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whom he acted were convinced that the grievances of the people were redressed, and that force was become unnecessary, he would have been persuaded to drop all arming and disciplining.
Mr. J. C. Beresford.—I knew Lord Edward well, and always found him very obstinate.
Emmet.— I knew Lord Edward right well, and have done a great deal of business with him, and have always found, when he had a reliance on the integrity and talents of the person he acted with, he was one of the most persuadable men alive, but if he thought a man meant dishonestly or unfairly by him, he was as obstinate as a mule. (Many questions were then put to me relative to different papers and proceedings of the United Irish ; among the rest, John Sheares's proclamation was mentioned with considerable severity. I took that opportunity of declaring, that neither the execution of John Sheares, nor the obloquy that was endeavoured to be cast on his memory should prevent my declaring that I considered John Shares a very honourable and humane man.)
Mr. French.--Mr. Emmet, can you point out any way of inducing the people to give up their arms.
Emmet.--Redressing their grievances, and no other.
Lard Castlereagh.- Mr. Emmet, we are unwillingly obliged to close this examination by the sitting of the House.
Emmet.—My Lord, if it be the wish of the Committee, I will attend it at any other time.
Lord Castlereagh.-If we want you, then we shall send for you.
After the regular examination was closed, I was asked by many of the members whether there were many persons of property in the Union, I answered that there was immense property in it. They acknowledged there was great personal property in it, but wished to know was there much landed property, I answered there was. They asked me was it in fee simple, to that I could give no answer. The Attorney-General said there was in it many landlords who had large tracts of land, and feit their landlords to be great grievances. I admitted that to be the fact. They asked me had we provided any form of government. I told them we had a provisional government for the instant, which we retained in memory, but as to any permanent form of government, we thought that, and many other matters relating to the changes which would be
come necessary, were not proper objects for our discussion, but should be referred to a committee chosen by the people. They did not ask me what the provisional government was.
THOMAS Addis EMMET,
On the 18th of March, 1799, after a year's imprisonment, Emmet received notice to prepare for embarkation the following morning. The place of his destination was kept a profound secret, and this circumstance caused the most serious apprehensions to his relatives. His sister, at a late hour that evening, on hearing of the order that had been given, proceeded immediately to the Castle, and demanded an interview with the Viceroy, for the purpose of ascertaining the fate that was destined for her brother. She presented herself to the Viceroy with the spirit that seemed to be characteristic of her race, Lord Cornwallis was moved even to tears, at the earnestness of her supplication, the anxiety exhibited in her looks, the strength of feeling, and energy of character displayed in the effort she had made. He treated her with kindness, and assured her that “no harm should happen to her brother ;" that the apprehension of a meditated descent on Ireland had rendered it necessary to remove the state prisoners to a place of security, that place he was not at liberty to name, but that the treatment of her brother and his companions should be all his friends or theirs could wish. Miss Emmet returned to her family, and the intelligence she brought, little as it was, relieved the minds of her parents of much of their alarm.
At daybreak the following morning, Thomas Addis Emmet bid a last farewell to his country. He never more set his foot upon its soil. The evening before his departure he was visited by his sister, he parted with her for the last time. Father, mother, sister, and brother, in the brief space of four or five years were laid in the grave, within which period the last but one of the race of Emmet that was left in the land of his birth perished on the scaffold.
On the 9th of April, 1799, Emmet and his companions arrived at Fort George. Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart, a brother of the Earl of Murray, descended from a royal race, then far advanced in years, filled the office of Lieutenant-Governor of Fort George. His name and memory will always be remembered in Ireland with respect and honour, for his humane
and generous conduct to Emmet, his wife, and their companions.
It seemed to be, from the beginning of their confinement at Fort George, the object of the Irish Government, of which Lord Castlereagh was virtually the head, to render their situation as painful as possible, by means of representations made of their conduct and designs to the English Minister ; on the contrary, the Duke of Portland did not seem inclined to act towards them with the wished-for severity, and the officer in whose charge they were placed endeavoured to mitigate the rigor of every order that he received in relation to them, so far as a due regard to his duty allowed him. He told Emmet at the commencement of their acquaintance, “He looked upon him, and the other State prisoners, as gentlemen, and as such he was disposed to treat them.” He kept his word. During the first year of their confinement, several orders, very absurd and of very unnecessary severity, had been wrung from the Duke of Portland by the malignity of the representations made by the Irish Minister. The prisoners were forbidden the use of pen and ink, for the purpose of writing to their friends, “except in the presence of a keeper," on account “ of the great abuse of that privilege by the Dublin prisoners.” " The reason assigned for this last restriction makes it plain that the brain from which it originated was that of the Irish Minister or his clerk, and the source his heart.”* Verbal communication was prohibited except in the presence of a sentinel, the time allowed for exercise was restricted to about an hour in the day for each individual ; their allowance was reduced, and their correspondence with their friends encumbered with formalities, which could serve no useful purpose. All these severities were gradually mitigated by the Lieutenant-Governor, and at length the restrictions existed only in name. Mrs. Emmet, who was not permitted to accompany her husband to Fort George, had made repeated applications to Lord Castlereagh, from the time of the removal of Emmet, to be allowed to visit him. The answers returned to the poor lady were couched in terms of frigid courtesy refusing her request. Mrs. Emmet informed her husband, in a letter which he received the 19th of November, 1800, that after making application at the Castle during nine
* Dr. Dickson's Narrative, p. 136.
months, Lord Castlereagh at length had consented to her visiting her husband, but under conditions which amounted to a prohibition, and that she was then about to apply in person to the Duke of Portland.
Previously, however, to her making this personal application, she had applied to his Grace by letter. The influence that was exerted to defeat her object may be gathered from the conditions on which the British Minister was willing to comply with her request. There is no transaction of those times with which Lord Castlereagh was connected which exhibits more unmanliness of character than the representations made by him to the British Minister with regard to a lady of exalted worth, a wife devoted to her husband, the mother of five children, a lady, in fine, in the unfortunate circumstances of Mrs. Emmet, as being a person undeserving the merciful consideration of government. “Suspected of having imbibed the principles' of her husband, and on that account to be debarred from his society, except under circumstances that were an outrage on her feelings. The following is a copy of the Duke of Portland's order, in consequence of the application then made by her.
“Sir,--Mrs. Emmet, wife of Mr. Emmet, one of the prisoners at Fort George, has obtained my permission to see her husband, but as she is suspected of having imbibed his principles, you will take particular care that she shall not be the means of communication between him and the disaffected in Ireland. She is only to see him in the presence of a proper person, and you are to take such steps as that she may not carry any letters or papers in or out of the Fort.
“I have the honour to be, Sir,
PORTLAND. “ The Hon. Lieutenant-Governor Stuart."
In the month of July following, she proceeded to London, obtained a personal interview with the Duke of Portland, and the result was such as might be expected, permission was granted her, not only to visit her husband, but to take her children and reside with him, and she attributed the indulgence, in a great measure to the favorable reputation of her husband's
character and conduct, which had been made by LieutenantGovernor Stuart. From the time of Mrs. Emmet's arrival in Fort George, till the liberation of the prisoners, the conduct of the good old governor to Mrs. Emmet was more like that of a father than the guardian of a prison, (for such the fortress under his command had been made.) His kindness to her children was unceasing, and his respectful attention to her husband plainly showed in what light the rebel-leader” was regarded by him.
On one occasion a fire broke out at night in the fortress. The governor was called up and on ascertaining that no danger was to be apprehended, he instantly ran to Emmet's apartment to remove his apprehensions for himself and family, and the next day the following note was addressed to Emmet :The Lieutenant-Governor's compliments to Mr. Emmet. He hopes Mrs. Emmet suffered no inconvenience from the alarm of fire which was given last night. As the idea of being locked in, may occasion a disagreeable sensation to a lady's mind, in case of any sudden occurrence, (though the LieutenantGovernor flatters himself that none in future will arise), he will give directions that the passage door leading to Mr. Emmet's apartments shall not in future be locked, being convinced that Mr. Emmet would make no improper use of all the doors being left open.— To Thomas Addis Emmet Esq.”
In November, 1800, Emmet received a letter from his fellow student, Home, the Lord Advocate of Scotland, informing him that “all his applications were fruitless, and his expectations vain notwithstanding his most earnest interference in his favour."
Mrs. Emmet, in the mean time, was permitted to make excursions in the neighborhood, wherever she thought proper, she was visited by some of the families in the vicinity of the Fort, and visited them in turn. The Lieutenant-Governor sent a message to her husband, informing the latter that he might accompany his wife whenever he thought proper to escort her. Èmmet returned a written reply, expressing his gratitude for the Governor's kindness on all occasions, but begging respectfully to decline the indulgence offered, in the event of its coming from the British Government, but if it came from the Lieutenant-Governor he would willingly and