.
16 18
7 29

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51. A cask of wine contained 48 gal. 2 qts.; and 19 gal. 3 qts. 13 pt. were drawn off. What was the quantity remaining ?

Answer 28 gal. 2 qts. À pt.

BEER MEASURE.
[52]
[53]

[54]
Hhds. gal. pts.

Bar. gal. qts. Butts. hhds. gal. qts.
42 17 3 37 28 0 7 0 3 1
18 21 6
14 29 2

5 1 18 3

55. A brewer drew 7 hhds. 21 gal. 2 qts. from a large vat, which contained 18 hhds. 30 gal. How much beer remained ?

Answer 11 hhds. 8 gal. 2 qts.

[56]
Qrs. bus. gal.
15 3 5
6 7 6

DRY MEASURE.
[57]

[58]
Qrs.
bus. pks.

Wys. grs. bus. pks.
87 3 1 121 1 3 2
19 5 2

81 4 2 3

59. From 20 wys.-take 8 wys. 3 qrs. 1 pk.

Answer 11 wys.

qr. 7 bus. 3 pks.

TIME.

[60]
Dys. hrs. min.
114 17 26
72 10 37

EXERCISES.

[61]
Yrs. mos. wks. dys.
97 7 2 4
23 9 3 5

[62]
Mos. wks. dys. hrs.

8 1 3 9
2 2 4 19

63. From 78 months, take 43 mos. 1 wk. 3 dys. 1 hr.

Answer 34 mos. 2 wks. 3 dys. 23 hrs.

COMPOUND MULTIPLICATION

S.

5

Teaches to increase numbers of different denominations, by repeating them a proposed number of times. When the Multiplier does not exceed 12.

Examples.

£ d. Twice 2 (farthings) 4; 4 farthings=1 Multiplicand 3

14 81

penny; carry 1 to the pence. Twice 8 Multiplier..

2 and 1 are 17; 17d.=ls. 5d.; put 5 under

the pence, and carry 1 to the shillings. Product.. 7 9

Twice 14 and 1 are 29; 295.= £1. 9s.; put 9 under the shillings, and carry 1 to the pounds. Twice 3 and 1 are 7.-The

Product is £7. Is. 5d. £ d. 12 times 3 are 36; 36 farthings=9d., Multiplicand 7 15 33 carry 9.

12 times 3 and 9 are 45; 45d. Multiplier..

12 =3s. 9d., put 9 under the pence, and

12 times 15 and 3 are 183; Product.. 93 3 9 183s. =£9. 3s., put 3 under the shillings,

and carry 9. 12 times 7 and 9 are 93.

The product is £93. 3s. 9d.
Method of Proof is by Compound Division, when learned.

s.

carry 3.

EXERCISES.
1. 2 lb. of Sugar, at 8 d. per lb.
2. 3 yards of Cloth, at 2s. 3 d. per yard.

4. 5 gallons of Ale, at 7s. 3d. per gallon.
5. 6 days’ Wages, at 6s. 10d. per day.
6. 7 pecks of Corn, at 12s. 5 d. per peck.
7. 8 lb. of Chocolate, at 3s. 9 d. per lb.
8. 9 lb. of Candles, at 1s. 10 d. per lb.
9. 10 bushels of Oats, at 18s. 7{d. per bushel.
10. 11 ounces of Silver, at 5s. 11d. per ounce.

11. 12 barrels of Beer, at £1. 13s. 2d. per barrel. When the Multiplier exceeds 12, and has two component parts.

Example. 84 quarters of Oats, at £1. 11s. 8d. per quarter.
£ d.
1 11
12

12 and 7 are the component parts of 84, because 19 0 0 12 times 7=84. First multiply by 12, and the

7

product again by 7.

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EXERCISES. 12. 20 lb. of Tobacco, at 3s. 9 d. per lb. Answer, £3. 15s. 10d. 13. 33 stone of Beef, at 2s. 7 d. per stone. Answer, £4. 6s. 7td. 14. 45 lb. of Tea, at 7s. 10d. per lb. Answer, £17. 12s. 6d. 15. 54 pints of Wine, at 3s. 2 d. per pint. Answer, £8. 13s. 3d. 16. 66 yards of Linen, at 5s. 61d. per yard. Answer, £18. 4s. 4 d. 17. 81 Cwt. of Cheese, at £2. 17s. 9d. per Cwt. Ans. £233. 17s. 9d. 18. 90 loads of Hay, at £3. 14s. 2d. per load. Answer, £333. 15s. 19. 132 bushels of Wheat, at 12s. 51d. per bushel. Ans. £82.7s. 3d.

When the Multiplier exceeds 12, but has not two component parts.

Example. 53 Cwt. of Sugar, at £3. 6s. 101d. per Cwt.
8. d.
6 101 Multiply by the nearest component parts, and

10 the top line by as many as may be wanted to com33

plete the given number, and add the lower lines 5 together.

Thus-Multiply by 10, and the product again 167 9

by 5: the top line is multiplied by 3, because 10 10 0 71

times 5 are 50, and 3 added, make the given 177 4 41 number.

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