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the vibrations more completely than any stuffing; serious disqualification indeed. Hence,” says Mr and provided it be not too tightly distended, it White Cooper," the men rather conceal this defect isolates from much of the surrounding jar the part from their employers ; and it is probable that a conresting on it. An invalid thus air-collared and air. siderable amount of disease of the ears exists among girt, with the legs on an easy foot-rest, and a pillow them.” This guard, you see, is perfectly deaf. My or cushion or two, if needed, to prop up against the cries are unavailing; the train is actually in motion. rolling or lateral motion, may generally travel in a goodness gracious me!' first-class carriage with ease. The noise might be If you are afraid of that little crack,' said I, why further excluded by stuffing the ears with cotton- do you not change places, and remove yourself from wool, but this causes a sensation disagreeable to some its fatal neighbourhood?' persons.” I do not stuff my ears with cotton-wool The stout gentleman frowned and shook his head. at present,' explained my companion, bowing as 'Do not speak to me, sir; I am about to stuff courteously as his defensive armour would permit my ears with cotton-wool, as recommended at page him to do, “in order that I may enjoy the pleasure of ninety-six. You should never converse while the your conversation.'

train is in motion--no, sir, nor read ;' and with a I expressed my sense of this compliment as seri- gentle violence, he took from my hand the pamphlet ously as I could, although the appearance of my vis-a- of which he had made me a present, and thrust it vis was more ludicrous than anything I had ever back again into my coat-pocket. beheld out of a pantomime; I could not, however, The intentions of this victim to science were so altogether suppress a smile.

obviously humane and considerate, that I did not like *You will find these precautions are not a laughing to insist upon having my own way. But his silent matter one day, as you grow fatter,' observed my companionship was certainly not agreeable. After new acquaintance severely. An eminent hospital watching him and his wonderful attire for a considersurgeon gives the following evidence of what came able time, and admiring the movements by which he within his personal experience on a journey from endeavoured to adapt himself to any oscillation of the Leipsic to Berlin ; it occurs in page one hundred train, I turned for variety to the window, on the and eleven of the volume I have given you. “I was other side of which trees, hedges, and hay-ricks were travelling in a first-class carriage with a very racing past with their usual distracting agility. The corpulent man for my companion, upwards of sixty stout gentleman laid his hand upon my arm, appealyears of age, formerly an officer of rank in the ingly.°•Giddiness-nausea-blindness,' exclaimed he Prussian army. The train was lightly laden, and the with emotion. carriages loosely coupled, and we had not proceeded When we stopped at the next station, he put the far before we found the motion of the carriage most window down (as permitted, he said, at page thirtyinconvenient, and, indeed, to my fellow-traveller, most seven), and explained himself at greater length. distressing, in consequence of the shaking of his • There is nothing so pernicious as looking out upon enormous abdomen. I placed him in the centre com- objects near at hand, and especially at those white partment of the carriage, persuaded him to press his telegraph posts, from which the wires seem to fall feet firmly against the opposite seat, packed him in and rise in fancied undulations. See Dr Budd, F.R.S., his seat with greatcoats, &c. ; but in vain. His cries page-- when you get home, sir, when you get homewere piteous, and his aspect, as we approached the page forty-four.' end of our journey, really alarming. For the last All the conversation that passed between us was four or five hours, I sat opposite to him, at his compressed into the stoppages (when my friend request, endeavouring to prevent his pendulous unplugged his ears), and exclusively confined stomach swaying from side to side with the motion itself to the precautions and improvements that of the carriage. As I was myself subject to the same should be adopted by railway companies or their motion, of course the efforts were not very effectual, passengers. At one station, the name of which I although my companion said it was the only ease he inquired of my companion, he took occasion to remark obtained. On arriving at Berlin, I took my fellow- that all the porters should have its title on the bands traveller to his lodgings in a carriage, at a foot-pace, of their caps, as their ship’s name is borne by sailors. and placed him under medical treatment.”. I think Numbers of persons naturally deaf, or rendered so this is a warning to you at least to wear a bandage. by railway travelling, would thus be greatly conHere is an elastic piece of cork large enough to place venienced. And it would conduce much, sir, to the your feet upon as well as mine ; I am only sorry that comfort of everybody-see page one hundred and I have no duplicate of this sheet of india-rubber which forty-eight-if, on some prominent part of the I place under my cushion with a horse-hair seat atop station, there were roughly frescoed a plan of the of it, in order to deaden the vibrations. The royal neighbouring town or country: carriages, and those of the post-office officials, have . And do you not think,' said I, that if wet-nurses already been provided with them. As for ventilation, were provided by the railway companies, at all their nothing has been done to promote that most import- termini at least, it would afford much convenience to ant end.'

parties travelling with very young families ?' We can, however, keep a window down,' observed I. • That is not in the book, sir, observed the stout

Not if I know it,' remarked the stout gentleman gentleman gravely; but I quite agree with you that somewhat abruptly; and when you have read that it should be done. The government is criminally little book, you will know why. It is bad to breathe sluggish in all matters relating to our locomotion ; bad air, but it is worse to fall a prey to pleurisy, while the juries in cases of compensation are viciously pneumonia, and sciatica. Half the pulmonary dis- lenient. eases in Great Britain, sir, are caught through travel- * And yet they make the companies pay large ling on the railway with an open window ; see pages damages, do they not?' thirty-four, thirty-five, and thirty-six. If this impru- • They give a little money, sir, but a great deal of dence be committed on those northern and eastern insult and inconvenience with it. If my nervous lines which pass through marshy districts, the results system sustains such a shock in a collision that my are almost certain to be fatal. - Bless my heart and pulse rises from 40 to 140 on the least excitement, the body, here is a cracked glass—there is a crack in this medical people retained by the company “consider the window-pane, upon my sacred word of honour. Guard! character of the pulse to be constitutional.” If I am guard !--The man pays no attention whatsoever, you | unfitted for business-see page one hundred and sevenobserve. Deafness is one of the affections set down teen--and the countenances of my fellow-travellers by Duchesne and others as frequently following with terrified eyes (as at the time of the catastrophe) the labours of guards and engine-drivers; and a very come before ine whenever I attempt to do any reading

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or writing, these same medical persons pronounce me they would be termed ‘mills.'* With the waterto be “ enjoying fair average health.” If my brain has power thus applied, wheels became erected on all been so disturbed as to cause an affection of the optic the streams within a few miles of the town, and nerve, and all objects to appear yellow to me, they they still exist, not the least picturesque objects of simply don't believe it; they remark incredulously the lovely scenery by which Sheffield is surrounded. that "they cannot account for the fact of the yellow No one has more thoroughly studied the character vision."

of the Sheffield grinders, and the scenes of their It would have been idle for me to have reasoned labours, than the poet, Ebenezer Elliott. with this unfortunate Victim to Science, and besides pathies were entirely with this class of men, in conwe were just arriving at the terminus ; but I could sequence of their love of freedom. He has described not help remarking, as my companion divested him the localities of these grinding-wheels; but while the self of his armour, that if a collision, or anything else, description of them is still correct, the character given should cause such an affection of the optic nerve as to to the men does not continue so strictly applicable. make some objects appear more couleur de rose to him Many of the streams of the neighbourhood of Shefthan they did at present, I thought it would be a field have their rise in the northern part of the Peak great advantage.

of Derbyshire, being, in fact, the drainage of the moorBut as my companion had not yet taken the cotton- land. These scenes are thus apostrophised by the wool out of his ears, I am afraid that my delicate Corn-law Rhyiner : sarcasm was thrown away.

Beautiful rivers of the desert ! ye

Bring food for labour from the foodless waste. THE SHEFFIELD GRINDERS.

Pleased stops the wanderer on his way to see

The frequent weir oppose your heedless baste. A good name is said to be better than riches, though

Where toils the mill, by ancient woods embraced, having the disadvantage of requiring effort for its

Hark, how the cold steel screams in hissing fire ! maintenance; and it may be in consequence of this But Enoch sees the grinder's wheel no more, needful effort that some people prefer a bad name, Couched beneath rocks and forests that admire which generally supports itself.

Their beauty in the waters, ere they roar It frequently happens, however, that classes of

Dashed in white foam the swift circumference o'er, men obtain reputation or notoriety without special

There draws the grinder his laborious breath ; endeavour, and when their characteristic is once

There, coughing, at his deadly trade he bends.

Born to die young, he fears nor man nor death; established, it takes a long time to wear away Scorning the future, what he earns he spends; the impression. Recent occurrences have done much

Debauch and Riot are his bosom-friends. to give an unenviable prominence to some of the

He plays the Tory sultan-like and well : operatives in the neighbourhood of Sheffield.

Woe to the traitor that dares disobey The common idea of a grinder is, that he is some brute of a fellow who crawls at the lowest stratum of

The Dey of Straps ! as rattened tools shall tell. civilisation—that he is a reckless being who neither

Full many a lordly freak by night and day

Illustrates gloriously his lawless sway. fears God nor regards man—that he has no respect for

Behold his failings ! hath be virtues too ? the law, and his highest authority is physical force.

He is no pauper, blackguard though he be. He is generally supposed to be ignorant, vulgar, and Full well he knows what minds combined can do, rude ; as full of strange oaths as an old soldier ;

Full well maintains his birthright-he is free! altogether incapable of the finer feelings of manhood, and insensible to the ameliorations of our advancing

And frown for frown, outstares monopoly !

Yet Abraham and Elliot both in vain civilisation. Such ideas of grinders are common. It may be worth while to inquire how they originated,

Bid science on his cheek prolong the bloom ;

He will not live! he seems in haste to gain and how far they are correct.

The undisturbed asylum of the tomb, In the earlier history of manufactures in Sheffield,

And old at two-and-thirty meets his doom.' long before Chaucer wrote of the Sheffield whittle, it was the custom for the makers of knives to do every. The above extract, from the Village Patriarch, will thing for themselves. The minute division of labour give an idea of this singular class of men, and the which now a days turns men into little better than feelings which the poet entertained towards them. In machines, was then unknown, and continued to be so his hatred of monopoly, he even admires, or seems to for a long period after Chaucer's time. But as the admire, the vices of a class of men whose practices town and its manufactures increased, the advantages were not always consistent with the poet's ideas of of divided labour began to be recognised. Instead of free-trade. While Elliott's description gives some the maker of whittles forging the several parts of his notion of the characteristics of the grinders, it does knives himself, he employed men to do the forging nothing towards explaining the philosophy of their only, confining himself to fitting and putting the character. Strange as it seems that these men are several parts together; and instead of grinding his described as being old at the early age of thirty-two, blades and polishing them himself, he employed this was not at the time an exaggeration. The other men to do so. In those times, the method of grinders were subject to a complaint of the nature of grinding was for one man to turn a wheel by hand, consumption, locally known as the grinder’s asthmawhile another worked. But this was a costly mode a disease that has engaged the attention of some of of labour, and also very hard work for the man who our noted physicians, several of whom have published officiated as the motive-power. The necessity of the the result of their investigations. The average lives case drove men to seek forces in nature, and the most of the grinders did not exceed the number of years ready means appeared to be found in the neighbour above stated. This great mortality was considered ing, streams, where water-wheels were erected, and the cause of their recklessness. Perhaps these suitable machinery fixed for carrying on the grinding terms might be reversed with some degree of processes. These were very rude in the first instance, truth.

It was a common opinion amongst them, but yet an improvement on the hand-grinding system however, that their lives were necessarily short, that which had previously been used. The buildings in their trade was a deadly' one, and hence no regard which the grinding trades were carried on were called was paid to such sanitary regulations as might have

wheels,' in reference to the origin of the water-power; and at the present day the same term is applied, locally, to all buildings where grinding is done. They grinding steel or metal articles; a corn-mill would not be

* This term is only applied to such buildings as are used for are called 'wheels,' while in other parts of the country I called a wheel,' but a mill.

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diminished the prevalent mortality. The Abraham good joke in its way; and “rattening? has become a and Elliot mentioned above were men who invented sort of 'institution amongst this class of people. machines to prevent the grinders inhaling the par. This kind of proceeding in connection with tradesticles of dust and steel from the grinding-stones, unions has resulted in several outrages against life and which were considered to be the cause of the and property, which have given to Sheffield a most grinder's complaint-an affection of the lungs. But unenviable notoriety. It is alleged that these outthe poet somewhat unjustly censures the grinders rages are connected with trades-disputes, and though for refusing to avail themselves of the inventions this is denied by the partisans of trades-unions, there of Abraham and Elliot; for the fact was, that are some grounds for entertaining ugly suspicions. they were both very inefficient. Mr Abraham's Free-trade has not yet become acknowledged in invention was a series of magnets placed in front of labour, and until its principles are more generally the revolving stones; and though they attracted the understood, these outrages will probably break out at metallic particles, they left the dust and grit as free intervals. as ever; and it required great attention to be always It may be worth while to notice briefly some of the cleaning the magnets. An efficient remedy has now things which have tended to modify the characterbeen applied in creating a strong draught by a revolv. istics of this body of men. Probably one of the most ing fan, which draws away all the particles, and influential causes has been the introduction of steam. carries them out of the building.

So long as the men were dependent upon water for It has already been stated that the grinding process their motive-power, their hours and times of labour became a distinct branch of trade. The old hand- were necessarily to some extent precarious; they had wheel was superseded by water-power; and this leisure for mischief, and in accordance with the spirit latter, though a cheaper and more efficient motive of the age, they availed themselves of the opportunity, force, was necessarily precarious in its supply. These This grew upon them until sport of some kind seemed wheels are mostly erected on small rapid streams, a necessity of their being; but when steam became and wherever there is sufficient 'fall,' there stands the motive-power, it gradually tended to make the a wheel. In connection with all these, there is a hours of labour more regular and reliable; and the dam to store water, in which the rocks and forests erection of steam-mills in the town drew some of the admire their beauty.' But these are mostly small, men from the water-wheels, and they gradually conholding only sufficient water for a few days' work- formed to the habits and practices of other classes of ing of the wheel. The consequence was that, in dry workmen. seasons, there would be no water to work with, Another cause of the altered character of these and the men not having learned any other branch of men may be found in the introduction of sanitary manufacture, were of necessity idle. When the men

The fearful death-rate amongst the assembled at the wheels, and found there was no water, grinders drew the attention of men of science, and they began to consider what they should do. Being several means were suggested by gentlemen of high unable to work, they resolved to play. They formed scientific attainments. None of these, however, found clubs for all kinds of sports in season, and many favour; the best remedy yet discovered is the famous matches were played at the games in which revolving fan already mentioned, which was suggested that class of people indulge. The love of sport grew by a working-man, and is now in general use, though upon them ; and they were not always satisfied to not so universal as it ought to be. The effect of play when there was no water, but would have their improved sanitary measures has been a considerable regular days of play as well as work; and from increase in the average length of life amongst the legitimate sports they would get to such as neither grinders ; as it lost the character of being such a law nor morality would sanction.

deadly trade, people became more willing to have All will not have the same apparent relish for their sons put apprentice to it; an the men are these 'lordly freaks,' as the poet terms them-lordly neither so wild nor so reckless as they were formerly. after the Lord Waterford style of twenty years The grinders, too, have improved by the general ago. The extent to which the love of sport was spread of education during the last twenty years. carried by the grinders, may be gathered from the Though some of them are still rude and ignorant fact, that they kept several packs of hounds. These enough, they stand, as a class, on a much higher level were for their amusement in winter, when it rarely than they did a generation ago. They then obtained happened that they could not work for want of water. a character which it appears they will not easily lose. The reader may perhaps wonder that workmen could Some of their angles have been rubbed off, but they afford such expensive amusements ; but there was a are not yet a highly polished race; they are stiil general reluctance amongst parents to put their sons amongst some of the rudest of her Majesty's subjects. apprentice to such a deadly trade,' and the result But with all their roughness, they are notable for was a limited number of hands, and consequent high generosity and kindness of heart. They are not wages. Many modifications have taken place, and celebrated for their retiring modesty; on the conthough there are some men who retain the somewhat trary, when there is any unusual occurrence in the wild characteristics of their class, there are many who neighbourhood, their presence may always be looked are highly intelligent and respectable. There are for. They are at no pains to change their workingstill kept in the neighbourhood several packs of dress—which is sometimes picturesque enough-nor hounds, and the chase is followed as keenly, but even to wash their hands and faces; and in this probably not so extensively as ever.

guise they would present themselves before the Queen There is a species of crime locally known as as readily as they did a while ago before Lord Pal. ‘rattening, which would at one time have been merston--on the occasion of whose visit to Sheffield considered as one of the grinder's lordly freaks; they waited in perfect order and patience at the elsewhere, it would be called destroying machinery. station until his lordship arrived. As soon as he If any man, by declining to join them, or otherwise, appeared, the extrenie order maintained by the police rendered himself obnoxious to these satraps of was completely overthrown. The people rushed to mischief, they would quickly visit him with a species the carriage, and began to shake his lordship by the of lynch-law. If he escaped some rough personal hand with a hearty familiarity which for the moment, usage, no such immunity would be granted to his but only for a moment, seemed to disconcert even tools; they would probably be broken to pieces, and the experienced premier of England. Rough and hard his driving-straps cut into little bits during the night. hands were held out to him, and free words were The man could obtain no knowledge of the perpetra- freely exchanged. It is reported that his lordship tors of the act, but would probably be informed that expressed himself as highly pleased and amused at the 'rats' had done it. This would be considered a ) the thorough heartiness with which he was greeted,



and felt assured that the 'God bless thee, oud lad,' | with great rapidity, and by the time I was sixteen years was uttered none the less sincerely for its home- old, I was tall and as strong and muscular as most men. liness.

My principal amusement was boating, and very freIt is an old saying, "Give a dog a bad name, and quently in the summer and autumn have I seen the hang him, and this appears to be the case with the sun rising after my fishing-line had been dropped in grinders. But while recording their former errors the sea. The man who looked after my boat usually and extravagance, we would give them credit for accompanied me, though it sometimes happened that their improvement, and encourage them to follow an I was unable to get any answer when I knocked at upward course.

the window of the cottage where he lived; but, sup-
posing that he did not wish to get up, I did not give

myself the trouble to wait for him, but went down to FIFTEEN YEARS AT THE GALLEYS.

the shore, unlocked the padlock which attached my With the exception of the very few Englishmen who boat to the mooring-chain, and went to sea alone. I have obtained the favour of admission to inspect the have since had reason to suppose that he was not criminal establishments of France, and the still smaller always indoors when I knocked. It is necessary that number who, like myself, have been condemned to a

I should here say something of this man, though the compulsory residence therein, I cannot hope that any averting a tragedy the recollection of which even now,

knowledge came to me too late to be of any service in who read this will be capable of sympathising with notwithstanding the length of time that has since me in the sufferings I have undergone, since they elapsed, compels me to lay down my pen for a time cannot by any effort of the imagination conceive the until my hand is steadier. horrors of a confinement in those pandemoniums. This man's name was Philippe Loret, and he had

I am of English birth and parentage, but my father been landed at Havre from an American vessel in a dying when I was only eleven years of age, my mother sad state of health, arising, so some said, from a severe was induced to accept the offer made to her by a beating he had received from his shipmates, but, as he French gentleman who had married a near relative, himself said, from having fallen from the yard to the and had frequently stayed at our house during his deck one dark, windy night. After he had recovered visits to England, to take entire charge of me while I his health, he used to get his living on the beach in was completing my education. This gentleman, whose various ways; and a very precarious living it must name was Evrart, had been on the stage, though he have been in those days, for Havre was not then the was known by another name there, and by his talents busy port it is now, nor was it frequented by visitors had realised what in Havre was considered a hand to anything like the same extent. However, he lived some independence. His first wife had been dead somehow or other until he became the tenant of one about four years when I went to live with him, but of the prettiest cottages near the shore. He had no he had married again with a woman a little older than wife, but a woman kept his house, and to her, I sushimself, who, I believe, had also been on the stage, pect, was due the credit of surrounding it with abund. and, I imagine, failed, for she never spoke of it herself; ance of flowers, and the neat and clean appearance and the only reason I had for supposing this had been of everything both within and without. For taking the case, was from something said by her husband when charge of my boat, and going out with me fishing they were holding a discussion on some circumstance when he had nothing better to do, I gave him seven of the past. Her principal occupation was writing francs a week, which M. Evrart thought quite enough; plays, which, so far as I know, were never acted, but but Loret must sometimes have increased this sum which she used to read to me, as soon as I had acquired considerably by the sale of the fish we caught, all of sufficient knowledge of the French language to under which I abandoned to him, except such as were stand them, at every opportunity. Having no children required for our consumption at home, and an occaof her own, she adopted the poor little English boy sional present to friends or a harbour-official. He enthusiastically, and was even fonder of me, and more performed the duties I required of bim well enough, kind to me, than mothers usually are to their children. and I was much too happy to feel annoyed at, or As soon as I left the academy, I hastened home; and even hardly to notice, his usually sulky manner, and when we had dined we used, if it were the summer, his excessive greediness. to take a walk a little way into the country, sit down When I was sixteen years old, I wrote to my until I had learned my lessons for the next day, and mother to learn whether she had set her mind on then stroll along on the sea-shore, madame quoting my following any particular career; but she declined from her own plays, or those of others, apropos of to interfere, and left the matter to be arranged beeverything we saw. It would have been difficult to tween myself and the Evrarts. The habit I had have found a happier family than we were. M. acquired of spending several hours a day on the sea Evrart was happy, because he was no longer called to bad given me a love for that element; and although the account for staying out with his friends late' at night, idea of a sea-faring life for me was not welcome to my and the kindness and attention of his wife to his kind friends, they offered no opposition beyond affec. little requirements when he was at hoine at first tionately advising me to weigh well the dangers I seemed to surprise, and then to delight him. When should have to encounter. It is possible they may have I first went to reside with them, he rarely went out thought that one voyage would be sufficient to cure with his wife, except when we were going to parties, my passion for the sea, if they did not awaken my but after a time he regularly accompanied us in our self-love in support of my desire by opposing it. They walks, and the information I derived from him was as only insisted on my going as agent or supercargo the useful as the intimate knowledge of their language first voyage, during which I might learn navigation, imparted to me by his wife's incessant quotations, and and anything else necessary to qualify me to comrather more interesting. I mention these things, mand a vessel, without going through the inferior because it will enable the reader to judge how much grades; for it seemed to them perfectly ridiculous that my sufferings were aggravated by what subsequently a man such as I was in appearance, if not in age, happened.

should be forced to associate with boys and share My visits to England were not frequent, but this their occupations. was not from any want of affection on my part for my It was not long before an opportunity offered itself family, but because having no means beyond those I of making a short voyage to Madeira, in company of derived from my benefactors, I did not like to employ the son of a shipowner, whom I knew pretty intithem in making journeys which always appeared dis- mately, and it was arranged that I should go, and tasteful to them. The climate and mode of living at that we should spend a few weeks in the island. Havre agreed with my constitution so well that I grew | The time passed happily enough. We made numerous

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pedestrian excursions, and visited every place which of blood. Under any circumstances, the sight of a strangers usually visit, and a good many beside. dead body is a painful spectacle, but how much more

On arriving off the port of Havre, the wind, of painful when it is the body of one we love, and from which there was very little, was rather unfavourable which life has been driven forth by violence. There to us, and we made but slow way; still we were was by this time no lack of assistance, and the body advancing, when a large French vessel, which was was carefully raised and carried into the dining-room, coming out, ran into us, the top of her bowsprit and laid on the table. Inquiry was now made for striking our aftermast just in the middle, and break- Madame Evrart, and I told them that she too was ing it short off. Luckily for us, the rate at which she murdered, and that we should find her body in her was sailing was so slow, that, notwithstanding her sitting-room. much superior size, the shock caused her to recoil, It is not necessary that I should describe the and drove us out of her course, so that we escaped details of what followed, nor attempt to describe my without any further damage, and in a little while we own feelings. I sent a message to the authorities, were continuing to move towards the harbour. I informing them of what had happened, and then suppose the collision had been seen from the quay, for threw myself on my bed, and gave free vent to my several boats put off to us, and among them my own, grief. Will it be believed that, in spite of my sufferin which were Loret and another man, whom I had ing, I fell sound asleep? never seen before. The sea being rather rough, and When I awoke I found it was broad daylight, not supposing that it would make much difference in and the commissary of police and three of his agents point of time if I landed from the vessel, I did not in the room. He asked me to give an account of the attempt to enter the boat, but directed Philippe to go matter, which I did as I have described it above. He ashore and inform M. Evrart that I had returned, then left me to indulge my grief alone, and I remained and would be at home in the course of a short time. undisturbed during the entire day. It was not until I was, however, mistaken as to the time required for evening that it struck me as strange that nobody had working up to the quay, in consequence of our dis- called to express their sympathy with me in my abled condition, and it was near midnight when I affliction, but then a circumstance occurred which knocked at our door.

explained it. The door was opened, and the comTo my surprise there was no light visible at any missary and a party of gens d'armes entered. The of the windows ; and when I had repeated my former desired me to dress myself and go with them, knock several times without receiving any answer, for that he had been ordered to take me into custody. I became seriously uneasy, though I could not con- I doubted at first whether I could have understood ceive that anything was the matter, because I had rightly what he said, but I was soon made to combeen told by Philippe that he had seen M. and prehend. Of course, I felt very acutely the humiliaMadame Evrart that day, and they were both quite tion of being the subject of such a charge, but my well. At last I determined on trying to enter the house grief for the loss of those I had loved so dearly preby another door. One side of the garden was protected vented me from feeling it so much as I should otherfrom the street by a wall about seven feet high, the wise have done. Even when in prison, I felt scarcely top of which was covered with pieces of glass. I took any uneasiness as to the result of my trial; it appeared off my coat, folded it, and laid it on the top to keep to me so absurd to imagine that anybody could for the glass from cutting me. In another instant an instant believe me guilty. Many friends visited in the garden, forgetting, in my anxiety, to remove me in prison, and these all encouraged the view I my coat. I had no difficulty in finding the door, but took of my situation. Among them was a lawyer it was fastened, and I knew the careful manner in named Langenis, in whose office it had been prowhich this was done too well not to know that any posed that I should study the law, in the event of my attempt to burst it open would be useless. I then not persisting in going to sea. He undertook the looked about for a ladder to get up to the balcony management of my case, and I thought, from the which ran along madame's sitting-room, but could not questions he put to me in preparing the brief for my find one; I, however, found a rake, and by hooking defence, that he doubted my innocence. I tried to this into the rails, I drew myself up until I could induce him to acknowledge this, but he would not. reach it with my hands. The rest was easy enough. Had he done so, I would have declined his services, The window was open, and though the room was in and have preferred to take my trial undefended, darkness, I was too familiar with the arrangement of which, after all, might have turned out the wiser everything in it not to be able to walk straight to the course. table. Always nervous and excitable in matters When the day arrived for my trial, the court was where those I loved were concerned, those similarly crowded with my friends, those near enough stretchconstituted will be able to form some idea of the ing out their hands to shake mine. I felt comforted horror which seized me when my hands, which I held by this public manifestation of their belief in my stretched out before me to protect me from coming in innocence to a degree which only those who have contact with any misplaced article of furniture, rested lain for weeks under an accusation, however false, one on the face, the other on the back of the head of can fully appreciate ; and I prepared with calmness, a corpse. I did not doubt for an instant that this was and something like curiosity, to hear how the authorthe body of my benefactress ; in fact, I never thought ities could have made a case out against me sufficient of it at all, the conviction struck me like a flash of to justify them in arresting me. lightning, and I fell to the ground as instantaneously I knew the president of the court well, as indeed as if I had been shot. How long I remained so, of I did all the principal officials, and I felt a vague course I cannot know of my own knowledge, but it apprehension of something I hardly knew what, when would seem to have been between two and three I saw the grave expression of their countenances as hours. As soon as I became a little conscious, I they looked at me. The jury having taken their crawled towards the door, got on my feet, and seats, and the usual formalities having been gone staggered down stairs to the street-door, which I through, the prosecutor proceeded to read the acte quickly, opened and ran to the next house and d'accusation, which contained a full statement of the alarmed the inmates, who were a widower named case against me; and I was utterly astounded at Talbot, his son, and two daughters, young women. finding with what infernal art the most trivial cirAll these came rushing down to the street, supposing cumstances were woven together into a web, which the house to be on fire, and heard the dreadful news. I felt that I could only hope to escape from by the M. Talbot got a light and returned with me, and the jury refusing to convict me of such a monstrous first object which we saw on entering the house was crime. The following is substantially the case against the body of M. Evrart, lying with the head in a pool me as stated for the crown, and it will shew how



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