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Explanation of the Characters used in this work.

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= Equal to. The sign of Equality; as 4 farthings

that is, 4 farthings are equal to 1 penny.

+ Plus, or more. The sign of Addition; as 3 + 2 = 5, that is

3 added to 2, = 5.

x Into. The sign of Multiplication; as 5 X 4 = 20, that is, 5

multiplied into 4 = 20.

By. The sign of Division; as 6 = 2 = 3, that is, 6 divided

by 2 = 3.

: Is to | The signs of Proportion; as 2: 4::8: 16, that is, as 2

is to 4, so is 8 to 16.

:: Sois

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The sign of Contraction, or cancelling, which implies that the

numbers 18 and 12 have been struck out, and the numbers 3 and 2 are to be used instead.

ARITHMETIC is the Science of computing by Numbers.

Its leading Rules are NUMERATION, ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTIPLICATION, and Division.

NUMERATION

Teaches to read the value of numbers :

Thus, 23 is read, Twenty-three.

756 is read, Seven hundred and fifty-six.
905 is read, Nine hundred and five.

EXERCISES FOR THE LEARNER.

Write in words the following, 42—87–153—604.
When there are more than three figures, they are nume-

rated thus :

2,340 Two thousand, three hundred and forty. 50,129 Fifty thousand, one hundred and twenty-nine. 718,406 Seven hundred and eighteen thousand, four hundred and

six.

EXERCISES.
Write in Words 1,325—72,804—291,570–806,093.

When there are more than six figures, they are numerated

thus : 3;209,186 Three millions; two hundred and nine thousand, one

hundred and eighty-six. 54;072,831 Fifty-four millions; and seventy two thousand, eight

hundred and thirty-one. 908;375,200 Nine hundred and eight millions; three hundred and seventy-five thousand, two hundred.

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Note. The figures between each stop are read as if they stood alone ; those before a comma being always thousands, and those after the comma being millions, billions, trillions, &c., according to their place:

Thus, in the Table 987;654,321 are read, 987 millions; 654 thousands, 321.

EXERCISES. Write in words 1;285,362—40;237,615–327;805,463—901;004,350.

In common calculations more than nine figures are seldom required. But the Table may be extended to any length; as millions, billions, trillions, quadrillions, quintillions, &c.

Thus, 32;407,280;375,049 are read, Thirty-two billions ; four hundred and seven thousand, two hundred and eighty millions; three hundred and seventy-five thousand, and forty-nine.

NOTATION
Teaches to write or express the value of numbers :

Thus, Forty-seven is written... 47
Two hundred and thirty-five .. 235

EXERCISES. Write in figures the following, Fifty-four - Eighty-nine — Two hundred and thirty-six.

When the number contains thousands Thus-Five thousand, two hundred and forty, is written.... 5,240 Eighty-four thousand, and thirty-seven.

84,037 Six hundred and ninety-one thousand, two hundred and seventy-five......

691,275 EXERCISES. Express in figures, Three thousand, one hundred and eighty-four. Forty-nine thousand, two hundred and eight.

Six hundred and seventy-three thousand, one hundred and seventynine.

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