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to give that in room of the shoe: in later times the Jews delivered a handkerchief for the same purpose. So R. Solomon Jarchi says, we acquire, or buy now, by a handkerchief or veil, instead of a shoe.
The giving of a glove was in the middle ages a ceremony of investiture in bestowing lands and dignities. In A. D. 1002, two bishops were put in possession of their sees, each by receiving a glove. So in England, in the reign of Edward the Second, the deprivation of gloves was a ceremony of degradation.
With regard to the shoe as the token of investiture, Castell (Lex. Polyg. col. 2342) mentions that the emperor of the Abyssinians used the casting of a shoe as a sign of dominion. See Psalm 1x. 8. To these instances the following may properly be added. “ Childebert the Second was fifteen years old, when Gontram his uncle declared that he was of age, and capable of governing by himself. I have put, says he, this javelin into thy hands as a token that I have given thee all my kingdom. And then turning towards the assembly he added, you see that my son Childebert is become a man; obey him. Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, vol. i. p. 361.
No. 801.-iv. 11. The Lord make the woman that is come into thy house like Rachel and like Leah.] Such a solemn benediction of those who were going to be married was very ancient, Gen. xxiv. 60. The Jews continue it to this day. They say that it was always pronounced in the presence of ten persons at the least, the eldest of whom gave the benediction, which was a ratification of what had been agreed upon. See SELDEN Uxor. Hebr. lib. ii. cap. 12.
No. 802.-1 SAMUEL ii. 19.
Moreover his mother made hin a little coat, and brought
it to him from year to year.
The women made wearing-apparel, and their common employment was weaving stuffs, as making cloth and tapestry is now.
We see in Homer the instances of Penelope, Calypso, and Circe. There are examples of it in Theocritus, (Idyll
. 15.) Terence (Heaut. act ii. sc. 2.) and many other authors. But what appears most wonderful is, that this custom was retained at Rome among the greatest ladies in a very corrupt age, since Augustus commonly wore clothes made by his wife, sister, and daughter. (Suet. Aug. 73. See also Prov. xxxi. 13. 19.) FLEURY's Hist. of Israelites, p. 72.
No. 803.--v. 4. The head of Dagon and both the palms of his hands were cut off upon the threshold.] The destruction of Dagon before the ark of the Lord clearly discovered the vanity of idols, and the irresistible power of God. The circumstances attending his demolition are remarkable; and in them it is possible may be traced a conformity with the manner in which different nations treated the idol deities of each other. Dagon was not merely thrown down, but was also broke in pieces, and some of these fragments were found on the threshold. There is a circumstance related in Maurice's Modern History of Hindostan (vol. i. part. 2. p. 296.) which seems in some points similar to what is recorded of Dagon. Speaking of the destruction of the idol in the temple at Sumnaut, he says, that “ fragments of the demolished idol were distributed to the several mosques of Mecca,
Medina, and Gazna, to be thrown at the threshold of their gates, and trampled upon by devout and zealous mussulmans." In both instances the situation of the fragments at the threshold seems to intimate the complete triumph of those who had overcome the idols, and might possibly be a customary expression of indignity and contempt.
Tibullus informs us, that to beat the head against the sacred threshold was with many an expiatory ceremony. It probably originated with the Egyptians in the worship of Isis.
Non ego, si merui, dubitem procumbere templis,
B. i. el. 5.
For crimes like these I'd, abject, crawl the ground,
No. 804.-vi. 4. Then said they, what shall be the trespass-offering which we shall return to him? and they answered, five golden emerods, and five golden mice, uccording to the number of the lords of the Philistines.] The ancient heathens used to consecrate to their gods such monuments of their deliverances, as represented the evils from which they were rescued. They dedicated to Isis and Neptune a table, containing the express image of the shipwreck which they had escaped. Slaves and captives, when they had regained their liberty, offered their chains.' The Philistines hoping shortly to be delivered from the emerods and mice wherewith they were afflicted, sent the images of them to that god from whom they expected deliverance. This is still practised among the Indians. Tavernier (Travels, p. 92.) relates, that when any pilgrim goes to a pagod for the cure of any disease, he brings the figure of the
member affected, made either of gold, silver, or copper, according to his quality ; this he offers to his god, and then falls a singing, as all others do after they have offered. Mr. Selden also has observed, that mice were used amongst the ancient heathen for lustration and cleansing. De Düs Syris, Syntag. i. cap. 6.
No. 805.-vii. 5. And Samuel said, Gather all Israel to Mizpeh, and I will pray for you unto the Lord.] Apprehensive of the chances of war, it was usual anciently to perform very solemn devotions before they went out to battle: and it seems that there were places particularly appropriated for this purpose. (See i Maccab. iii. 46.) It appears that Samuel convened the people at Mizpeh, in order to prepare them by solemn devotion for war with the Philistines. The following account from Pococke (Travels, p. 36.) may possibly serve to explain this custom.
“ Near Cairo, beyond the mosque of Sheik Duise, and in the neighbourhood of a burial-place of the sons of some pashas, on a hill, is a solid building of stone, about three feet wide, built with ten steps, being at the top about three feet square, on which the sheik mounts to pray on any extraordinary occasion, when all the people go out at the beginning of a war, and, here in Egypt, when the Nile does not rise as they expect it should : and such a place they have without all the towns throughout Turkey.”
HARMER, vol. ii. p. 265.
No. 806.-ix. 3. And Kish said to Saul his son, take now one of the servants with thee, and arise, go seek the asses.] The following extract, compared with the circumstances recorded in this chapter respecting the business upon which Saul was sent, will greatly illustrate them. “ Each proprietor has his own mark, which is burnt into the thighs of horses, oxen, and dromedaries,
and painted with colours on the wool of sheep. The latter are kept near the owner's habitation; but the other species unite in herds, and are towards the spring driven to the plains, where they are left at large till the winter. At the approach of this season they seek, and drive them to their sheds. What is most singular in this search is, that the Tartar employed in it has always an extent of plain, which, from one valley to another, is ten or twelve leagues wide, and more than thirty long, yet does not know which way to direct his search, nor troubles himself about it. He puts up in a bag six pounds of the flour of roasted millet, which is suf. ficient to last him thirty days. This provision made he mounts his horse, stops not till the sun goes down, then clogs the animal, leaves him to graze, sups on his flour, goes to sleep, wakes, and continues his route. He neglects not, however, to observe, as he rides, the mark of the herds he happens to see. These discoveries he communicates to the different noguais he meets, who have the same pursuits; and, in his turn, receives such indications as help to put an end to his journey." BARON Du Tott, vol. i. part 3. p. 4.
No. 807.-ix. 7. There is not a present to bring to the man of God.] Presents of some kind or other are the regular introducers of ope party to another in the East. Pococke tells us of a present of fifty radishes. Bruce relates, that in order to obtain a favour from him, he received a very inconsiderable present. “I mention this trifling circumstance," he says “to shew how essential to humane and civil intercourse presents are considered to be in the East: whether it be dates, or whether it be diamonds, they are so much a part of their manners, that without them an inferior will never be at peace in his own mind, or think that he has hold of his