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4 inches, 1 hand; }

used in measuring height of

horses. 6 feet, 1 fathom ; used in measuring depths at sea. 6120 feet, I geographical miles distances at sea.

3 such miles, 1 sea league ; 60 such miles, 1 degree, of latitude, “or of a great circle of the earth ; the whole being 360 degrees.

NOTE. 60 geographical miles are equal to 691 English statute miles, which makes the whole circumference of the earth, 25020 statute miles ; though but 21600 geographical miles.

Troy Weight l

The denominations of Troy Weight are expressed in the following

TABLE. 24 grains, marked gr. make 1 penny-weight, marked dwt. 20 dwt.

1 ounce,
1 pound Troy,

lb, By this weight, gold, silver, jewels, electuaries, and all liquors are weighed.

EXAMPLES.
1b. oz. dwt. gr.
1b. oz. dwt. gr.

1b.
oz. dwt. gr

Q2. gr. 36 7 10 11 63 6 14 9 48 3 9 12

17 42 6 9 13 31 8 6 16 36 8 14 2 13 16 81 9 12 9 27 3 11 10 47

94 57 7 16 15 78 5 9 6

3 11 8 9 2 11 18 2 7 14 68 3 13 7 51 8 10 11 8 14 10 57 5 10 10 72 8 8 13

3 5 21 5 0 0 42 4 3 8 21 6 10 17 52 11 19 23 3 7

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12 oz.

Ib.

63

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Avoirdupois Weight. The denominations of Avoirdú pois weight are expressed in the following Table.

OZ.

4 qrs.

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TABLE.

marked 16 drams, marked dr. make

1 ounce, 16 oz.

1 pound,

Ib. 28 lb. make 1 quarter of an hundred weight, qr.

I hundred-weight, C, or cwt. 20 C.

1 ton,

T.
A fother of lead

is 19 C, 2 qrs.
A great pound of silk, 24 oz. *
A stone of wool

7 lb,
of beef,

14 lb. A faggot of steel, 120 lb.

A quintal of fish, 112. Ib. By this weight all coarse articles, or such as are of a drossy nature ; as all grocery and chandlers' wares, and all metals, except gold and silver, are weighed.

Note I. The pound Avoirdupois is equal to 14 oz. 11 dwi. 15gr. ?roy ; and the pound Troy is equal to 13 oz. =2033 dr. Avoirdupois.

13999 Note II. In this kind of weight, the words gross and net are used ; gro88 is the whole weight of the goods, and of the box, bale, bag, cask, &c. which contains them.

Net weight is the pure, weight of the goods, after deducting the weight of the box, bale, bag or cask, which contains them, and every other usual allowance.

Note III. The calling 112 pounds a gross, and 100 pounds a net hundred, is (though somewhat a popular) but a vague distinction ; as both gross and net weight are frequently expressed in pounds, ounces, &c. as well as in hundreds ; as will be seen in the Rule of Tare and Tret.

EXAMPLES. lb. oz. dr.

oz. dr.
C. gr. lb.
T. C. qr. 1b

dr. 46 7 6 73 9 6 47 2 11 41 11 116 5 10 21 8 7 36 7 8 36 3 9 25 0 2 11 9 6 53 6 9 42 6 9 81 l 16

6 1 9 6 9 75 9 9 65 8 11 59 2 1 43 12 3 16 8 11 53 8 9 26 6 9 52 116 58 82 11 10 78 7 8 63 8 7 63 O 18 74 10 1 16 6 46 96 57 9 6 18 2 11 41 13 2 18 96

1b.

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58

375 9 6

Some kinds of silk are weighed by the great pound of 24

ounces

Apothecaries' Weight. The denominations of Apothecaries' Weight are expressed in the following

TABLE. -20 grains, marked gr. make | scruple, marked 33

1 dram,

3 83

1 ounce,

3 12 3

pound,

Ib. This weight is used in compounding or mixing medicines, but never in buying or selling ; it is therefore useless to all but such as deal in medicines. The pound, ounce and grain are the same in this, as in Troy toeight ; but the sunce differently divided, and subdivided.

EXAMPLES 1. Z 3 gr. tb. 3 = gr.

Ib. 3 3 3 gr. 36 7 3 1 10 47 3 5 0 15 73 6 5 1 11 43 5 4 0 11 35 5 3 2 11 36 4 2 1 16 61 3 1 2 8 29 2 6 1 9 41 5 0 13 76 9 5 1 15 84 7 2 2 1 6 27 3 3 1 10 63 4 4 1 9 52 8 2 2 4 26 5 2 1 8 56 6 3 2 8 64 6 4 0 8 63 7 5 1 3 38 8 6 0 1 1 70 g 1 1 10 58 6 3 2 6

376 9 5 I 12

Long Measure. The denominations of Long Measure are expressed in the following

TABLE. 3 barley corns, marked bc. make 1 inch, marked i. 12 i.

1 foot.

f. 3 f.

1 yard,

yd. 5} yds. or 163 f.

- I pole, perch or rod, po. 40 po. or 220 yds. or 660 f. 1 furlong,

fu. 8 fu. or 326 po. or 1760

English statute mile, m. yds. or 5280 f. - league,

Lea. 69 statute miles, or 60 geographical miles, make one degree of a Great Circle of the Earth,

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3 m.

NOTE I. Mariners keep their account of the ship's run, &c. in geographical (by some called sea) miles ; 60 of which are equal to 69] English statute miles.

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fu. po.

NOTE II. The English statute miles are used in the United States, for measuring distances on land ; as roads, &c.

EXAMPLES. yds. f. i. bc.

Lea. m. fu. Do.

yds. f. i. be. 36 i 7 2 46 6 21 37 1 3 17 21 1 20 41 2 3 1 37 4 19 46 2 6 16 36 2 7 1 58 0 6 0 65 2 16 74 0 2 26 85 0 3 2 75 2 7 2 57 5 29 37 1 6 31 64 1 7 1 63. 1 4 0 53 1 18 62 1 4 22 78 19 2 58 0 8 1 62 3 20 53 0 1 23 63 O 4 1 41 2 5 2 34 5 23 25 2 5 13 14 2 8 0

375 2 6 2

Cloth Measure..

The denominations of Cloth Measure are expressed. in the following

TABLE: 21 inches, make 1 nail,

marked

na. 4 na 1 quarter of a yard,

qr. 1.yard,

yd. i Ell Flemish,

E. FI. 1 Ell English,

E. En. 1 Ell French, nearly,

E. Fr,

4 qrs. 3 qrs. 5.qrs. 6 qrs.

Nore. The yard is used in measuring all kinds of woollen cloths, wrought. silks, most linens, garterings, qualities, &c.

The EU English is used in measuring some particular kinds of linens, called Hollands.

The Ell Flemish is used in measuring tapestry..

The Ell French i& a measure used, in some parts of Francea

D%

ds. gr. a. 36 1 2 41 2 3 65 3 1 76 1 3 63 2 1 58 1 0 84 0 2

EXAMPLES.
L. PL. gr. aa.

E. En. gr. da.
42 1 2

75 4 2 37 2 1

31 1 0 63 0 3

65 3 1 47 1 2

37 1 3 57 1 1

24 O 1 62 0 2

68 3 3 36 2 0

34 1 2

75 5 3 37 10 64 2 2 53 5 1 24 OO 62 4 3 35 3 1

376 1 0

Land Measure. Land is commonly measured with Gunters' chain, of 100 links ; each link being 7 inches, and 92 hundredth parts of an inch, which makes the whole chain 66 feet.

One pole, perch or rod, is a fourth part of a chain, equal to 25 links, or 16 feet, or 5 yards.

A rod in length, and the same in width, is called a square rod of land, &c.

A chain in length, and the same in width, is a square chain ; and so of any other dimensions of equal length

; and width.

In a square rod, pole or perch, there are 625 square links, or 272 square feet.

In a square chain there are 16 square rods, or 10000 square links, or 4356

square

feet. In an acre of land there are 10 square chains, or 160 square rods, or 43560 square feet, or 100000 square links.

The most common denominations of Land Measure are expressed in the following

TABLE. 625 square links, marked li. make i

marked po. square rod, pole or perch, make 1 rood, or of an acre,

t. 4 r. I acre.

A. 10000 square links, marked li. make 1 square chain, ch. 10 ch. I acre.

A

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40 po.

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